Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1396
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Hough Judith L - - 2008
Chest physiotherapy (CPT) has been used in many neonatal nurseries around the world to improve airway clearance and treat lung collapse; however, the evidence to support its use has been conflicting. Despite the large number of studies there is very little evidence of sufficiently good quality on which to base ...
Tubman T R J - - 2008
Glutamine endogenous biosynthesis may be insufficient for tissue needs in states of metabolic stress. Trials in adults have suggested that glutamine supplementation improves clinical outcomes in critically ill adults. It has been suggested that glutamine supplementation may benefit preterm infants, particularly very low birth weight infants. To determine the effects ...
McCall E M - - 2008
Hypothermia incurred during routine postnatal resuscitation is a world-wide issue (across all climates), associated with morbidity and mortality. Keeping vulnerable preterm infants warm is problematic even when recommended routine thermal care guidelines are followed in the delivery suite. To assess efficacy and safety of interventions designed for prevention of hypothermia ...
New K - - 2008
The use of incubators in helping to maintain a thermoneutral environment for preterm infants has become routine practice in neonatal nurseries. As one of the key criteria for discharging preterm infants from nurseries is their ability to maintain temperature; the infant will need to make the transition from incubator to ...
Whitworth M - - 2008
Preterm birth occurs in up to 6% to 10% of all births and is the major complication of pregnancy associated with perinatal mortality and morbidity. Previous preterm delivery is a strong predictor for preterm labour, and the earlier the birth, the more likely it is to be repeated at the ...
Chaudhari Tejasvi - - 2008
Delayed neuronal death following a perinatal hypoxic insult is due partly to xanthine oxidase-mediated production of cytotoxic free radicals. Evidence exists that allopurinol, a xanthine-oxidase inhibitor, reduces delayed cell death in animal models of perinatal asphyxia and in human patients with other forms of organ reperfusion injury. To determine the ...
Zhang Linjie - - 2008
Airway edema and mucus plugging are the predominant pathological features in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis. Nebulized hypertonic saline solution may reduce these pathological changes and decrease airway obstruction. To assess the effects of nebulized hypertonic saline solution in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register ...
Jonsson Maria M Department of Women's and Children's Health Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. - - 2008
Evaluate obstetric characteristics during the last two hours of labor in neonates born with acidemia. Case-control study. Delivery units at two university hospitals in Sweden. Out of 28,486 deliveries during 1994-2004, 305 neonates had an umbilical artery pH value <7.05 at birth. neonates with an umbilical artery pH < 7.05. ...
Brownfoot Fiona C FC Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Adelaide, Women's and Children's Hospital, 1st floor, Queen Victoria Building, 72 King William Road, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, 5006. - - 2008
Despite the widespread use of antenatal corticosteroids to prevent respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants, there is currently no consensus as to the type of corticosteroid to use; nor the dose, frequency or timing of use or the route of administration. To assess the effects of different corticosteroid regimens for ...
Shaikh Nader N Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. - - 2007
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a frequently occurring pediatric illness that, if left untreated, can lead to permanent renal injury. Accordingly, accurate diagnosis of UTI is important. To review the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs for the diagnosis of UTI in infants and children. A search of MEDLINE and ...
Adam Ishag - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The first step in improving early neonatal survival is to document rate of these deaths, identify the common causes. OBJECTIVES: the study was conducted at New Halfa hospital, eastern Sudan to investigate the prevalence and possible risk factors for a poor perinatal outcome, mainly low birth weight (LBW), APGAR ...
Kalogeropoulou Christina - - 2007
Measurement of the response of acute bronchiolitis (AB) to bronchodilators relies on clinical signs and pulse oximetry. We hypothesized that Doppler ultrasonographic indices of hepatic venous flow may prove to be an objective tool in the assessment of the effect of inhaled salbutamol in infants hospitalized for AB. Previously healthy ...
Lennestål Roland - - 2007
Little is known concerning possible hazards of maternal use of the recently introduced antidepressant drugs with noradrenergic and varying serotonergic activity (serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor [SNRI]/noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor [NRI] drugs). Using the Swedish Medical Birth Registry, we identified 732 women who had used SNRI/NRI drugs in early pregnancy. Maternal characteristics were ...
Kozlovskaya Anna - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To describe secular trends in selected pregnancy outcomes in the Komi Republic, Russia, in 1980-1999. STUDY DESIGN: A descriptive study. METHODS: Data on all single infants born in Syktyvkar and Vorkuta during the period 1980-1999 were abstracted from the birth journals at maternity homes (n = 69,340). Proportions of ...
Siqueira Fernanda Mafra - - 2007
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that periodontitis is associated with systemic alterations such as adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, some conflicting results have been reported. This case-control study was conducted to determine the association between maternal periodontitis and preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). METHODS: ...
Battin Malcolm R - - 2007
BACKGROUND: There are few studies of risk factors for neonatal death in Australia or New Zealand. AIMS: To assess in a cohort of neonatal deaths (i) the demographic and clinical risk factors; (ii) the relationship between low weight for gestation using population and customised centiles; and (iii) the cause of ...
