Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 918
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Petrauskas L - - 2006
Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) rarely strand in areas monitored by humans, and there is little published data on the diseases, parasites, nutritional state, and stress levels of Steller sea lions in the wild. In May 2002, a female Steller sea lion pup (EJS-02-01) was sighted separated from her mother ...
Finer Neil N - - 2006
Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is found in >50% of premature infants and is almost universal in infants who are <1000 g at birth. The literature clearly defines clinically significant apnea in infants (breathing pauses that last for >20 seconds or for >10 seconds if associated with bradycardia or oxygen desaturation), ...
Kelly Bronwen N - - 2006
The impact of bolus ingestion and level of consciousness on swallowing apnea duration (SAD) in healthy term infants has not been adequately explored despite the likely contribution of swallowing apnea to upper airway protection against aspiration. SAD during wakefulness, sleep, and feeding (breast or bottle) of 10 term infants was ...
Moeller Alexander - - 2006
There is growing interest in investigating compounds of exhaled breath condensates (EBC) as potential noninvasive markers of airways disease processes. Some of these markers have the potential to provide information on the early stages of disease. In this paper, we present a method for collecting EBC during both oral and ...
Rieger-Fackeldey Esther - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine characteristics of breathing patterns prior to respiratory pauses in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants breathing spontaneously under proportional assist ventilation (PAV). METHODS: Thirteen infants (mean +/- SD: gestational age 25 +/- 1 weeks; birth weight 753 +/- 149 g; age 4 +/- 3 days) were studied. ...
Tirosh Emanuel - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To note whether the incidence of idiopathic apparent life-threatening event (IALTE) has decreased since 1993 in parallel to the decline in the incidence of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) 2. To compare their epidemiological profile to infants with acute unrelated illness. METHODS: The discharge diagnoses of each infant ...
Nakamura Toru - - 2006
Heart rate variability (HRV) displays scale-invariant fractal properties. Recent studies have revealed multifractal properties in the healthy human HRV, which could be characterized by singularities with various strength of local Hölder exponents embedded in HRV. In this paper, HRV time series from preterm infants, whose autonomic nervous system undergoes dramatic ...
Feldman Ruth - - 2006
Links between neonatal biological rhythms and the emergence of interaction rhythms were examined in 3 groups (N = 71): high-risk preterms (HR; birth weight <1,000 g), low-risk preterms (LR; birth weight =1,700-1,850 g), and full-term (FT) infants. Once a week for premature infants and on the 2nd day for FT ...
Rochette Alain - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Spinal anesthesia (SA) remains the 'gold standard' in neonatal anesthesia for inguinal herniorrhaphy but its short duration impedes its usefulness. We previously demonstrated that clonidine prolongs neonatal SA without immediate side effects. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of 124 infants undergoing herniorrhaphy under SA with bupivacaine and ...
Hummel Pat - - 2005
Infant sleep position impacts the development of head shape. Changes in infant sleep position, specifically the movement toward supine sleep, have led to a redefinition of normal head shape for infants in the United States. Historically, a dolichocephalic (elongated) head shape was the norm. Currently the norm has changed to ...
Di Fiore Juliann M - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To examine the temporal relationship between apnea and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and to assess the effect of GER on apnea duration. METHODS: A total of 119 preterm infants underwent 12-hour cardiorespiratory monitoring studies using respiratory inductance plethysmography, heart rate, oxygen saturation (SaO2), and esophageal pH. The studies were scored ...
Scher A - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: In this study we addressed the association between two major achievements of infancy: independent locomotion and 'sleeping through the night'. METHODS: Mothers of 107 healthy infants aged between five and eight months completed a sleep questionnaire and a motor checklist. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Infants who were already crawling had ...
Pilley E - - 2005
Physiological monitoring studies have shown that some preterm infants who are otherwise ready for hospital discharge experience episodes of oxygen desaturation, apnoea, or bradycardia when seated in standard car safety seats. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all preterm infants are assessed for cardiorespiratory stability in their car seat ...
