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Garrido Daniel - - 2013
Human milk is a rich source of nutrients and energy, shaped by mammalian evolution to provide all the nutritive requirements of the newborn. In addition, several molecules in breast milk act as bioactive agents, playing an important role in infant protection and guiding a proper development. While major breast milk ...
Thiele Doria K - - 2013
Maternal vitamin D insufficiency during lactation, related to lack of sun exposure and minimal intake of vitamin D from the diet, contributes to low breast milk vitamin D content and, therefore, infant vitamin D deficiency. The objective of this review was to examine the literature regarding evidence for achieving maternal ...
Tudehope David - - 2013
We have used an expansive definition of a micropreterm infant as <30 weeks' gestation to provide a global perspective to a "high risk" group of preterm infants for which there are little published data to guide nutritional management. Consensus nutritional guidelines for preterm infants have been developed for infants >1000 ...
Lapillonne Alexandre - - 2013
Preterm birth continues to contribute disproportionately to neonatal morbidity and subsequent physical and neurodevelopmental disabilities. Epidemiologic studies have described additional long-term health consequences of preterm birth such as an increased risk of hypertension and insulin resistance in adult life. It is not known whether the influence of infant and childhood ...
Tudehope David - - 2013
We define the small for gestational age (SGA) infant as an infant born ≥35 weeks' gestation and <10th percentile on the Fenton Growth Chart. Policy statements from many organizations recommend mother's own milk for SGA infants because it meets most of their nutritional requirements and provides short- and long-term benefits. ...
Hendaus M - - 2013
Cholestasis is a condition in which there is a decrease in or complete cessation of bile flow. Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) Cholestasis cases have been on the rise due to the decrease ratio of mortality among premature babies. Using Pubmed, articles were searched using terms in combination: Molecular basis of ...
Lapillonne Alexandre - - 2013
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) are of nutritional interest because they are crucial for normal development of the central nervous system and have potential long-lasting effects that extend beyond the period of dietary insufficiency. Here we review the recent literature and current recommendations regarding LCPUFAs as they pertain to preterm ...
Bhatia Jatinder - - 2013
Requirements for optimal nutrition, especially for micronutrients, are not well defined for premature infants. The "reference fetus," developed by Ziegler et al, has served as a model to define nutritional needs and studies designed to determine nutrient requirements. Revision of nutrient requirements and provision of optimal nutrition may lead to improved ...
Neu Josef - - 2013
Designing an optimal feeding program for preterm infants is particularly challenging. These infants require individualized feeding plans and frequent medical interventions, and their health status and physical limitations necessitate specialized products. This review highlights the challenges of translating new understandings into practical application and, specifically, the challenges of translating scientific ...
Tudehope David I - - 2013
Key principles underpinning feeding guidelines for preterm infants include support for developmental care, breastfeeding, milk expression, and creating feeding plans. Early trophic feeding with colostrum and transitional milk improves immune protection and promotes gut maturation. Studies of preterm infants demonstrate that feeding mother's milk (MM) decreases the incidence of infection ...
Nonyane Bareng A S - - 2013
Neonatal mortality (NM) tends to be clustered within a small subset of mothers, households and/or geographical areas. Knowledge of the maternal and newborn factors associated with NM can help identify high-risk mothers and guide the targeting of intervention programmes. Data from pregnancy history surveys conducted as part of the Project ...
Lapillonne Alexandre - - 2013
Early nutritional support of preterm infants is critical to life-long health and well being. Numerous studies have demonstrated that preterm infants are at increased risk of mortality and morbidity, including disturbances in brain development. To date, much attention has focused on enhancing the nutritional support of very low and extremely ...
Bhatia Jatinder - - 2013
Growth assessment is the most common measure of nutritional adequacy in pediatrics, especially when evaluating nutrition of preterm neonates. The American Academy of Pediatrics defines postnatal nutrient intake to promote growth as one that "approximates the rate of growth…for a normal fetus of the same post-menstrual age." It is known ...
- - 2013
In mid-December 2012, three extremely premature infants with cholestasis in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) developed dermatitis in the diaper region, perioral erosions, and bullae on the dorsal surfaces of their hands and feet (Figure). The infants were similar in gestational age (23-24 weeks) and corrected postnatal age (33-38 ...
Odom Erika C - - 2013
OBJECTIVE:To describe the prevalence and factors associated with not meeting desired breastfeeding duration.METHODS:Data were analyzed from 1177 mothers aged ≥18 years who responded to monthly surveys from pregnancy until their child was 1 year old. When breastfeeding stopped, mothers were asked whether they breastfed as long as they wanted (yes ...
Hård Anna-Lena - - 2013
Retinopathy of prematurity is a potentially blinding disease starting with impaired retinal vessel growth in the neonatal period. Weeks to months later, peripheral retinal hypoxia induces pathologic neovascularization that may lead to retinal detachment and blindness. Current treatment strategies target late stage disease and it would be advantageous if retinopathy ...
