Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 989
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Bontadelli Joe - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To investigate efficacy and safety of enoxaparin for catheter-related arterial thrombosis in infants with congenital heart disease. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Pediatric Intensive Care and Cardiology Unit at the University Children's Hospital of Zurich. PATIENTS: A cohort of 32[Symbol: see text]infants aged 0-12[Symbol: see text]months treated with enoxaparin ...
Pettit Janet - - 2007
Placement of a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) is often complicated by the infant's small size and previous use of the peripheral veins, making the traditional means of insertion inadequate. New techniques and technologies, previously reserved for pediatric and adult patients, are now available for use in neonates and can ...
Rygl M - - 2007
To evaluate the results of use of T-tube ileostomy in selected cases of intestinal perforation in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) neonates. The records of 288 ELBW neonates treated at author's institution, from 1998 to 2003 were retrospectively reviewed to identify neonates operated for intestinal perforation with T-tube placement. T-tube ...
Butel Marie-José - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Premature birth results in a delayed and abnormal qualitative pattern of gut colonization. This abnormal pattern is thought to affect intestinal development and contribute to a higher risk of gastrointestinal infectious diseases such as neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). In particular, bifidobacteria are thought to play a major role. We ...
Richir Milan C - - 2007
Several studies have described reduced plasma concentrations of arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). No information on the plasma concentrations of the endogenous NOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in patients with NEC is currently available. We investigated whether plasma concentrations of arginine, ...
Mandhan Parkash - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Small bowel perforations in the neonatal period can be secondary to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), ischemic necrosis, or occlusive anomalies of the small bowel; furthermore, they may be of no discernible cause. Depending on the clinical condition of the infant and the extent of the disease, a number of surgical ...
Sisk P M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a frequent cause of mortality and morbidity in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Human milk (HM) feeding has been associated with lower risk of NEC. However, mothers of VLBW infants often experience insufficient milk production, resulting in mixed feedings of HM and formula. Moreover, ...
Josefsson Stina - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To measure concentrations of fecal calprotectin (f-calprotectin) in infants with very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) longitudinally and to describe changes in f-calprotectin in infants who develop severe abdominal disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 59 VLBW infants. Seven patients (disease group) developed severe abdominal disease defined ...
Rugolotto S - - 2007
We report a 27-week, 850 g infant with severe Streptococcus group B sepsis and life-threatening hyperkalemia due to progressive anuria. On the fourth day of life, after he failed treatment with diuretics, salbutamol, insulin, calcium gluconate and sodium bicarbonate, he was treated with sorbitol-free Kayexalate enemas. Potassium level slowly decreased ...
Warner Barbara B - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To examine the ontogeny of salivary epidermal growth factor (sEGF) in premature infants and to determine the relation of sEGF to the development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). STUDY DESIGN: Salivary EGF was prospectively measured in 327 infants with gestational ages from 23 weeks to term. Infants of < or ...
Turner Dan - - 2007
The pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains poorly understood. We aimed to assess the extent of bacterial infection in the pathogenesis of NEC using serial procalcitonin measurements. Blood samples were drawn during the first 4 days following every clinical event requiring a workup for presumed NEC. Eight episodes were confirmed ...
Brooker R W - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Describe the incidence of catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI), following removal of peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICC) in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of infants <29 weeks gestational age with a PICC revealed 101 PICCs placed (2159 PICC days). Patients were hospitalized in a level ...
Neofytos Dionissios - - 2007
Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (formerly Rhodotorula rubra) is a ubiquitous, environmental, urease-positive yeast that does not ferment sugars and can assimilate various carbohydrates. Characterized by the salmon-pink to coral-red color of its colonies, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa can disseminate and cause significant disease. We present a case of sustained Rhodotorula mucilaginosa catheter-related fungemia in ...
Carlo Waldemar F - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Diastolic runoff in the abdominal aorta, with subsequent circulatory mesenteric insufficiency, has been postulated as a cause of necrotizing enterocolitis in term infants with congenital heart disease. With this study we sought to determine whether Doppler-flow characteristics in the abdominal aorta can predict which infants are at specific risk, ...
Falagas Matthew E - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The use of antimicrobial-impregnated central venous catheters (CVCs) for the prevention of CVC microbial colonization and catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) remains controversial. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating CRBSI and colonization of CVCs impregnated with rifampicin-based antimicrobial combinations. Our main analysis compared the occurrence ...
Nguyen Helen - - 2007
Premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are at risk for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and bowel perforation. Unfortunately the mortality and morbidity for intestinal perforation in neonates, especially extremely low-birth-weight infants (VLBW), is high. The criterion standard traditional management for bowel perforation has been exploratory laparotomy (LAP). Another less ...
Gibbs Kathleen - - 2007
Necrotizing enterocolitis is the most common gastrointestinal emergency of the neonate, affecting 5-10% of infants, yet the pathogenesis remains unclear. Widely accepted risk factors include prematurity, enteral feeds, bacterial colonization and mucosal injury. How these or other yet identified factors come together to create the classic clinical and pathologic features ...
