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Results 251 - 300 of 1453
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Parker Katherine L - - 2012
Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are considered difficult to hand-rear in captivity because they are sensitive to the composition and volume of formulated milks. We used a strict feeding schedule and a commercial milk formula designed specifically for caribou to bottle-feed neonates captured from five wild caribou herds in Alaska. Under a ...
Mantadakis Elpis - - 2012
Despite the fact that sunlight-dependent skin synthesis is the major mechanism for vitamin D synthesis in vivo, vitamin D-deficiency rickets continues to occur in exclusively breastfed infants in Greece. We present such a case in a 5-month-old infant who presented with afebrile seizures and whose mother was underexposed to sunlight due ...
Phillips Melissa M - - 2012
The Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals of AOAC INTERNATIONAL has declared both choline and carnitine to be priority nutrients in infant formulas, and ongoing efforts exist to develop or improve Official Methods of Analysis for these nutrients. As a result, matrix-based certified reference materials are needed with ...
Moon Hyung Suk - - 2012
In the extremities of premature infants, the skin and subcutaneous tissue are very pliable due to immaturity and have a greater degree of skin laxity and mobility. Thus, we can expect wounds to heal rapidly by wound contraction. This study investigates wound healing of full-thickness defects in premature infant extremities. ...
Balay Kimberly S - - 2012
There is very little data regarding trace mineral nutrition in infants with small intestinal ostomies. Here we evaluated 14 infants with jejunal or ileal ostomies to measure their zinc absorption and retention and biochemical zinc and copper status. Zinc absorption was measured using a dual-tracer stable isotope technique at two ...
Tudehope David I DI Mothers and Babies Research Theme, Mater Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. - - 2012
The availability and composition of preterm and post-discharge formulas (PDFs) have undergone considerable changes over the last decade. Human milk, supplemented with multi-component fortifier, is the preferred feed for very preterm infants as it has beneficial effects for both short- and long-term outcomes compared with formula. If supply of mother's ...
van Neerven R J Joost - - 2012
Several epidemiologic studies have shown that growing up in a farming environment is associated with a decreased risk of allergies. A factor that correlates strongly with this effect is the early ingestion of unheated cow's milk. Although, to date, no controlled studies on raw milk consumption have been performed to ...
Weichelt Ulrike - - 2012
In preterm human infants, briefly elevated concentrations of high oxygen are associated with a prolonged increase in blood chemokine concentrations and development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Caffeine given to preterm infants for prevention or treatment of apnoea has been shown to reduce the rate of BPD.Here, we tested the hypotheses ...
Sebayang Susy K - - 2012
Objective  To examine the determinants of low birthweight (LBW), small-for-gestation (SGA) and preterm births in Lombok, Indonesia, an area of high infant mortality. Methods  Data from The Supplementation with Multiple Micronutrient Intervention Trial (SUMMIT), a double-blind cluster-randomised controlled trial, were analysed. The odds ratio of factors known to be associated ...
Robinson Siân S MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UK. - - 2012
There is a growing recognition of the need for a lifecourse approach to understanding the aetiology of adult disease, and there is now significant evidence that links patterns of infant feeding to differences in health outcomes, both in the short and longer term. Breastfeeding is associated with lower rates of ...
Bertino E - - 2012
Benefits of breastfeeding are widely recognized, during the last decades human milk has been identified as the normative standard for infant feeding and nutrition. Recent evidence focused on specific bioactive and immunomodulatory factors, such as oligosaccharides, lactose, glycosaminoglycans of human milk and the variability of their concentrations during lactation in ...
Meshram I I - - 2012
Background. Infant feeding practices have a major role in determining the nutritional status of children and are associated with household socioeconomic and demographic factors. We did a cross-sectional household study to assess feeding practices of infants and young children in rural areas of Medak district, Andhra Pradesh. Methods.A total of ...
