Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 989
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Kulkarni A - - 2001
Improvement in survival rates of low birth-weight infants particularly in the neonatal intensive care units of India appears to be accompanied by frequent recognition of Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) among early survivors. As the philosophy and practice of advanced care for tiny infants becomes more acceptable and affordable in the country, ...
Campbell M E - - 2001
Maintenance of adequate perfusion is essential for health of the intestinal mucosa. Methods available to assess intestinal perfusion provide information on mesenteric blood flow, which may differ from mucosal flow. Intramucosal pH (pH(i)) is influenced by tissue oxygenation and perfusion. Gastric pH(i) can be measured using the technique of tonometry. ...
Wardle S P - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Femoral vessel catheterisation is generally avoided in the neonatal period because of technical difficulties and the fear of complications. AIM: To review the use of femoral arterial and venous catheters inserted percutaneously on the neonatal intensive care unit. METHODS: Infants admitted to one of two regional neonatal intensive care ...
Hostetler M A - - 2001
Historically, most of the acute complications of prematurity have occurred in the neonatal intensive care unit, not in the Emergency Department (ED). It is becoming increasingly common, however, for premature infants to be discharged from the hospital before they have reached a postconceptual age of 40 weeks. Such infants remain ...
Ehrlich P F - - 2001
Perforated necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in the low-birth weight infant is now one of the most common surgical problems encountered in contemporary neonatal intensive care units. However, morbidity and mortality from NEC remain high, and the optimal surgical management of these infants remains controversial. Currently few data exist comparing the factors ...
Nguyen S T - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To report our experience with thrombolytic agents in the management of two infants with silicone central venous catheters that had adhered to the vein wall as a result of infection with Malassezia furfur. STUDY DESIGN: Case review of two very low birth weight infants with adherent central venous catheters. ...
Ferrari F - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of catheter related thrombosis and to test the efficacy of recombinant tissue type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: From January 1995 to December 1998, echocardiography was performed in the first few days of life in 76 very low birthweight (< or = ...
Kabra N S - - 2001
Percutaneously inserted central venous catheters (PICC) are used in premature infants to deliver intravenous fluids, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and medications. This article reports a case in which the baby developed pericardial tamponade within 3 hours of starting TPN through a PICC. This was successfully treated with percutaneous subxiphoid pericardiocentesis. ...
Suzuki T - - 2001
Safe guide is a central venous catheterization kit that serves as both pilot needle and introducer. With a single puncture, a guide wire can be introduced by inserting it through the side port of the 22-gauge needle. The advantage is that this needle can be placed within a blood vessel ...
Lawrence G - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Neonatal necrotising enterocolitis is a serious, commonly fatal disease in premature neonates. Although feeding with expressed breast milk and other good nursery practices are partly protective, preventive measures are needed. Treating neonates enterally with a mixture of human IgA and IgG, prepared from donated blood, has been claimed to ...
Garland J S - - 2001
Neonates who require a central venous catheter (CVC) for prolonged vascular access experience high rates of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI). PURPOSE: A multicenter randomized clinical trial was undertaken to ascertain the efficacy of a novel chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing (Biopatch Antimicrobial Dressing) on the CVC sites of neonates for the prevention of ...
Claud E C - - 2001
Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major cause of morbidity in preterm infants. We hypothesize that the intestinal injury in this disease is a consequence of synergy among three of the major risk factors for NEC: prematurity, enteral feeding, and bacterial colonization. Together these factors result in an exaggerated inflammatory ...
Benjamin D K DK - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: Physicians who treat neonates who become bacteremic while dependent on central venous catheters face a serious and common dilemma. We sought 1) to evaluate the relationship between central venous catheter removal and outcome in bacteremic neonates, 2) to determine species of bacteria that are associated with an increased risk ...
Hoehn T - - 2001
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is the predominant immaturity-associated disease of the bowel in the preterm neonate and leads to substantial mortality and long-term morbidity. Diagnostic features of NEC include, apart from the clinical presentation, laboratory and radiological parameters. Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) on abdominal radiographs is regarded as a criterion of definitive ...
Noble H G - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Bedside peritoneal drainage is emerging as a useful therapy for premature infants with intestinal perforation in the newborn period. Some authors recommend that bedside drainage be primary therapy for very low birth weight neonates. Surprisingly, some series report up to 70% of neonates so treated never require further or ...
Kadalraja R - - 2001
In a five-year retrospective data analysis, incidence of > stage II necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) was four times higher in aboriginal (18/125) than non-aboriginal (11/306) neonates, all < or = 32 weeks' gestation. Stage III NEC occurred more frequently (10/18 vs 3/11) and related mortality was higher (44.4% vs 0%) in ...
Wilson L - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is an established procedure for pediatric patients; however, there is still relatively little information on its feasibility and safety in very small infants. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in infants weighing less than ...
