Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 918
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Skadberg B T - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To study the consequences of getting the head covered by bedding (fiber quilt) on carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulation around the face, behavior, and physiologic responses during prone and supine sleep in infants to add understanding to why victims of sudden infant death syndrome are often found under the bedding. ...
Patzak A - - 1997
The aim of this study was to test whether the heart rate (HR) control in infants at risk differs in comparison with healthy infants. Twelve former preterm infants suffering from bronchopulmonary dysplasia and 18 control infants, matched for their postconceptional age, were examined polygraphically during quiet and active sleep. HR, ...
Fell D L - - 1997
The current survey investigates the features of driver fatigue incidents (accidents, near accidents and unintentional drifting-out-of-lane events) which occurred in cities. The results show similar patterns to previous surveys, with incident trips tending to be short, and prior sleep loss and late night driving featuring as factors. Work trips feature ...
Hunt L - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the recommendations that infants sleep supine could have adverse health consequences. DESIGN: A prospective study of infants, delivered before, during, and after the Back to Sleep Campaign in the United Kingdom (UK), followed to 6 months of age. The children were part of the Avon Longitudinal ...
Esteban E - - 1997
The objective of this study was to assess the association between infant diarrhea and ingestion of water containing elevated sulfate levels. The authors identified 274 mothers of infants born in 19 South Dakota counties with high water sulfate concentrations. Demographic information and seven-day- recall dietary and health data were obtained ...
Brooks L J - - 1997
Non-invasive techniques for monitoring ventilation in infants are widely used in short-term laboratory-studies but have not been evaluated in routine clinical settings. To determine whether respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) can provide reproducible measurements of tidal volume (VT) in premature infants over an extended period of time, we monitored respiration in ...
Lee T C - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The study the population pharmacokinetics of caffeine after intravenous administration to premature infants with apnea. METHODS: A prospective, blinded parallel study in which daily caffeine citrate doses of 30, 15, and 3 mg/kg were administered over 7 days by intermittent intravenous infusion. Arterial blood samples (three to six per ...
Sánchez P J - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of adverse reactions, particularly the occurrence of apnea, among preterm infants after immunization with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and whole cell pertussis vaccine adsorbed (DTP) and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate (HibC) vaccine in the neonatal intensive care unit. STUDY DESIGN: After the occurrence of ...
al-Saedi S A - - 1997
We tested the hypothesis that in preterm infants, prolonged apneas (apneas > or = 20 sec) are not random events but are preceded by frequent and progressively longer respiratory pauses associated with changes in ventilatory variables. We studied 36 preterm infants with apnea [birth weight 1190 +/- 60 g (mean ...
Paky F - - 1997
To evaluate the effectiveness of theophylline on density of central apnoeas and on incidence of periodic breathing; to compare the effect with age-related resolution of pneumogram abnormalities. Ninety-six infants (mean age 27.4 days; mean birth weight 2502 gm) with abnormal pneumographic results were randomly allocated to receive theophylline or placebo. ...
Poets C F - - 1997
To study the effects of apneic pauses, sighs, and breathing patterns on functional residual capacity (FRC), we measured FRC repeatedly in 48 healthy preterm infants (weight at study 2,042 +/- 316 g [mean +/- SD], postconceptional age 36.6 +/- 2.0 wk), during unsedated sleep using a modified heliox/nitrogen washout technique. ...
Chan K - - 1997
In newborn infants, laryngeal contact with solutions of low chloride concentration or pH evokes swallowing, laryngeal adduction, and respiratory inhibition (laryngeal chemoreflex). To determine whether the laryngeal chemoreflex is present during fetal life and its effect on fetal respiratory activity, eight time-bred ewes (128 +/- 2 days) were prepared with ...
Ponsonby A L - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between usual infant sleeping position and the parental report of infant cyanosis, pallor, breath-holding, and breathing difficulties; and to document hospital admission rates for apnea/cyanosis over time and to describe how admission rates vary by usual sleeping position. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted. ...
Scharf M B - - 1996
BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated that the use of an external nasal dilator reduced subjective snoring levels and improved sleep quality. Our study polysomnographically evaluated the effects of this device on the frequency of obstructive airway events during sleep in infants with and without congestion. METHODS: We used a crossover study ...
Thach B T - - 1996
Polygraphic studies of stimulus-induced arousals from sleep in young infants have identified a highly consistent sequence of reflex responses occurring during the 2-4 second period prior to full behavioral arousal. The initial responses in this sequence are an augmented breath (sigh) coupled with a sleep startle that is then followed ...
Barrington K J - - 1996
There may be a relationship between undiagnosed, ongoing apnea occurring at discharge in infants of very low birth weight and sudden infant death syndrome. To describe patterns of apnea in former very low birth weight (< 1251 gm) infants thought to be ready for hospital discharge, and to determine the ...
Malloy M H - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the U.S. national prevalence of apnea monitor use by birth weight classification and to examine the relationship between the use of apnea monitors and the occurrence of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). DESIGN AND SETTING: Data obtained from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey (NMIHS) ...
