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Results 301 - 350 of 918
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Nagase Hiroaki - - 2002
BACKGROUND: This study aims to determine the effect of differently positioned infant car seats on cardio-respiratory parameters in healthy full-term newborns. METHODS: We examined 15 healthy term newborns for respiratory compromise due to normal restraint in a recommended infant car seat. There are currently two types of car seats available ...
Buckley Pat - - 2002
This investigation was carried out to determine the relationship between bed sharing and other places of infant sleep in the first six months of life, and to identify patterns of change in the place of infant sleep for infants who do and do not routinely bed share in the first ...
Peter Corinna S - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: A relationship between gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and apnea of prematurity (AOP) has long been suspected but is difficult to prove because most GER in this age group is nonacidic and thus undetectable by pH monitoring, the current standard for GER detection. The new multiple intraluminal impedance (MII) technique allows ...
Barrington Keith J - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between respiratory patterns and acid gastro-esophageal reflux (g-e reflux) prior to discharge of the formerly preterm infant. STUDY DESIGN: Forty-five infants of <32 weeks' gestation were studied at an average postmenstrual age of 37.2 weeks (SD 3.5). Following informed parental consent, a 12-hour multichannel recording ...
Mehta Rajeev - - 2002
Theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine), which is often prescribed to premature infants to treat apnea, acts, in part, by altering the metabolism of cyclic AMP. This second messenger plays a role in signal transduction mediating neutrophil functions, including respiratory burst, chemotaxis, and motility. We hypothesize that theophylline causes reduced respiratory burst activity, chemotaxis, ...
Richardson Letetia - - 2002
Investigators have anecdotally reported changes in respiratory pattern preceding symptoms of orthostatic intolerance for several years. Evidence from recent studies support these observations, and show that alterations in respiration often precede pre-syncope during orthostasis. These observations suggest the possibility that changes in interaction between the chemo and baro-reflex control systems ...
Horemuzova E - - 2002
The objective of this study was to compare the results of polysomnography between infants with a history of apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) and controls. In this case-control study, 40 full-term ALTE infants, aged 2-36 wk at the time of the event, were compared with 40 age- and sex-matched randomly selected ...
Henderson-Smart D J - - 2002
Recurrent apnea is common in preterm infants, particularly at very early gestational ages. These episodes of loss of effective breathing can lead to hypoxemia and bradycardia, which may be severe enough to require resuscitation including use of positive pressure ventilation or other treatments. Physical stimulation is often used to restart ...
Lemyre B B Division of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, 401 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, KlH 8L1. - - 2002
Apnea of prematurity is almost universal in infants who are born before 34 weeks gestation. Previous randomised trials and systematic reviews have found methylxanthines to be effective in preventing apnea of prematurity. However, recent concerns about potential long term side effects of methylxanthines on the neurodevelopment of low birth weight ...
Kugelman A A Neonatal Department, Bnai-Zion Medical Center, Haifa, - - 2002
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of body position on sidestream, end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) wave measurements in maturing infants. Sidestream EtCO2 wave patterns were analysed longitudinally in 20 preterm infants (born at > or = 32 wk) at 32-37 wk gestation, and in 39 full-term ...
Thach B T - - 2001
Several reflexes are initiated in the fetus and newborn when hypochloremic or strongly acidic solutions contact the epithelium that surrounds the entrance to the laryngeal airway. These reflexes, known collectively as the laryngeal chemoreflex (LCR), include startle, rapid swallowing, apnea, laryngeal constriction, hypertension, and bradycardia. Many studies have shown that ...
Di Fiore J M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Episodes of apnea, desaturation, and bradycardia are common in preterm infants. Such infants who have persistent cardiorespiratory events detected by clinical bedside monitoring often are referred for overnight apnea monitoring studies. OBJECTIVE: To characterize apnea, bradycardia, and desaturation events in infants referred for an overnight apnea monitoring study and ...