De Nisi G - - 2012
In a NICU early enteral feeding is usually possible only when the newborn clinical conditions permit it. Because of the frequent need of umbilical/central catheters, they usually start with parenteral feeding and/or with minimal enteral feeding (trophic feeding). This kind of management is even more frequent in VLBWIs, in which ...
Conde-Agudelo Agustín - - 2012
This systematic review of 58 observational studies identified hypothetical causal mechanisms explaining the effects of short and long intervals between pregnancies on maternal, perinatal, infant, and child health, and critically examined the scientific evidence for each causal mechanism hypothesized. The following hypothetical causal mechanisms for explaining the association between short ...
Olusanya Bolajoko O - - 2012
This retrospective cohort study set out to determine perinatal and maternal factors associated with full-term (≥37 weeks) newborns with abnormal head sizes at birth in Lagos, Nigeria. Age and gender specific head circumference was determined with the current Child Growth Standards of the World Health Organization while maternal and infant ...
Patel R M - - 2012
Objective:To determine if early caffeine (EC) therapy is associated with decreased bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death, decreased treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), or shortened duration of ventilation.Study Design:In a retrospective cohort of 140 neonates 1250 g at birth, infants receiving EC (initiation <3 days of life) were compared with those ...
Santos Iná S - - 2012
Coffee and other caffeinated beverages are commonly consumed in pregnancy. In adults, caffeine may interfere with sleep onset and have a dose-response effect similar to those seen during insomnia. In infancy, nighttime waking is a common event. With this study, we aimed to investigate if maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy ...
Spitzer Alan R - - 2012
The introduction of methylxanthines, especially caffeine, for the treatment of apnea of prematurity has been one of the most important and effective therapies in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to date. Several trials have demonstrated its effectiveness in most NICU infants. It remains a cost-effective intervention with minimal short- ...
Fanos Vassilios - - 2012
Metabolomics is a new approach based on the systematic study of the full complement of metabolites in a biological sample. This technology consists of two sequential steps: (1) an experimental technique, based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or mass spectrometry, designed to profile low-molecular-weight compounds, and (2) multivariate data ...
- - 2012
Overview This joint statement provides health professionals in Canada with evidence-informed principles and recommendations to promote communication of accurate, consistent advice to parents and caregivers on infant nutrition in the first six months. Participating organizations in the Infant Feeding Joint Work Group collaborated to revise guidance from 1998 and 2005. ...
Flores-Huerta Samuel - - 2012
To determine the nutritional status of Mexican infants under two years of age. Five nutritional surveys, three being representative of the nation, were assessed using several anthropometric indicators, with reference to the WHO 2006 growth standard. From national surveys, the incidence of low birth weight ranged from 8.9 to 8.1% ...
Ahmed Tahmeed - - 2012
Maternal and child undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies affect approximately half of the world's population. These conditions include intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), low birth weight, protein-energy malnutrition, chronic energy deficit of women, and micronutrient deficiencies. Although the rates of stunting or chronic protein-energy malnutrition are increasing in Africa, the absolute numbers ...
Billig Erica M W - - 2012
Although 80% of malaria occurs in children under five years of age, infants under six months of age are known to have low rates of infection and disease. It is not clear why this youngest age group is protected; possible factors include maternal antibodies, unique nutrition (breast milk), and the ...
Roggero Paola - - 2012
Prevention of postnatal growth restriction of very preterm infants still represents a challenge for neonatologists. As standard feeding regimens have proven to be inadequate. Improved feeding strategies are needed to promote growth. Aim of the present study was to evaluate whether a set of nutritional strategies could limit the postnatal ...
Yang Wenfang - - 2012
The first 18 months of life are the most important for long-term childhood well-being. Anemia and malnutrition occurring in this key period have serious implications for individuals and societies, especially in rural areas in developing country. We conducted a cross-sectional study as the baseline survey to provide data for developing ...