Jenkins R L - - 1996
Maternal anxiety and family disruption are the two problems most often reported for families caring for an infant with apnea and inhome monitoring. With a diagnosis of apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) related to apnea, the parents have experienced finding their infant limp, motionless, appearing to not breathe, and with a ...
Mandich M B - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a significant relationship exists between the presence of apnea and the number of days it takes a premature infant to attain full oral feeding. DESIGN: A two-way analysis of variance factorial design (apnea x aminophylline) was used with infants grouped according to presence or absence of ...
Lemke R P - - 1996
Currently the classification of neonatal apnea relies upon an inference of airway closure based upon the presence of breathing efforts against such an obstruction. In this study we evaluate a new method of classification which utilizes the presence or absence of cardiac airflow oscillation to detect airway closure. Specifically, this ...
Gibson E - - 1996
The objectives of this study were to: (1) measure patient compliance with monitoring, (2) validate parental reports of alarms at home, (3) examine monitoring duration, and (4) compare documented monitor records with the traditional pneumogram to evaluate patients for monitor discontinuation. During the 1-year period from January through December, 1992, ...
Meny R G - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: To assess the frequency and clinical significance of asystole (sinus arrest > or = 2.0 seconds) and the incidence of bradycardia in infants prescribed home cardiorespiratory monitors and to test the hypothesis that asystoles are more likely to occur in preterm infants. DESIGN: Prospective, consecutive sample of monitor printouts. ...
Bhatt-Mehta V - - 1996
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate prospectively the ability of two equations that we previously derived to predict maintenance theophylline dosages that provide a serum theophylline concentration (STC) of 8 micrograms/ml, the midtherapeutic range for treating apnea of prematurity; and to determine the number of further dosage adjustments and STC determinations required ...
Zia Haider A - - 1996
We have shown previously that administration of 100% O2 to preterm infants induces an apnea which in about 20% of cases has an obstructive component. The obstruction occurred during the longer apneas. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the appearance of obstruction in longer apneas depends on ...
Silvestri J M - - 1996
Current contributions to the literature on disorders of respiratory control in infancy and childhood are reviewed. These encompass studies of cardiorespiratory control in preterm and term infants, apparent life-threatening events in infants, and obstructive sleep apnea including etiology, diagnosis, and alternatives to surgical management. In addition, alveolar hypoventilation is discussed ...
Waters K A - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and physiologic consequences of the face-straight-down (FSD) position, a postulated mechanism for the sudden infant death syndrome in prone-sleeping infants. STUDY DESIGN: A survey of 151 infants, aged 1 to 7 months, in Montreal showed that 33% slept prone. Ten healthy prone-sleeping infants were studied ...
Mahboubi S - - 1996
Compression of the airway by the innominate artery has been a controversial cause of stridor and apnea in infants. Magnetic resonance imaging has been applied to document the possible association of segmental tracheomalacia. Forty infants with symptoms of stridor were studied, 7 of 40 infants aged 3-21 months (mean 10 ...
Calhoun L K - - 1996
Apnea of prematurity is one of the most common problems in the neonatal intensive care unit. Management of premature infants with apnea involves pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies. Drugs such as theophylline and caffeine are used when nonpharmacologic measures are ineffective. The article discusses the different types of apnea seen in ...
Grylack L J - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To study the historical, clinical and pneumographic correlates of apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs) in a term newborn nursery population during the first 3 days of life in a maternity hospital. METHODS: Twenty newborns with ALTEs during the first 3 days of life were studied. Family, antenatal, and intrapartum histories ...
Tirosh E - - 1996
Seventeen infants between 3 and 37 weeks of age were sequentially admitted for investigation of apnea of infancy or apparent life-threatening events associated with suspected regurgitation. They all underwent an overnight polygraphic study, including esophageal pH monitoring. In nine infants, gastroesophageal reflux was diagnosed. In five of them, the reflux ...
Watkin S L - - 1996
Physiological recordings were undertaken to study the temporal relationship between apnea, defined as pauses in nasal airflow (PNA), and desaturation in preterm infants. Seventeen infants with a history of apnea of prematurity were studied on 21 occasions. Median (range) birthweight was 1,180 g (575-2,475) and gestation was 30 weeks (26-33). ...
Sadeh A - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the sleep-wake patterns of fullterm (> or = 37 weeks) newborns and to evaluate the effects of specific factors including maternal gestational diabetes, infant size and anthropometric measures, gender, gestational age and delivery variables. METHODS: Two-hundred twenty newborns were studied in ...
Cohen G - - 1996
1. Hypercapnic ventilatory responses of thirty-five full term infants aged 1-7 days were evaluated, and the characteristics and incidence of augmented breaths were determined. 2. According to the inspiratory airflow profile and tidal volume (VT), augmented breaths were categorized as 'type A' (biphasic, VT > or = 2 x control ...
Johnson P - - 1996
As part of a larger study we established a remote physiological monitoring network to investigate cardiorespiratory function during sleep in 400 infants in their homes. The objective of the study was to link measurements made at three weeks and three months of age with detailed measurements of maternal and fetal ...