Maillard C - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Doxapram, routinely used in premature infants treated for apnea of prematurity unresponsive to methylxanthines, has been related to cardiac conduction disorders. This study was designed to evaluate doxapram cardiac and general tolerance and its relationship to drug plasma concentrations in very premature infants. METHODS: Forty infants (mean +/- SEM, ...
Sreenan C - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: We investigated factors associated with isolated mental delay in infants weighing < 1250 g at birth. STUDY DESIGN: With a case-control design, matching variables for 40 cases included gestation, birth weight, sex, grade of intraventricular hemorrhage, and socioeconomic status. Case subjects had a mental developmental index < 70, and ...
Galinkin J L - - 2001
Although former preterm birth infants are at risk for postoperative apnea after surgery, it is unclear whether the same is true of full-term birth infants. We evaluated the incidence of apnea in 60 full-term neonates and infants undergoing pyloromyotomy both before and after anesthesia. All subjects were randomized to a ...
Hall G L - - 2001
The interrupter technique may be used to monitor respiratory resistance and does not require active patient cooperation, but has yet to be applied in unsedated, spontaneously breathing infants. The aim of this study was to determine if the interrupter technique is feasible in spontaneously breathing infants and to investigate the ...
Andriessen P - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the origin of transient episodes of sinus bradycardia, atrial escape rhythm, and atrioventricular nodal escape rhythm in preterm infants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was observational, and was carried out in a third level neonatal intensive care unit. We studied 19 spontaneously breathing infants born healthy but ...
Ratliff-Schaub K - - 2001
To determine whether motor development in premature infants varies according to sleep position, we evaluated 213 infants <1750 g birth weight enrolled in the Collaborative Home Infant Monitoring Evaluation (CHIME). At 56 weeks postconceptional age (PCA), sleep position was determined by maternal report, and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development ...
Gitomer J J - - 2001
Theophylline, a drug frequently used to treat apnea of prematurity, has a prolonged half-life of 30 h in neonates. Severe overdoses of theophylline have an associated 10% mortality and significant morbidity. We describe a 1,220-g neonate who developed status epilepticus due to a theophylline overdose. Hemodialysis was instituted to increase ...
Weintraub Z - - 2001
To test the hypothesis that the crescendo-decrescendo type of pattern of periodic breathing is more common in infants than in adulthood, we examined the morphologies of periodic breathing in four groups of subjects: group 1 (n=10, gestational age 30+/-1 week), group 2 (n=10, GA 31+/-1 week), group 3 (n=10, GA ...
Hellström-Westas L L Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden. - - 2001
Incubator covers are increasingly being used in neonatal care as part of minimal disturbance strategies. The aim of this study was to examine possible effects of incubator covers on sleep patterns in stable premature infants. Quiet sleep (QS) can be investigated by amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) at 32-34 wk gestational age. ...
Hunt C E - - 2001
CONTEXT: The Collaborative Home Infant Monitoring Evaluation (CHIME) study enrolled healthy term infants and 3 groups of infants considered to be at increased risk for sudden infant death syndrome to evaluate apnea and bradycardia events in the home. Mother-infant pairs without a telephone were ineligible for enrollment. OBJECTIVE: To determine ...
Perfect Sychowski S - - 2001
PURPOSE: To identify current factors associated with home apnea monitor use in preterm infants and to determine whether home monitor use was associated with a shorter length of hospital stay. SETTING: We evaluated neonates who were < or =34 weeks' estimated gestational age and admitted for neonatal intensive care. We ...
Guilleminault C - - 2001
From 1985 through 1995, 348 infants aged 3 wk-3 mo were referred to the Stanford Sleep Clinic for "apparent life-threatening events" (ALTE). A small group of 48 infants with no history of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) was also recruited and used as controls (they comprised group C). We conducted a systematic ...
al-Alaiyan S - - 2001
Caffeine has been used frequently in the treatment and prevention of apnea of prematurity. The metabolism of caffeine depends on the activities of the hepatic enzymes that vary from one infant to another. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of postnatal age (PNA), birth weight (BW), ...