Tsukamoto Hiroko - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the paper was to determine the risk factors for small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants at full term, in Japan. METHODS: The study was conducted at four hospitals and clinics in the Tokyo metropolitan area. A retrospective review of 2972 mothers and their infants born from singleton pregnancies at ...
Millar Michael - - 2008
Stool samples were collected from infants nursed in two neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in East London, United Kingdom. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of and risk factors for the carriage of multiresistant Enterobacteriaceae strains (MRE; resistant to three or more classes of antibiotic) and ...
Mutlu Akmer - - 2008
The qualitative assessment of general movements (GMs) proved to be a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for the assessment of the integrity of the young nervous system. It is essential that the quality of GMs remains consistent in an individual during a given recording at a certain date. The ...
Schmidt Barbara - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Methylxanthine therapy is commonly used for apnea of prematurity but in the absence of adequate data on its efficacy and safety. It is uncertain whether methylxanthines have long-term effects on neurodevelopment and growth. METHODS: We randomly assigned 2006 infants with birth weights of 500 to 1250 g to receive ...
Adewuya Abiodun O - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The contribution of maternal postnatal depression to infant growth and under-nutrition in Africa has not been well studied. This study aims to examine the impact of postnatal depression (PND) on infants' physical growth in the first 9 months of life in Nigeria. METHODS: A longitudinal case controlled study in ...
Rizvi S A - - 2007
To evaluate maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight (LBW) among women aged 15-35 years, we carried out a hospital-based, case-control study on 262 cases (mothers of neonates weighing < or = 2.5 kg) and 262 controls (mothers of neonates weighing > 2.5 kg). Odds of delivering a low-birth-weight ...
Caton Alissa R - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Bladder exstrophy (BE) and cloacal exstrophy (CE) are rare birth defects that have been reported to occur in 1:30,000-50,000 and 1:200,000-400,000 live births. Disagreement exists as to whether they comprise two distinct disorders or are part of a spectrum. We examined epidemiologic trends and risk factors for BE and ...
van den Berg Anemone - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in very low-birth-weight infants on the incidence of allergic and infectious diseases during the first year of life. DESIGN: Follow-up study. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: All surviving infants who participated in a trial of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in very low-birth-weight ...
Nohr Ellen A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and neonatal mortality while accounting for the timing of delivery and subtypes of preterm birth. METHODS: The study population included 85,375 liveborn singletons of mothers in the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002) who were interviewed during the second trimester. ...
Ramirez-Ortiz Marco A - - 2007
To evaluate the effectiveness of 2.5% povidone-iodine eye drops (PIED) compared with ophthalmic chloramphenicol (OC) for preventing neonatal conjunctivitis. 2004 neonates were enrolled from three rural hospitals in a trachoma endemic area. They were randomly assigned to receive either PIED (n = 1024) or OC (n = 974). Infectious conjunctivitis ...
Cambonie Gilles - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To assess betamethasone (BM) effects on the cerebral hemodynamics of neonates with severe chronic lung disease (CLD). STUDY DESIGN: Intravenous BM was given once daily for 6 consecutive days to 12 infants (birth weight: 698 g [range, 650-884 g], gestational age: 25.3 weeks [range, 25-26.4 weeks]) at a postnatal ...
Holmes A - - 2008
Neonates are among the most vulnerable patient groups for healthcare-associated infection with multiple endogenous and exogenous risks. Interpretation of neonatal bloodstream infection (BSI) rates requires stratification for case-mix. We assessed 1367 consecutive admissions to a single neonatal unit over a 34-month period. Four intrinsic and seven extrinsic risks were evaluated ...
Kotaniemi-Syrjänen A - - 2007
Increased airway responsiveness (AR) is one of the main pathophysiological manifestations of asthma. The present study aimed to define the clinical features associated with increased AR in infants with recurrent lower respiratory tract symptoms. AR was evaluated by performing a novel dosimetric methacholine challenge test. Increased AR to methacholine, defined ...
Field D - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Comparisons of national perinatal and neonatal mortality often neglect the underlying causes. OBJECTIVE: To assess effects of very-preterm births in the UK and Australia. SETTING: Two geographically defined populations: the former Trent Health Region of the UK and New South Wales (NSW)/the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), Australia. METHOD: All ...
Nelson Paul - - 2007
Hypospadias birth prevalence may be increasing with maternal exposure to endocrine disrupters. Yet hypospadias registers are hindered by data quality concerns. We compare the birth prevalence per thousand male births (BP) and ascertainment of hypospadias in the South East of England between 1st January 1997 to 31st September 1998 in ...
Rocha Gustavo - - 2007
AIM: To evaluate the association between histological chorioamnionitis and brain damage (intraventricular hemorrhage and cystic periventricular leukomalacia) in the preterm newborn. METHODS: This was a retrospective study on neonates born at less than 34 weeks gestational age, and their respective mothers, at three tertiary medical centers in the north of ...
Jiang Li-Li - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between air pollution exposure and preterm birth in Shanghai, China. METHODS: We examined the effect of ambient air pollution on preterm birth using time-series approach in Shanghai in 2004. This method can eliminate potential confounding by individual risk factors that do not change over a ...