Morag Iris - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis is a common progressive gastrointestinal disease affecting more than 5% of very low birth weight infants and associated with a high mortality rate. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether excessive weight gain in preterm infants is an early sign of NEC. METHODS: Seventeen preterm infants with perforated NEC were ...
Ainsworth S B - - 2007
Parenteral nutrition for neonates may be delivered via a short peripheral cannula or a central venous catheter. The latter may either be inserted via the umbilicus or percutaneously. Because of the complications associated with umbilical venous catheter use, many neonatal units prefer to use percutaneously inserted catheters following the initial ...
Shah P P University of Toronto, Department of Paediatrics, Rm 775A, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 1XB. - - 2007
Immaturity, ischemia, and disturbances in gut mucosal integrity due to infections or hyperosmolar feeds are some of the suspected mechanisms in the development of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. Decreased concentration of nitric oxide is proposed as one of the possible cellular mechanisms for NEC. Plasma arginine concentrations were ...
Ogundoyin Olakayode O - - 2007
Perinatal intussusception is rare, but can be seen in both premature and full-term neonates. The symptoms and signs are similar to those seen in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), causing the diagnosis of intussusception to be delayed. We report a case of intussusception that presented with features suggestive of NEC in a ...
Reynolds Regina M - - 2007
There are many unresolved issues regarding how to feed the extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW) infant. Trophic feedings of small volumes of breast milk or formula do not appear to increase the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). For prevention of NEC, breast milk, antenatal steroids and fluid restriction each confers a benefit. Because ...
Pietz Jeff - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Diet, indomethacin, and early use of dexamethasone have been implicated as possible causes of necrotizing enterocolitis and intestinal perforation. Because we seldom prescribe indomethacin or early dexamethasone therapy and we follow a special dietary regimen that provides late-onset, slow, continuous drip enteral feeding, we reviewed our 20 years of ...
Kawase Yasuhiro - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous isolated gastrointestinal perforation (SIP) in very low-birthweight infants has been reported as a different disease entity from necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors of NEC and SIP. METHODS: The authors reviewed the medical records of very low-birthweight infants ...
Kessler U - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between early laboratory parameters, disease severity, type of management (surgical or conservative) and outcome in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective collection and analysis of data from infants treated in a single tertiary care center (1980 to 2002). Data were collected on disease severity (Bell ...
Bell Susan Givens - - 2006
Glutamine, a nonessential amino acid that appears to be conditionally essential during periods of physiologic stress, plays important physiologic roles in the immune system. However, neither enteral nor parenteral glutamine supplementation makes a difference in the rate of systemic infection or of NEC in very low birth weight infants. Thus, ...
Chiang Ming-Chou - - 2006
The spontaneous rupture of a Silastic catheter is a rare occurrence. We describe our experience of managing a tiny premature infant with embolization of a Silastic percutaneous central venous catheter (PCVC) and discuss the possible mechanisms of the embolization. A 28-week, 980 g, preterm male infant received a Silastic PCVC ...
Holman Robert C - - 2006
The objective of this study was to estimate the rate and describe the epidemiology of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) among neonates (infants <1 month of age) hospitalised in the United States. Hospital discharge records for neonates with an NEC diagnosis and an in-hospital death or routine discharge were selected for analysis ...
Flidel-Rimon Orna O Department of Neonatology, Kaplan Medical Center, Rehovot, - - 2006
Very-low-birthweight (VLBW) infants suffer marked growth delay despite well-intentioned efforts at combining enteral and parenteral nutrition. Fear of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) has traditionally influenced neonatologists toward delaying and progressing slowly with enteral feeding, while supporting the infant with parenteral nutrition. Current evidence suggests significant benefits of enteral feeding that is ...
Lin Patricia W - - 2006
Necrotising enterocolitis is one of the most common gastrointestinal emergencies in newborn infants. Here we review the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and pathophysiology of the disease, as well as strategies for diagnosis, management, and prevention. Necrotising enterocolitis is one of the most devastating and unpredictable diseases affecting premature infants. Despite decades ...
Morini F - - 2006
In infants, the tip of a cannula is sometimes used as introducer during peripherally inserted central catheters placement. We report a rare complication of this procedure, characterized by intravascular migration of the cannula tip during peripheral insertion of a central venous catheter. We review this unlikely complication and treatment options.
Furdon Susan Arana - - 2006
Umbilical arterial catheters (UAC) are routinely used in the care of critically ill newborns. Complications related to UACs include vascular compromise, hemorrhage, complications related to malposition, severance of the catheter itself, and infection. This article is Part II in a series dedicated to assessing infants with an umbilical catheter. Part ...
Rees Clare M - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: (1) To characterise neurodevelopmental outcome of neonates with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC); (2) to define whether NEC increases risk of neurodevelopmental impairment in very low birth weight neonates; (3) to investigate whether stage of disease or need for surgery increase risk of poor outcome. DESIGN: A systematic review was performed. ...
Soraisham Amuchou S - - 2006
AIM: To compare the long-term growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 36 months adjusted age in preterm infants (birthweight (BW) < or = 1250 g) with necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) with BW-matched controls. METHODS: This is a case control study performed at a regional tertiary care neonatal intensive care unit. Infants with ...