Erler T - - 2001
An increasing amount of polysomnographic studies are performed in early infancy. Complete pediatric sleep laboratory systems are commercially available and provide fast and exhaustive results if operated by trained personnel. Experience in evaluation is necessary, because a broad range of possible diagnostic findings exists, and artifacts are common. Based on ...
Ramanathan R R Department of Pediatrics, Yale Medical School, Box 208064, New Haven, CT 06520-8064, - - 2001
Home monitors designed to identify cardiorespiratory events are frequently used in infants at increased risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), but the efficacy of such devices for this use is unproven. To test the hypothesis that preterm infants, siblings of infants who died of SIDS, and infants who have ...
Sreenan C - - 2001
Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is frequently managed with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP). Nasal cannula (NC) are used at low flows (<0.5 L/min) to deliver supplemental oxygen to neonates. A number of centers use high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in the management of AOP without measuring the positive distending pressure ...
Neuman M R - - 2001
A new physiologic monitor for use in the home has been developed and used for the Collaborative Home Infant Monitor Evaluation (CHIME). This monitor measures infant breathing by respiratory inductance plethysmography and transthoracic impedance; infant electrocardiogram, heart rate and R-R interval; haemoglobin O2 saturation of arterial blood at the periphery ...
Zoldak J T - - 2001
An electronic simulator of physiologic signals used in infant monitoring has been designed, constructed and applied in the Collaborative Home Infant Monitor Evaluation (CHIME). A unique feature of the simulator is that it contains actual physiologic waveforms recorded from infants rather than artificial, idealized signals. The simulator stores breathing waveforms ...
Franco P P Pediatric Sleep Unit, Erasmus Hospital, Brussels, Belgium. - - 2001
To evaluate the influence of ambient temperature on infants' arousability from sleep. Two groups of healthy infants with a median age of 11 weeks were recorded polygraphically during one night: 31 infants were studied at 24 degreesC and 31 infants at 28 degreesC. To determine their arousal thresholds, the infants ...
Al-Aif S - - 2001
Apnea of prematurity is common and none of the treatments being used are fully effective and free of significant adverse side effects. We hypothesized that low concentrations of CO2 (< or = 1.5%) may reduce apnea without causing discomfort from an increase in ventilation. We studied 10 preterm infants at ...
Ariagno R L - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Gastrointestinal prokinetic agents, such as cisapride, are commonly used in pediatric practice to improve gastric emptying, to decrease emesis, to improve lower esophageal sphincter tone, and to improve irritability and feeding aversion associated with gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Although cisapride seems to be effective in infants from 2 months to ...
Yamazaki T - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Doxapram is contraindicated for newborn infants in Japan because of its serious side effects. However, because of encouraging results of recent studies regarding the efficacy and safety of therapy for apnea of prematurity (AOP) with lower doses of doxapram than those previously proposed, approximately 60% of Japanese neonatologists continue ...
Hershberger M L - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to investigate, in high-risk infants, the occurrence of abnormalities in documented monitor downloads during the side versus prone position. STUDY DESIGN: Forty infants admitted to the A. I. duPont Hospital for Children with diagnoses associated with sudden infant death syndrome were included in ...
Kimball A L - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether medications commonly used in the management of gastroesophageal reflux reduce the frequency of apnea in premature infants. STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed the medical records of all infants </=36 weeks' gestational age at birth who were treated in 2 neonatal intensive care units from 1990 through 1999 ...
Groswasser J - - 2001
A decreased arousability and an increased risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) have been shown in infants sleeping prone. Obstructive apnea, a known risk factor for SIDS, is less often terminated by an arousal reaction in infants than in adults. The effect of body position on the arousal reaction ...
Kirjavainen J - - 2001
Excessively crying, hard-to-soothe infants are described as colicky. The self-limiting course of infantile colic during early infancy suggests an etiology of transient developmental dysmaturation. It has been proposed that emotional characteristics such as temperament and self-soothing ability are correlated with the balance of the autonomic nervous system. Heart rate variability ...