Hoppenbrouwers Toke - - 2005
To examine (1) sleep architecture of infants at varied risk for sudden infant death syndrome, (2) delays or advances in preterm infants at term postmenstrual age, (3) whether ventilatory support and gestational age alter sleep, (4) whether steroids alter sleep, (5) confounding influences of sex, small for gestational age, and ...
Tuladhar Rita - - 2005
AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of maternal smoking, sleeping position, sleep state and postnatal age on heart rate changes following non-arousing trigeminal stimulation in infants. SUBJECTS: We studied healthy term infants, 13 of whom were born to mothers who did not smoke and 11 ...
Dewolfe Craig C - - 2005
An "apparent life-threatening event" (ALTE) refers to an episode that is of concern to the caregiver and is associated with a combination of apnea, color change, change in tone, choking, or gagging. Although the natural history of ALTE is most often benign, there is a risk for subsequent morbidity and ...
Andriessen Peter - - 2005
We performed a cross-sectional study in human infants to determine if indices of R-R interval variability, systolic blood pressure (SBP) variability, and baroreceptor reflex sensitivity change with postmenstrual age (PMA: gestational age+postnatal age). The electrocardiogram, arterial SBP and respiration were recorded in clinically stable infants (PMA, 28-42 weeks) in the ...
Praud Jean-Paul - - 2005
The upper airways exert an important influence on breathing from the fetal period onward. This review focuses on recent results obtained in the newborn, particularly on laryngeal function in the lamb. Cumulated data can be summarized as follows. Firstly, upper airway closure, either at the pharyngeal or laryngeal level, is ...
Amin Sanjiv B - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Apnea of prematurity (AoP) is, in part, a reflection of brainstem-mediated respiratory control system maturation. We previously demonstrated changes in brainstem function in relation to hyperbilirubinemia (bilirubin encephalopathy, (BE)) as evaluated by auditory brainstem evoked responses (ABR) in infants 28 to 32 weeks gestational age (GA). We hypothesized that ...
Stokowski Laura A - - 2005
Apnea, the cessation of respiratory airflow, can begin in many preterm infants in the first week of life and can last until the day of discharge or beyond. This article provides an overview of the complex anatomic, physiological, and developmental mechanisms related to immaturity of both the central nervous system ...
Sahni R - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of prone and supine sleeping positions on electrocortical activity during active (AS) and quiet (QS) sleep in low birthweight infants. DESIGN: Randomised/crossover study. SETTING: Infant Physiology Laboratory at Children's Hospital of New York. PATIENTS: Sixty three healthy, growing, low birthweight (birth weight 795-1600 g) infants, ...
Cohen Gary - - 2005
This paper is devoted to the field of chemoreception and its role in the control of breathing in infants. We use "chemoreception" to refer to the capacity to sense and process changes in P(O2) and P(CO2), and also to react to these changes by adjusting ventilation in order to maintain ...
Thompson Dana M - - 2005
Delayed maturation of respiratory control of breathing and the laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR) are commonly implicated in infant apnea. A swallow response occurs to remove the stimulus from the pharynx to prevent aspiration once the glottis reopens. Induction of apnea by poorly cleared endogenous upper airway secretions has been postulated ...
Martin Richard J - - 2005
Great strides have been made in our understanding of developmental respiratory neurobiology. A clear picture is, therefore, emerging of the physiological mechanisms that underlie apnea of prematurity. The ventral surface of the medulla and adjacent areas play a key integrative function for central CO2 chemosensitivity and modulation of afferent inputs ...
Molloy Eleanor J - - 2005
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and apnea are both common occurrences in premature infants but their relationship is controversial. We present the evidence for and against an association between GER and apnea and discuss the merits and limitations of the various methodologies employed in characterizing such a relationship. Overall, GER and apnea ...