Leonard Helen - - 2008
The authors investigated the association between intrauterine growth and intellectual disability (ID). The appropriateness of intrauterine growth was assessed using percentage of optimal birth weight, a measure that accounts for gestational age, maternal height, parity, and infant sex. Using population-based record linkage, singleton Caucasian and Aboriginal children born in Western ...
Chee Cornelia Y I - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Perinatal depression is common, but women typically do not seek help for it. We studied its association with frequent non-routine physician visits, which may be a form of help-seeking behaviour. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of women in their 34th to 38th week of pregnancy at the outpatient obstetrics ...
Joseph K S - - 2007
The health care system in Canada provides essential health services to all women irrespective of socioeconomic status. Our objective was to determine whether perinatal and infant outcomes varied by family income and other socioeconomic factors in this setting. We included all 92,914 women who delivered in Nova Scotia between 1988 ...
Simpson Jill - - 2007
Data from a national case-control study are used to explore the relationships between childhood leukaemia, infant infection and three markers of infectious exposure - birth order, infant-activity group attendance and area-based deprivation. Amongst controls, clinically diagnosed infection in the first year varied little with birth order and infant-activity group attendance ...
Boo Nem-Yun NY Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Yaacob Latif, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. - - 2007
To compare weight gain and head growth in very-low-birthweight (VLBW, <1501 g) infants with or without exposure to short duration of skin-to-skin contact (STSC) during their stay in a neonatal intensive care unit. Stable VLBW infants were randomised into either STSC or control group. Parents of the STSC group were ...
Groom Katie M - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Evidence of placental disease and poor perinatal outcome is more common in infants who are small by customized centiles, compared with population centiles. Because preterm births are more likely to be associated with placental pathology, a greater proportion of preterm births are likely to be small for gestational age ...
Bakker Marian K - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In case-control studies on teratogenic risks of maternal drug use during pregnancy, the use of normal or malformed controls may lead to recall-bias or selection bias. This can be avoided by using controls with a genetic disorder. However, researchers are hesitant to use these as controls because it is ...
Faber Mieke - - 2007
The study was undertaken to determine anthropometric measurements, sociodemographic data, and dietary intake of 238 anaemic and 241 non-anaemic rural South African infants aged 6-12 months. Logistic regression with anaemia as a dependent variable showed an odds ratio (OR) of 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-3.52) for low birth-weight, 2.04 ...
Lorch Scott A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of race and ethnicity on the use of oral beta-agonists, inhaled beta-agonists, and inhaled corticosteroids to treat respiratory symptoms in former premature infants after controlling for medical conditions, socioeconomic status, and site of outpatient care. STUDY DESIGN: Using a population cohort of infants born at ...
Pittard William B WB - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that infants experiencing the recommended number of early and periodic screening, diagnosis, and treatment (EPSDT) visits have better health outcomes than infants with fewer visits. STUDY DESIGN: Data represent all health encounters for Medicaid-insured infants of mothers aged at least 18 years in South Carolina, ...
Kuklina Elena V - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: The accuracy of maternal morbidity estimates from hospital discharge data may be influenced by incomplete identification of deliveries. In maternal/infant health studies, obstetric deliveries are often identified only by the maternal outcome of delivery code (International Classification of Diseases code = V27). We developed an enhanced delivery identification method ...
Wang I J - - 2007
Previous studies of predictors of atopic dermatitis (AD) in Asia have had limited sample size and small numbers of variables focused primarily on family history or dietary exposures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of various environmental risk factors for early infantile AD. We used multistage, ...
Martens Patricia J - - 2007
Full-term newborn normative weight loss and factors influencing this were determined through chart audits (n = 812) at 6 hospitals in Manitoba, Canada. The effects of parity, gestational age, birth weight, sex, length of stay, type of delivery (cesarean vs vaginal), epidural use, and type of infant feeding (exclusively breastfed, ...
Torrance Helen L - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To study respiratory outcome in preterm small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses with or without signs of intrauterine growth restriction due to placental insufficiency, and with or without maternal hypertension. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 187 neonates with birth weight <10(th) percentile and gestational age <34 weeks. ...
Dolan Siobhan M - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of birth defects on preterm birth and low birth weight. METHODS: Data from a large, prospective multi-center trial, the First and Second Trimester Evaluation of Risk (FASTER) Trial, were examined. All live births at more than 24 weeks of gestation with data on outcome and ...
Nelson Scott M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Serum concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) correlate with oocyte yield in assisted reproduction treatment (ART) cycles, however, performance of AMH for prediction of live birth is unknown. METHODS: A total of 340 first cycle IVF/ICSI patients (median age 34.0 years, inter-quartile range 31.0-37.0 years), had basal plasma AMH and ...
Halldorsson Th I - - 2007
The authors examined the relation between fish consumption during pregnancy and fetal growth among 44,824 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002). They evaluated the associations between consumption of total fish, fatty fish, and lean fish in midpregnancy and birth weight, birth length, and head circumference among singleton full-term ...
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