McNamara F - - 1996
Sleep apnea has been recorded in many infants, but little data exist concerning the amount and range of apnea in infants. We studied 49 infants referred to the sleep disorders unit. Single polysomnographic studies were performed on each infant. We examined the amount of apnea, presence and amount of upper ...
Haider A Z - - 1995
We tested the hypothesis that the immediate (< 1 min) ventilatory response to 100% O2 in preterm infants, a test of peripheral chemoreceptor activity characterized by a decrease in ventilation due to apnea, is more pronounced at lower baseline O2 concentrations. We studied 12 healthy preterm infants [birth weight 1,425 ...
Wilkinson M H - - 1995
The progressive decrease in the periodic cycle duration (PCD) of periodic breathing with postnatal age in term infants has been previously reported by a number of authors and is thought to be associated with peripheral chemoreceptor maturation. We hypothesized that a similar decrease should be observed in preterm infants. Therefore, ...
Borghese I F - - 1995
Ultradian and diurnal rhythms in premature infants were investigated by assessing cyclicity of quiet sleep (QS) and the diurnal distribution of this cyclicity. The sleep of 49 preterm infants was recorded in the hospital for three successive 24-hour periods at 36 weeks conceptional age (CA), and 42 of the infants ...
Silvestri J M - - 1995
OBJECTIVES: Documented monitoring was used to evaluate prospectively (1) the level of compliance among infants in whom cardiorespiratory monitoring was clinically indicated and (2) factors that might influence compliance: diagnosis, socioeconomic status, maternal age and education, and alarms. STUDY DESIGN: Sixty-seven infants (51% female, 49% term) were sequentially enrolled, and ...
Marino A J - - 1995
We observed an increased incidence of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in a group of preterm infants. Seventy-five infants (birth weight 1117 +/- 242 gm, gestational age 30 +/- 3 weeks) were tested within 1 week before hospital discharge (37 to 38 weeks postconceptional age). All of the infants had a two-channel ...
Jahnukainen T - - 1995
Effect of continuous (n = 30) and periodic (n = 5) breathing on forehead skin blood flow (SBF) oscillations was studied in healthy 3-day-old preterm and term infants. Femoral SBF was measured in 10 of the term infants during continuous breathing. Respiratory and SBF signals were analysed by power spectrum ...
Yeung C K - - 1995
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate normal bladder function and micturition patterns in infants. PATIENTS, SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty-one infants (16 boys, five girls; mean age 5.9 months) with no lower urinary tract pathology underwent natural filling cystometry. Micturition patterns were also observed simultaneously with polysomnography in 26 healthy neonates (16 boys, 10 ...
Downs D H - - 1995
The laryngeal chemoreflex (LCR) consists of apnea, laryngospasm, and cardiovascular changes in neonates after laryngeal irritation and has been implicated in sudden infant death syndrome and apnea of infancy. Antihistamines attenuate a similar vagally mediated pulmonary chemoreflex. The intravenous antihistamine effect on the LCR was studied in neonatal piglets. Laryngeal ...
Bass J L - - 1995
OBJECTIVES: Premature infants are known to be at risk for oxygen (O2) desaturation and/or apnea in car seats. Since 1990, the American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended a period of monitoring in car seats before hospital discharge for infants born at < 37 weeks gestation. The objective of this report ...
Groswasser J - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of body rocking on infant respiratory behavior during sleep. METHODS: Eighteen infants with documented obstructive sleep apneas were studied. There were eight premature infants with persistent bradycardias and 10 infants born full-term, admitted after an idiopathic apparent life-threatening event. No cause for the obstructive apneas ...
Gibson E - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: This report examines the response of families to the American Academy of Pediatrics June 1992 recommendation that healthy term infants be put to sleep on their back or side to decrease the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. Parents at two clinics and private practices were interviewed to ascertain ...
Engelberts A C - - 1995
In sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) apnea is the terminal event; whether or not an obstructive apnea is the primary event is unknown. Collapse of the pliable pharyngeal airway during life would not be detected after death and is therefore hard to prove. The distinctive distribution of petechiae at necropsy ...
Gorrotxategi P - - 1995
Episodes of apnea during the first year of life have been classified with the term "Apparent Life-Threatening Events" (ALTE). Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has been accepted to be one of the factors which can favor ALTE. The aim of this work is to study the continuous 24 h gastroesophageal pH-metering (fundamentally ...
Miller M J - - 1995
Periodic breathing and apnea are two forms of ventilatory instability which are commonly observed in premature infants. This study was undertaken to characterize the pattern of swallowing during apnea and compare this pattern to that present during breathing. We assessed the frequency and distribution of swallows during the respiratory pauses ...
Poets C F - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether episodes of prolonged hypoxemia occur without prolonged apneic pauses (> or = 20 seconds) and without bradycardia (pulse rate, < or = 100 beats per minute) in apparently well preterm infants. METHODS: Long-term recordings of arterial oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2), photoplethysmographic (pulse) ...
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