Patwardhan N - - 2001
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to characterize the type and incidence of complications related to colostomy formation in newborn infants with anorectal anomalies. METHODS: The authors reviewed a 5-year (1994 to 1999) experience of a single institution in the management of neonates with high and intermediate anorectal anomalies ...
Sigalet D L - - 2001
Short bowel syndrome is a spectrum of malnutrition resulting from inadequate bowel length. In infant and pediatric patients, the most common causes are necrotizing enterocolitis, abdominal wall defects, jejunal ileal atresia, and mid gut volvulus. There appear to be regional variations in etiology. Since the publication of Wilmore's classic monograph ...
Di Lorenzo M - - 2001
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Nitric oxide (NO) mediates enteric smooth muscle relaxation and mucosal protection. The authors have identified an ontogenically determined pattern of enteric NO neural maturation that may render the distal gut of premature piglets susceptible to injury. METHODS: NO synthase (cNOS and iNOS) activities were measured in the developing piglet ...
Goren A - - 2001
AIM: To assess the efficacy of transillumination of the palm of the hand in establishing venous access in small infants. METHODS: One hundred infants aged 2 to 36 months were considered for venipuncture under transillumination following failure to find an accessible vein or a failed venipuncture attempt. RESULTS: In 40 ...
Leipälä J A - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively survey perforation complications of consecutively inserted percutaneous central venous catheters (PCVC) in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants over a 2 year period. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: Three serious perforation complications were encountered in a series of 100 consecutive PCVC. One infant (birthweight 685 g) developed pericardial effusion and ...
Noyola D E - - 2001
A retrospective review of 86 neonates with candidemia hospitalized from January 1989 through June 1999 was conducted to determine the frequency of ophthalmologic, visceral, or cardiac involvement. Retinal abnormalities were observed in 4 (6%) of the 67 infants in whom indirect ophthalmoscopy examination was performed. Abdominal ultrasound abnormalities were detected ...
Baird L L - - 2001
The use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and intravenous fat emulsions in sick or preterm infants is often required to maintain adequate nutrition, yet recent research has shown that when exposed to light these nutrients are altered and deliver a high load of exogenous toxic hydroperoxides to already compromised infants. ...
Chirdan L B - - 2001
Between 1990 and 1999, 14 neonates with intestinal perforation were treated at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. Median age at presentation was 9 days and median weight 2.65 kg. Five had high anorectal malformation, three Hirschsprung's disease and two ruptured exomphalos with bowel strangulation. Gastroschisis, strangulated inguinal ...
Buch N A - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To study epidemiology including various risk factors incorporated in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis in Kashmir. METHODS: A retrospective hospital based study on 3235 neonates admitted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Sheri-Kashmir Institute, were evaluated. Forty two were diagnosed as cases of Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis on the basis of various ...
Ghidini A - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to assess whether antenatal exposure to magnesium sulfate may decrease the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. METHODS: We have compared the rate of magnesium sulfate exposure before birth among 23 consecutive infants diagnosed with necrotizing enterocolitis with that of 46 controls ...
Knobel R B - - 2001
A preterm infant, whose course was complicated by sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis with jejunal perforation, intraventricular hemorrhage and cerebellar hemorrhage, suffered permanent and total paralysis below the neck from extravasation of parenteral nutrition fluids through a femoral venous catheter. MRI imaging revealed extravasation of fluid into the paraspinus musculature with extension ...
Molik K A - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The incidence of gastroschisis has increased in the past decade. A differing clinical course between "complex" (those with atresias, perforation, or stenosis) and "simple" cases has prompted a review of risk assessment factors. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of 103 infants with gastroschisis over 5 years (1992 ...
Rabinowitz S S - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a heterogeneous phospholipid that has been implicated as participating in a number of perinatal disease processes including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). METHODS: Baseline blood levels of PAF and related lipids (PAF-LL) were measured for 164 infants at risk for NEC from 3 neonatal intensive care units. ...
Rimensberger P C - - 2001
Improvement in neonatal care has led to improvements in survival and patient outcome in preterm infants; however, this improved survival has been associated with the development of secondary complications, such as catheter-associated intravascular and intracardiac thrombus formation with a non-negligible morbidity and mortality. The sick preterm infant is at high ...
Duffy L C - - 2001
Concordance between gram-negative enteric and other toxin-producing bacteria in blood and stool culture, endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) was measured in 60 preterm infants (600-1600 g) as a clinical index in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Clostridium spp, identified by routine bacteriology, were each strongly ...
Lemons J A - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To determine the mortality and morbidity for infants weighing 401 to 1500 g (very low birth weight [VLBW]) at birth by gestational age, birth weight, and gender. STUDY DESIGN: Perinatal data were collected prospectively on an inborn cohort from January 1995 through December 1996 by 14 participating centers of ...
Hirokawa S - - 2001
A 630-g male infant developed presumed necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) after fungal enteritis that resulted in subsequent fungal septicemia associated with pneumoperitoneum on the 9th day of life. Urgent percutaneous Penrose drainage was required. During the operation on the 14th day, an ileoileal intussusception and an ileal stricture were found with ...