Margau Ryan - - 2006
PURPOSE: To retrospectively compare thoracic drainage in neonates by using catheter and aspiration techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Approval was obtained from the institutional research ethics board; informed consent from parents was waived. Retrospective review of 21 neonates (19 boys, two girls; mean gestational age, 39.3 weeks) who underwent percutaneous thoracic ...
Clark Claire - - 2006
Intestinal perforation in very low birth weight infants with necrotizing enterocolitis has a high morbidity and mortality. We report the use of laparoscopy on day 30 of life in the treatment of a very low birth weight infant (900 g) with perforated necrotizing enterocolitis. The question of laparotomy versus peritoneal ...
Jen Howard C - - 2006
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Infants with very low birth weight are at increased risk for both intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). IVH often progresses in severity after initial diagnosis and causes severe neurological morbidity and mortality. The authors examined the role of NEC in the progression of IVH in these infants. ...
Terry Nebbie Elizabeth - - 2006
A 9-week-old, former 30-week estimated gestational age premature infant had recurrent episodes of abdominal distention. Laparotomy revealed partial small bowel obstruction caused by ileocecal inflammation with stenosis, and a perforated appendix with fistulization into the cecum. The resected appendix and ileocecal junction showed intranuclear and intracytoplasmic viral inclusions, and were ...
Aly H - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of initiating early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (ENCPAP) on the length of hospital stay (LOS) for the very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. STUDY DESIGN: LOS at the George Washington University Hospital (GW) after the institution of ENCPAP policy was compared to benchmark values ...
Butler-O'Hara Meggan - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Umbilical vein and percutaneous central venous catheters are often used in preterm infants, but they can lead to complications, including infection. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that long-term umbilical vein catheter use would result in fewer infections than short-term umbilical vein catheter use followed by percutaneous central venous catheter placement. DESIGN/METHODS: ...
Schmolzer G - - 2006
For the first time a multimodal approach to NEC prophylaxis is reported, consisting of early trophic feeding with human breast milk, and enteral administration of an antibiotic, an antifungal agent, and probiotics. A retrospective analysis of local protocol of NEC prophylaxis is presented. Included were all VLBWI admitted to the ...
van den Boom J - - 2007
Chest drain insertion is a common procedure in neonatal care. Routine radiography after removal of chest drains increases radiation exposure, handling and cost, but there are few data proving clinical benefit. To review current practice and determine the yield of routinely obtained chest radiographs (CXR). A retrospective chart review of ...
Morag Iris - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factors, clinical features, and outcome of infants diagnosed with portal vein thrombosis (PVT). STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective chart review was conducted of all consecutive infants admitted to the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, between January 1999 and December 2003 diagnosed with PVT. RESULTS: PVT was ...
Sharma R - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: This investigation tests the hypothesis that the clinical presentation and the outcome of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) vary with gestational age (GA). METHODS: All infants admitted to our center between October 1991 and September 2003 were evaluated weekly to identify confirmed cases of NEC. Based upon GA, these infants were ...
Canpolat Fuat Emre - - 2006
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The presence of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in human milk and the expression of G-CSF receptors on intestinal villous enterocytes of neonates suggest that G-CSF has a role in the development and integrity of the gastrointestinal tract. We hypothesized that enteral recombinant human G-CSF (rhG-CSF) given to preterm infants ...
Hammerman Cathy - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Necrotizing enterocolitis remains an enigmatic and potentially devastating condition with high morbidity and mortality. This review explores ways in which bacterial pathogens, together with gut microflora, influence the pathophysiology of necrotizing enterocolitis. Specifically, it examines the role of gut microbial colonization and its 'normalization' with probiotics vis ...
Moss R Lawrence - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Perforated necrotizing enterocolitis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants, and the optimal treatment is uncertain. We designed this multicenter randomized trial to compare outcomes of primary peritoneal drainage with laparotomy and bowel resection in preterm infants with perforated necrotizing enterocolitis. METHODS: We randomly assigned ...
Martin Camilia R - - 2006
Necrotising enterocolitis is a devastating neonatal gastrointestinal emergency predominantly affecting low birth weight, premature infants and is accompanied by significant mortality and morbid sequelae. The pathophysiology remains obscure and the management of infants with necrotising enterocolitis has not changed since the recognition of this disease. Necrotising enterocolitis is most likely ...
Maruyama Kenichi - - 2006
We report a case of hydromediastinum in a newborn associated with a peripherally inserted central venous catheter. A 9-day-old male infant with total parenteral nutrition via a peripherally inserted central venous catheter had acute respiratory distress. A chest radiograph showed a widened mediastinal shadow and left pleural effusion, and sonography ...
Sangild Per T - - 2006
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Preterm birth and formula feeding are key risk factors associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in infants, but little is known about intestinal conditions that predispose to disease. Thus, structural, functional, and microbiologic indices were used to investigate the etiology of spontaneous NEC development in preterm pigs. METHODS: ...
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