Duty Susan M SM Department of Nursing, Simmons College, School of Nursing and Health Sciences, Boston, MA 02115, USA. - - 2013
To determine whether nutritional intake and medical devices are bisphenol A (BPA) exposure sources among premature infants in the NICU. Mothers and their premature infants cared for in the NICU for the past 3 days were recruited for this exposure assessment study. Forty-three mothers contributed 1 nutrition sample (breast milk ...
Fewtrell M S - - 2013
Few studies have investigated the effects of infant nutrition on later bone health in term infants, although low sn-2 palmitate in infant formulas has been shown to result in the formation of stool fatty acid soaps, reduced Ca absorption and lower bone mass in the short term. To investigate the ...
Christmann V - - 2013
AIM: To evaluate whether increasing the amount of amino acids and energy in parenteral nutrition combined with rapid increment of enteral feeding improves postnatal growth in preterm infants. METHODS: Observational study; two consecutive year-cohorts of preterm infants; Cohort 2 received higher supplementation of parenteral amino acids and energy with more ...
Valentine Christina J - - 2013
Milk is successfully produced by mothers regardless of their nutritional status. Nevertheless, the concentrations of some nutrients, specifically vitamins A, D, B1, B2, B3, B6, and B12, fatty acids, and iodine, in human milk depend on or are influenced by maternal diet. A healthy and varied diet during lactation ensures ...
Ertem Gül - - 2013
To determine mothers' knowledge about infant nutrition and traditional influence on feeding practices which may affect the nutritional status of infants and young children. The qualitive research was carried out from May to June 2009 at a community health centre in Western Turkey, and comprised 20 mothers. Observation and semi-structured ...
Ballard Olivia O Division of Immunobiology, Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Human Milk and Lactation, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA. - - 2013
This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, its variation, and its clinical relevance. The composition of human milk is the biological norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to ...
Medoff-Cooper Barbara - - 2013
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Growth failure secondary to feeding problems after complex neonatal cardiac surgery is well documented, but not well understood. The purpose of this review is to describe feeding and growth pattern in children with congenital heart defects. RECENT FINDINGS: Nearly half of the infants with univentricular heart defects ...
Lutz Tracey - - 2013
AIMS: To identify the proportion of preterm infants needing neonatal intensive care (NIC) between 29 and 34 weeks gestation. To identify any associated risk factors. METHODS: This population-based study identified all babies, born without congenital abnormalities, between 29 and 34 weeks gestation inclusive. A 21-month period ending September 2009 was ...
Deb Roumi - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of sociodemographic and nutritional factors in the incidence of births affected by neural tube defects (NTD) in the North Indian population. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Government hospitals of Delhi, India. SUBJECTS: Subjects comprised 284 mothers of NTD children (cases) and 568 mothers of healthy children ...
Rühl R - - 2013
Carotenoids are important derivatives of the human diet and occur in high concentrations in the human organism. Various carotenoids are also present in human breast milk and are transferred to breast-fed children. The alternative to breastfeeding is supplementation with an infant milk formula, but these formulas contain only a limited ...
Olusanya Bolajoko O - - 2013
To determine the pattern of and factors associated with changes in nutritional status in early infancy in a resource-poor setting. A cohort study in Lagos, Nigeria, in which the nutritional status at birth was compared with status at the first postnatal check-up routinely scheduled for 6-8 weeks based on the ...
Vasu V V Section of Neonatal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, Chelsea and Westminster Campus, London, UK. - - 2013
We have previously shown that by term age, preterm infants have elevated intrahepatocellular lipid (IHCL) content and altered regional adiposity, both of which are risk factors for cardiometabolic illness in adult life. Preterm nutritional intake is a plausible determinant of these aberrant trajectories of development. We aimed to establish if ...
Fong Bertram Yin - - 2013
Phospholipids have been used widely in the food industry as emulsifiers but it is their biological and nutritional function that has been the focus over recent years. The recognition of the importance of phospholipids and sphingomyelin for infant development has led to an increase in the number of infant formulas ...
Chang Fang-Yuan - - 2013
The benefits of feeding human milk to infants, even in prematurity, have been well documented. Well-organized donor milk processing has made the milk bank a good source of nutrition for premature or sick infants if their own mother's milk is not sufficient or suitable. The Taipei City Hospital Milk Bank ...
Corpeleijn Willemijn E - - 2013
The cause of growth restriction in preterm infants is multifactorial, but it has been estimated that about 50% of the variance in early postnatal growth can be attributed to nutrition. Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants who were born small-for-gestational age (SGA) seem to have the highest risk to become ...
Szajewska Hania - - 2013
Currently, one of the scientific concepts is that maternal, fetal, and infant nutrition may have implications for infant size and growth and subsequently for the risk of developing chronic diseases later in life, in addition to genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. As a consequence, the interest of scientists and policy ...
Mims Susan R - - 2013
Baby Friendly hospitals promote and support breastfeeding to increase the number of infants who receive the health and social benefits and optimal nutrition that breast milk provides. Hospitals that implement best practices for breastfeeding can receive the "baby friendly" designation. A transdisciplinary approach is increasing the number of North Carolina ...
Pieltain C - - 2013
Recent advances in neonatal care significantly increases survival rate in preterm and particularly in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW infants) and nutrition is becoming one of the most challenging issue to improve short and long term health and developmental outcomes. Nutrition is also relevant for bone development and mineralization ...