Bury R G - - 2001
Necrotizing enterocolitis continues to be a problem, particularly in preterm neonates. There have been reports published suggesting that the use of enteral antibiotics may be effective as prophylaxis. This systematic review was undertaken to clarify the issue. To evaluate the benefits and harms of enteral antibiotic prophylaxis for necrotizing enterocolitis ...
Foster J - - 2001
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common emergency of the gastrointestinal tract occurring in the neonatal period. There have been published reports which suggest that oral immunoglobulins IgA and IgG produce an immunoprotective effect in the gastrointestinal mucosa. This systematic review was undertaken to clarify the issue. To assess whether ...
Shah P P Division of Neonatology, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 1X8. - - 2001
Peripherally placed percutaneous central venous catheters (PCVC) are used in neonates to provide long-term vascular access. Major complications associated with these catheters include mechanical complications (catheter thrombosis, occlusion or dislodgement) and infection. Strategies to prevent catheter thrombosis and occlusion include the use of heparin. Systematic review has revealed that heparin ...
Becker R M - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether premature infants who have necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) have deficiencies in glutamine (GLN) and arginine (ARG), which are essential to intestinal integrity. STUDY DESIGN: A 4-month prospective cohort study of serum amino acid and urea levels in premature infants was done. Serum amino acid and urea levels ...
Abdelbasit O B - - 2000
We report a case of a low birth weight asymmetrical small for gestational age baby, who presented at the age of 20 hours with sudden abdominal distension. Since birth he has been breastfed and was kept with his mother. Absence of radiological findings of necrotizing enterocolitis or perforation at the ...
Cass D L - - 2000
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To better define the indications for peritoneal drainage (PD) in premature babies with intestinal perforation, the authors reviewed their experience with this procedure in a tertiary neonatal intensive care setting. METHODS: The charts of all neonates who underwent PD as initial treatment for intestinal perforation between 1996 and 1999 ...
Karlowicz M G - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists regarding the most appropriate acute management of central venous catheters (CVCs) in neonates with candidemia, with up to two thirds of neonatologists preferring to attempt antifungal therapy without removing CVCs. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether CVCs should be removed as soon as candidemia is detected in neonates. Methods. ...
McElhinney D B - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is primarily a disease of the premature infant. Among children born at term, however, congenital heart disease may be an important predisposing factor for this condition. To determine risk factors for NEC in patients with congenital heart disease, we conducted a case-control study of neonates with ...
Gunter J B - - 2000
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Advancement of catheters from the caudal to the thoracic level is an alternative to thoracic epidural anesthesia in infants and younger children; however, contamination of the insertion site may occur. This study examined the feasibility of the midline modified Taylor approach (L(5)-S(1)) for the advancement of epidural ...
Bolisetty S - - 2000
AIM OF THE STUDY: The aetiology of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains poorly understood in infants of all gestation, particularly when it occurs at term. We hypothesize that NEC in term infants is rare but often associated with underlying congenital illnesses. METHOD: Records of all term infants hospitalized with radiologically or ...
Schäfer K - - 2000
According to recent studies, the percentage of neonates suffering a combination of very low birth weight (VLBW) and intestinal malformation or diseases that require surgery has increased. As opposed to mature newborn, split stoma is the therapy of choice in VLBW infants. These neonates and patients with other causes for ...
Dickinson E C - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Mucosal atrophy and bowel shortening are the hallmark of proximal intestinal diversion for extensive necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or Thiry-Vella fistulas (TVF), in which the ends of a defunctionalized loop of intestine are exteriorized as stomas. Recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) is a pleiotropic cytokine that promotes epithelial regeneration and enhances ...
Janes M - - 2000
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To determine whether percutaneously inserted central venous catheters (PICC) and peripheral intravenous catheters (PIV) in infants with very low birth weight (VLBW) differ with respect to (1) incidence of sepsis, (2) number of insertion attempts and catheters required for total intravenous therapy, (3) courses of antibiotics, and (4) total ...
Chandler J C - - 2000
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a disease in which the primary risk factor is prematurity. Despite, and partially as a result of, the tremendous strides neonatal care has taken, it is a major cause of morbidity and mortality of the newborn. The infant with very low birth weight is particularly susceptible, ...
Sonntag J - - 2000
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) on neurodevelopmental outcome and growth. Neurodevelopmental outcome of 20 out of 22 suriviving very low birthweight infants (VLBW) diagnosed with NEC between 1992 and 1996 was compared with 40 control infants matched for gestational age and ...
Fatica C - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious gastrointestinal disease of unknown cause that predominantly affects premature infants, but it has been reported in term infants with congenital heart disease. METHODS: In August and September of 1997, 4 cases of NEC in term infants with congenital heart disease were identified among ...
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