Dorostkar Parvin C - - 2005
Transient episodes of apnea and bradycardia are common in preterm infants. Pronounced asystole or sinus arrest, however, is relatively rare and the clinical significance of such events is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to: (1) evaluate the prevalence of severe bradycardic and asystolic events in infants studied ...
Sury Michael R J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Stillness during natural sleep after feeding may not be sufficient for successful magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in small infants less than 5 kg. Sedation, using an oral agent, is often successful although the timing and depth of sedation is variable. In contrast anesthesia is always effective but is invasive ...
Han Demin - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: A revised uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) is reported for reducing the surgical complications without compromising the response. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A new method of performing UPPP was designed, in which the uvula is preserved, but a larger portion of the soft palate is removed. This new procedure is called the 'revised ...
Silvestri Jean M - - 2005
BACKGROUND: As part of the Collaborative Home Infant Monitoring Evaluation, a home monitor was developed to record breathing, heart rate, other physiologic variables, and the time the monitor was used. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of monitor use, factors that influence use, and validity of a model developed to predict ...
Marlier Luc - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Methylxanthines and doxapram are currently used to treat apnea of prematurity but are not fully effective and often present undesirable side effects. The present study examines whether exposure to an odor known to modulate the infant's respiratory rate could reduce the frequency of apneic spells. METHOD: Fourteen preterm newborns ...
Schmidt Barbara - - 2005
Methylxanthine therapy reduces the frequency of apnea and the need for mechanical ventilation. Recent research has raised concerns about the safety of methylxanthines in very preterm infants. Possible adverse effects include poor growth, worsening of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and abnormal childhood behavior. Over 2,000 infants with birth weights 500-1,250 g ...
Di Fiore Tina - - 2005
Although early hospital discharge of infants can be both cost-effective and better for developmental care and parent-infant bonding, neonatal caregivers need to ensure infant safety. One of the concerns of early discharge is the risk that premature babies may continue to have apnea, bradycardia, and oxygen desaturation after discharge and ...
Foo J Y A - - 2005
The prevalence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has been well studied and central sleep apnea is deemed as one of the possible causes. Current gold standard for its diagnosis is nocturnal polysomnography (PSG). However, this procedure is complex and generally needs to be performed in a sleep laboratory. Pulse ...
Janvier Annie - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether apnea in preterm infants is associated with abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome. METHODS: We determined the number of days that apnea and bradycardia spells were noted by the nursing staff, during the initial hospitalization of 175 preterm infants of less than <1250 g birth weight or <32 weeks ...
Wilkinson Malcolm H - - 2005
We examined the effect of hypoxia and hypercapnia administered during deliberately induced periodic breathing (PB) in seven lambs following posthyperventilation apnea. Based on our theoretical analysis, the sensitivity or loop gain (LG) of the respiratory control system of the lamb is directly proportional to the difference between alveolar PO2 and ...
Kelmanson I A - - 2004
The study aimed at assessing possible relationship between the quality of infant environment and maternal reported behavioural features during sleep in 2-month-old infants. It comprised 115 randomly selected, apparently healthy infants (50 boys, 65 girls) from community setting who were singletons born at term with normal birth weight in St. ...
Greenfeld Michal - - 2004
This study evaluates the yield of adding simultaneous esophageal pH monitoring to polysomnography (PSG) in 41 infants with unexplained sleep disordered breathing. The relationships of respiratory events to episodes of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) were analyzed. The major causes for referring the infants were cyanotic episodes (22%), apneas (20%), and choking ...
Al-Matary Abdulrahman - - 2004
Periodic breathing and apnea are common in neonates, yet the physiological mechanisms involved are not clear. A low arterial PO2 might magnify peripheral chemoreceptor contribution to breathing, with its baseline variability inducing major changes in ventilation, leading to instability of the respiratory control system. We hypothesized that neonates: (1) would ...