Warren Mikako - - 2013
Background Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) via central venous catheter (CVC) is used routinely to provide adequate nutrition for neonates, especially those with very low birth weights (VLBWN). Pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade (PCE/CT) is a potentially life-threatening CVC complication. Design This autopsy study presents the gross and histopathologic findings in ...
Izumi Hirohisa - - 2013
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNA molecules that modulate specific target mRNAs and play very important roles in physiological processes. They were recently detected in body fluids such as blood, urine, saliva, and milk. These body fluid miRNAs have been studied thoroughly as potential diagnostic biomarkers. However, there have been ...
Pedrosa Cristina - - 2013
Vitamin D deficiency, once thought to be eradicated, is becoming a frequent occurence in children, caused mainly by dietary insufficiency. The classical manifestation is rickets, but in infants severe hypocalcaemia may present as stridor, tetany, seizures or, rarely, heart disease. Here, we describe four infants who presented with complications of ...
Vanderveen Deborah K - - 2013
To identify nutritional and weight gain limitations associated with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) severity among very preterm newborns. 1180 infants <28 weeks GA at birth with ROP examination results were grouped and analyzed by quartile of weekly total calorie, carbohydrate, protein, and lipid intake, as well as growth velocity between ...
Domellöf Magnus - - 2013
Low birthweight (LBW), defined as birthweight <2,500 g, is a major global public health problem and is associated with lifelong cognitive and behavioral problems. Very LBW (VLBW) infants (<1,500 g) are at high risk of multiple macro- and micronutrient deficiencies, but most LBW infants are larger (1,500-2,500 g), and the ...
Makrides Maria - - 2013
Infants born with low birthweight (LBW) have poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes compared with their term counterparts with appropriate weight for gestational age. The perinatal period is a time of high energy and high nutrient needs, and any process, such as preterm birth, poor nutrition or placental insufficiency, that interrupts the concentrated ...
Ziegler Ekhard E - - 2013
Appropriate growth of premature infants can be defined as growth that is not associated with adverse consequences in the short and the long term. Growth failure is associated with neurocognitive impairment. The goal of nutritional management therefore is the achievement of appropriate growth by ensuring that nutrient intakes are maintained ...
Paynter Stuart - - 2013
Children with poor nutrition are at increased risk of pneumonia. In many tropical settings seasonal pneumonia epidemics occur during the rainy season, which is often a period of poor nutrition. We have investigated whether seasonal hunger may be a driver of seasonal pneumonia epidemics in children in the tropical setting ...
Motee Ashmika - - 2013
Proper breastfeeding practices are effective ways for reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. While many mothers understand the importance of breastfeeding, others are less knowledgeable on the benefits of breastfeeding and weaning. The aim in here is to assess breastfeeding pattern, infant formula feeding pattern, and weaning introduction in Mauritius and ...
Bonsante Francesco - - 2013
Early aggressive parenteral nutrition (PN), consisting of caloric and nitrogen intake soon after birth, is currently proposed for the premature baby. Some electrolyte disturbances, such as hypophosphatemia and hypercalcemia, considered unusual in early life, were recently described while using this PN approach. We hypothesize that, due to its impact on ...
Bhatia Jatinder - - 2013
Human milk is the preferred feeding for both term and preterm infants. While being considered optimal for term infants, human milk, even from mothers delivering preterm infants, is lacking in protein, energy, sodium, calcium, and phosphorus, resulting in poorer growth and nutrient deficiencies when compared to formulas designed for these ...
Gruszfeld Dariusz - - 2013
Maternal diet, nutritional status during pregnancy, and the early diet of the offspring play an important role in later health. The short- and long-term outcomes of early nutrition have been extensively studied in recent decades. One of the most commonly investigated nutritional interventions is breastfeeding, which is associated with a ...
Lubetzky Ronit - - 2013
This chapter examines the evidence behind the need or not to routinely administer multivitamin and/or mineral preparations to term infants. We reviewed the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) of vitamins and minerals during the first year of life and examined whether standard nutritional options, i.e. human milk or infant formulae consistent ...
Neu Josef - - 2013
Over the past couple of decades, glutamine (GLN) has emerged as important metabolic intermediate, signaling molecule and nutrient that becomes rapidly depleted and therefore critically important during stress. In very low-birthweight (VLBW) infants, a population of patients in whom supplementation of GLN should provide major benefits, GLN is provided in ...
Miletta Maria Consolata - - 2013
Suboptimal dietary zinc (Zn(2+)) intake is increasingly appreciated as an important public health issue. Zn(2+) is an essential mineral, and infants are particularly vulnerable to Zn(2+) deficiency, as they require large amounts of Zn(2+) for their normal growth and development. Although term infants are born with an important hepatic Zn(2+) ...
Meier Paula P - - 2013
This symposium examined the impact of human milk (HM) from the infant's own mother on health, nutrition, and cost outcomes in very low birthweight (VLBW; <1500 g birthweight) infants. The 4 symposium speakers presented original research and summarized existing evidence about these primary outcomes. The conclusions from the symposium suggest ...
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