Jacobi Sheila K - - 2012
Dietary nutrients are essential for gastrointestinal (GI) growth and function, and nutritional support of GI growth and development is a significant component of infant care. For healthy full-term neonates, nutritional provisions of the mother's milk and/or formula will support normal maturation of structure and function of the GI tract in ...
Thurin Serge M - - 2012
To evaluate the impact of nurse-regulated feedings (NRFs) on growth velocity and weight gain of 1200-1500 g preterm infants. Cohort 1: All preterm infants 1200-1500 g between 1997 and 2001 not on NRF protocol; Cohort 2: All preterm infants 1200-1500 g between 2003 and 2006 on NRF protocol. Both cohorts ...
Moore Sophie E SE MRC Keneba, MRC Unit The Gambia, PO Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia. - - 2012
Recent observational research indicates that immune development may be programmed by nutritional exposures early in life. Such findings require replication from trials specifically designed to assess the impact of nutritional intervention during pregnancy on infant immune development. The current trial seeks to establish: (a) which combination of protein-energy (PE) and ...
Freitas Brunnella Alcantara Chagas de - - 2011
This article reviews the current understanding of enteral and parenteral nutrition therapy in preterm infants, with an emphasis on very low birth weight babies. The protective effects of nutrition therapy against neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis are discussed. Different methods of feeding preterm infants are evaluated. Special attention is given ...
Gupta Sachin - - 2012
Despite significant progress in the treatment of preterm neonates, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) continues to be a major cause of neonatal morbidity. Affected infants suffered from long-term pulmonary and nonpulmonary sequel. The pulmonary sequels include reactive airway disease and asthma during childhood and adolescence. Nonpulmonary sequels include poor coordination and muscle ...
Forest Sharron - - 2011
Postnatal steroids are a controversial intervention for the prevention and treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants. Studies demonstrating a potential for steroid-related adverse effects, including growth and neurodevelopmental impairment, have significantly changed clinical practice over the past decade. There are circumstances in which the potential benefits may outweigh the ...
Carballo-Magdaleno Deyanira - - 2011
Steroids have been used for more than 20 years in preterm infants to induce pulmonary maturity; however, some long-term effects have been reported, such as insulin resistance and elevation of blood pressure. The aim of our study was to compare renal volume, renal function, and blood pressure in infants between 12-36 months ...
Kumar Praveen - - 2011
To evaluate the effect of maternal administration of antenatal steroids (ANS) on cord blood cytokine levels at birth in preterm infants. Cord blood cytokine concentrations were measured for pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8); anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β); and neurotrophic cytokines (BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4) in two hundred ...
Zanardo Vincenzo - - 2010
Cesarean delivery has negative effects on breastfeeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate breastfeeding rates, defined in accordance with World Health Organization guidelines, from delivery to 6 months postpartum in infants born by elective and emergency cesarean section and in infants born vaginally. Delivery modalities were assessed in ...
Kangin Murat - - 2010
To evaluate the frequency of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and degree of renal parenchymal damage as well as the parameters of growth, development and nutritional status in antenatal hydronephrosis cases with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Infants, whose antenatal ultrasonography (US) showed a fetal renal pelvic diameter of 5 mm or greater ...
Seo Ji Yeon - - 2010
Although milky nipple discharge appears frequently in infants, bloody nipple discharge is a very rare finding. We experienced a 4-month-old, breast-fed infant who showed bilateral bloody nipple discharge with no signs of infection, engorgement, or hypertrophy. The infant's hormonal examination and coagulation tests were normal, and an ultrasound examination revealed ...
Richio Laura J - - 2010
We sought to evaluate the association between the rate of repeat adolescent births and mode of delivery. This was a retrospective cohort study of 899 adolescents delivering in Rhode Island. Repeat birth rates were calculated and compared between adolescents delivering their first baby via cesarean vs vaginally. Fisher's exact test, ...