Drew K L - - 2004
Heterothermic mammals tolerate severe hypoxia, as well as a variety of central nervous system insults, better than homeothermic mammals. Tolerance to hypoxia may stem from adaptations associated with the ability to survive hibernation and periodic arousal thermogenesis. Here, we review evidence and mechanisms of hypoxia tolerance during hibernation, euthermy and ...
Pfister Riccardo E - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B (DTaP-IPV-HIB) immunization in premature infants. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study of 78 very low birth weight premature infants (mean gestational age, 28+/-2 weeks; mean birth weight, 1045+/-357 g) given DTaP-IPV-HIB vaccine before hospital discharge. Apnea, bradycardia, oxygen requirements and ...
Shahar Eli E Child Neurology Unit and Epilepsy Service, Meyer Children Hospital, Rambam Medical Center, Rappaport School of Medicine, Haifa, - - 2004
The aim of the present study is to report on the syndrome of sporadic major hyperekplexia during the neonatal period and early infancy, diagnosed in 39 patients at an average age of 3.3 months, the most severely affected during the first month of life. The patients mainly presented with marked ...
Millar David - - 2004
The methylxanthines aminophylline, theophylline and caffeine have been used for more than 30 years to treat apnoea of prematurity. Today, they are among the most commonly prescribed drugs in neonatal medicine. Methylxanthines reduce the frequency of idiopathic apnoea and the need for mechanical ventilation by acting as non-specific inhibitors of ...
Shatz Anat - - 2004
Pharyngeal wall inspiratory collapse (PWIC) is a dynamic obstruction of the air column proximal to the glottis during inspiration. Our objectives were to assess PWIC's incidence and its contribution to the symptoms of upper airway obstruction (UAO), and to propose indications for intervention. In a retrospective review of consecutive endoscopic ...
Ludington-Hoe Susan M - - 2004
PURPOSE: To determine the safety and effects on healthy preterm infants of three continuous hours of kangaroo care (KC) compared to standard NICU care by measuring cardiorespiratory and thermal responses. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial-pretest-test-posttest control group design. SAMPLE: Twenty-four healthy preterm infants (33-35 weeks gestation at birth) nearing discharge. Eleven ...
Bohnhorst Bettina - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic ventilatory depression in mice and muscle fatigue in adult humans are improved by creatine supplementation (CS). Because these issues may be operative in apnea of prematurity (AOP), we hypothesized that CS reduces episodes of hypoxemia and bradycardia in infants with AOP. METHODS: Infants were eligible for this double-blind, ...
Nock Mary L - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Correlate the ventilatory response of preterm infants to hypoxic exposure with incidence of neonatal apnea. Study design Seventeen stable convalescing premature infants underwent bedside cardiorespiratory monitoring of respiration using respiratory inductance plethysmography, heart rate, and oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) for a 12-hour period. These studies were scored for number of ...
Adams S M - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the age at which an infant first sleeps regularly through the night and the factors affecting this age. METHODS: A representative cross sectional sample of 700 infants in south-east England were studied. Information was collected on 511 (73.0%) of the infants by parental interview. Obstetric records were ...
Vemulapalli Caroline - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Impoverishment and crowding are associated with an increased risk of sudden unexpected death among infants. Bed sharing likely increases this risk, particularly among African American infants. OBJECTIVES: To compare the sleep environment of African American infants who bed share with that of infants who do not share sleep surfaces ...
Kumar Manoj - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of carnitine supplementation in premature infants on apnea of prematurity, length of ventilation and duration of hospital stay. METHODS: Two reviewers independently conducted a literature search for relevant studies. No language restrictions were applied. Decisions to include studies for the review, and methodological quality of ...
Franklin P J - - 2004
The aim of this study was to compare two different methods, tidal breathing (TB) and single-breath (SB), for measuring fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) in infants. FENO was measured in 71 infants with either recurrent wheeze (n=32), recurrent cough (n=16) or no symptoms (healthy, n=23) using both methods. For TB ...
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