Wenzl T G - - 2001
An association of apnea and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) was proposed previously. However, pH metry as the standard diagnostic tool for GER only measures acid reflux (pH < 4). It is difficult to interpret studies in infants with a presumed association between apnea and GER based on pH metry because the ...
Nikander K - - 2001
In vitro tests are commonly employed to assess nebulizer performance. Whether the square or sine waveforms employed during in vitro tests could alter the nebulizer performance compared to that observed when a patient breathes through the nebulizer is debatable. Accordingly, the aim of this in vitro study was to compare ...
Artlich A - - 2001
Nitric oxide (NO) is found in the exhaled gas of humans immediately after birth. However, variations of endogenous NO concentration during the breathing cycle have not been studied in newborns. We examined 24 newborns without acute respiratory compromise during spontaneous nasal breathing. Gas was sampled from the tip of a ...
Henderson-Smart D J - - 2001
Recurrent apnea is common in preterm infants, particularly at very early gestational ages. These episodes of loss of effective breathing can lead to hypoxemia and bradycardia which may be severe enough to require resuscitation including use of positive pressure ventilation. Methylxanthines have been used to stimulate breathing and prevent apnea ...
Henderson-Smart D J - - 2001
Growing ex-preterm infants who undergo general anesthesia for surgery at about term-equivalent age may have episodes of apnea, cyanosis and bradycardia during the early postoperative period. A breathing stimulant such as caffeine, given at the time of operation, might prevent these episodes. In ex-preterm infants who undergo general anesthesia for ...
Henderson-Smart D J - - 2001
Recurrent apnea is common in preterm infants, particularly at very early gestational ages. These episodes of loss of effective breathing can lead to hypoxemia and bradycardia which may be severe enough to require resuscitation including use of positive pressure ventilation. Doxapram has been used to stimulate breathing and so prevent ...
Henderson-Smart D J - - 2001
Recurrent apnea is common in preterm infants, particularly at very early gestational ages. These episodes of loss of effective breathing can lead to hypoxemia and bradycardia which may be severe enough to require resuscitation including use of positive pressure ventilation. Theophylline and continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) are two treatments ...
Al-Hathlol K - - 2000
Experimentally modified breathing pattern in human subjects, by varying the inspired gas mixture or administering different neuromodulators, has been studied extensively in the past, yet unmodified breathing has not. Moreover, most data refer to infants during sleep and adults during wakefulness. We studied the baseline breathing pattern of preterm infants ...
Gannon B A - - 2000
Apnea of prematurity is a common problem of the premature infant under 30 weeks gestation. Theophylline and caffeine, two methylxanthines, are widely used to treat this condition. The drugs are equally effective in preventing apnea in the premature infant. Caffeine citrate has many advantages over theophylline, however, including once-a-day dosing, ...
Poole K A - - 2000
Respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) measures respiration from body surface movements. Various techniques have been proposed for calibration in order that RIP may be used quantitatively. These include calculation of the proportionality constant of ribcage to abdominal volume change (K). The aims of this study were to 1) establish whether a ...
Hoch B - - 2000
AIM: Central apnoeas without an identifiable precipitating cause frequently occur in the neonatal period. Serious apnoeas should be treated with ventilation-enhancing methylxanthines. Drugs such as opioids or prostaglandins (PGE2) are known to induce apnoea. PGE2 is an endogenous hormone that plays an important role in the regulation of neural activity ...
Horemuzova E E Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, - - 2000
Data on arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), transcutaneous PO2, pCO2 (tcpO2, tcpCO2) and breathing patterns in sleeping healthy term infants were obtained during the first 9 mo after birth. Forty-four healthy infants, mean GA at birth 40 +/- 1.0 wk, mean BW 3520 +/- 562 g were examined between 2 wk ...
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