Gregory Kimberly D - - 2010
A review of the literature and analysis of the National Inpatient Sample Database was performed to describe the trends in vaginal birth after cesarean availability in the United States and the factors associated with changing use. Vaginal birth after cesarean increased after the first National Institutes of Health Consensus Conference ...
O'Shea T Michael - - 2010
In subsequent pregnancies after a cesarean delivery, women must choose between attempting to deliver vaginally or undergoing another cesarean delivery. Information relevant to this choice includes the long-term benefits and harms to the baby. In this article we discuss the relationship of mode of delivery (planned trial of labor, either ...
Grobman William A - - 2010
There have been multiple observational studies that have assessed the probability that a woman who undertakes a trial of labor after a previous cesarean delivery will have a vaginal birth. These studies have demonstrated a population-level probability of a successful vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) that ranges between 60% and ...
- - 2010
Trial of labor after previous cesarean delivery (TOLAC)* provides women who desire a vaginal delivery with the possibility of achieving that goal--a vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC). In addition to fulfilling a patient's preference for vaginal delivery, at an individual level VBAC is associated with decreased maternal morbidity and ...
Livingston Elizabeth G - - 2010
To estimate risk of infant respiratory morbidity associated with cesarean delivery before labor and ruptured membranes among HIV-1-infected women. In a prospective cohort study of HIV-1-infected women and their infants, mode of delivery was determined by clinicians at the participating sites. For this analysis, "elective cesarean delivery" was defined as ...
Patel Ravi M - - 2010
Women must often choose between a vaginal birth after previous cesarean and elective repeat cesarean delivery. Short-term risks of vaginal birth after cesarean can be potentially catastrophic in the setting of uterine rupture. Although randomized controlled trials comparing these 2 modes of delivery are lacking, observational studies suggest an increased ...
Guise Jeanne-Marie - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence about maternal and neonatal outcomes relating to vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC). DATA SOURCES: Relevant studies were identified from multiple searches of MEDLINE, DARE, and the Cochrane databases (1980 to September 2009) and from recent systematic reviews, reference lists, reviews, editorials, Web sites, and ...
Parva Mehdi - - 2010
Placenta percreta with pelvic organ invasion carries a high mortality for mother and fetus. Appropriate multidisciplinary consultation, strategy, and preoperative planning for Cesarean hysterectomy permitted caregivers to provide a maternal-infant bonding experience, surgical hemostasis, preservation of bladder function, and a healthy, vigorous neonate.
Seneviratne Hashini R - - 2010
Cesarean deliveries (C-section) have been increasing over time. The objectives of this study were to analyze cesarean section delivery rates over time, and determine whether there is an association between C-section, mortality, and severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in VLBW infants. We performed a retrospective cohort study of babies with birth ...
Wilmink Freke A - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate number and timing of elective cesarean sections at term and to assess perinatal outcome associated with this timing. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a recent retrospective cohort study including all elective cesarean sections of singleton pregnancies at term (n = 20,973) with neonatal follow-up. Primary outcome ...
Kringeland Tone - - 2010
BACKGROUND: In Norway, intervention in childbirth has increased from 3 percent in 1967 to 37 percent in 2006. The objectives of this study were, first, to estimate to which extent women who expressed a preference for natural birth actually were delivered vaginally without interventions, and second, to estimate the influence ...
Gouchon Silvia - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of skin-to-skin contact (SSC) after vaginal delivery has been shown. After cesarean births, SSC is not done for practical and medical safety reasons because it is believed that infants may suffer mild hypothermia. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare mothers' and newborns' temperatures after ...
Ahmeti Fehmi - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to analyze the frequency of preterm deliveries in Obstetrics & Gynecology Clinic, University Clinical Centre of Kosovo, Prishtina (Republic of Kosovo), as well as to assess the survival advantage of premature newborns according to mode of delivery (cesarean section vs. vaginal). MATERIAL AND ...
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