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Liu K Cherry KC aCentre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia bUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina cHarvard University School of Public Health, Boston, Massahusetts, USA dUniversity of Limpopo Medical University of Southern Africa, Pretoria eHealth Systems Trust, Durban fUniversity of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa gElizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation hGeorge Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services, Washington, District of Columbia, - - 2014
To evaluate the safety of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in conception and pregnancy in different health systems. A pilot ART registry to measure the prevalence of birth defects and adverse pregnancy outcomes in South Africa and Zambia. HIV-infected pregnant women on ART prior to conception were enrolled until delivery, and ...
Choi Sharon S H SS Intertek Scientific & Regulatory Consultancy, 2233 Argentia Road, Suite 308, Mississauga, Ontario, L5N 2X7, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
N-Acetyl-d-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) is the predominant form of sialic acid (Sia) in humans, while other mammals express Sia as a mixture with N-glycolyl-d-neuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Neu5Ac occurs in highest levels in the brain and in breast milk, and is therefore, coined a human-specific milk monosaccharide, which is thought to play ...
More Kiran K Department of Neonatology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, - - 2014
Surfactant administration by minimally invasive methods that allow for spontaneous breathing might be safer and more effective than administration with endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation; however, the efficacy and safety of minimally invasive methods have not been reviewed. To conduct a meta-narrative review of the efficacy and safety of minimally ...
Martin Simone S Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, - - 2014
Forty per cent of global child deaths occur in the neonatal period. Low and middle income countries need effective and simple methods to improve hospital-based neonatal care. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may have a role in improving the quality of respiratory support in hospitals in low and middle ...
Middlemiss Wendy W University of North Texas, Denton, - - 2014
Review infant sleep research with a focus on understanding the elements related to infant safety and infant and maternal well-being during nighttime care. This review summarizes current research and addresses the controversies and conflicting outcomes reported in infant nighttime care. This review addresses current literature on infant sleep patterns, as ...
Kinsella John P JP Pediatric Heart Lung Center, University of Colorado School of Medicine/Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO; Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine/Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO. Electronic address: - - 2014
To assess the efficacy and safety of early, noninvasive inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) therapy in premature newborns who do not require mechanical ventilation. We performed a multicenter randomized trial including 124 premature newborns who required noninvasive supplemental oxygen within the first 72 hours after birth. Newborns were stratified into 3 different ...
Meunier Leo L Danone Food Safety Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
Locust bean gum (LBG) is a galactomannan polysaccharide used as thickener in infant formulas with the therapeutic aim to treat uncomplicated gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Since its use in young infants below 12 weeks of age is not explicitly covered by the current scientific concept of the derivation of health based ...
Buck David D From the Department of Anesthesiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, - - 2014
An otherwise healthy 11-month-old, 8-kg infant presented for an elective circumcision. After a penile block with an excessive dose of 0.5% bupivacaine, the patient progressed to ventricular tachycardia. He was resuscitated with intralipid and had an uneventful recovery. The case was classified as a serious safety event, and a team ...
Lyndon Audrey A Department of Family Health Care Nursing, University of California San Francisco School of Nursing, San Francisco, California, - - 2014
Little is known about how parents think about neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) safety. Due to their physiologic immaturity and small size, infants in NICUs are especially vulnerable to injury from their medical care. Campaigns are underway to integrate patients and family members into patient safety. This study aimed to ...
Clark-Greuel Jocelyn N JN Kimberly-Clark Corporation, Neenah, WI, - - 2014
Skin in the diapered area is continuously threatened by exposure to changes in pH levels, overhydration, mechanical friction, and fecal enzymes, making diaper rash a common occurrence among babies. Up to one third of infants may exhibit clinical symptoms of diaper rash at any time, and more than half of ...
Baquerizo Nole Katherine L KL Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida. Electronic address: - - 2014
The rapid increase in the medical use of probiotics and prebiotics in recent years has confirmed their excellent safety profile. As immune modulators, they have been used in inflammatory skin conditions, such as atopic dermatitis. We review the literature regarding the use of probiotics and prebiotics in dermatology. Probiotics and ...
Thomas Margaret R - - 2014
Deferring cord clamping at very preterm births may be beneficial for babies. However, deferring cord clamping should not mean that newborn resuscitation is deferred. Providing initial care at birth at the mother's bedside would allow parents to be present during resuscitation, and would potentially allow initial care to be given ...
Ramdzan Siti Nurkamilla - - 2014
Unintentional injuries are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. Prevention of unintentional injuries has been shown to be effective with education. Understanding the level of knowledge and practices of caregivers in infant safety would be useful to identify gaps for improvement. A cross-sectional study was conducted in ...
Bhatt-Mehta Varsha V College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5254, - - 2014
Sildenafil, a phospohodiesterase-5 inhibitor, is widely used to treat pulmonary hypertension in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia despite a lack of evidence to support either safety or efficacy and US FDA advice against its use.
Kamal Ma M F. Hoffmann-La Roche, Inc., Nutley, NJ, - - 2014
Infants are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality due to influenza. Until recently, few data were available with which to optimize oseltamivir dosing in this high-risk population. Here, data for 133 infants were pooled from two prospective pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic safety studies to develop a population pharmacokinetic model. A three-compartment model ...
Kluever April Neal AN United States Food and Drug Administration, Center For Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Food Additive Safety, Division of Food Contact Notifications. Electronic address: - - 2014
Differences in the physiology and biological susceptibilities of adults and infants have led to growing interest in safety evaluation methods for exposures from infant formula packaging. In addition to potential physiological differences, infants aged 0 - 6 months may consume a sole source of food, infant formula or breast milk, ...
Chiu Karen K Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, 1023, Auckland, New - - 2014
Two reports of infants found dead after sleeping in baby hammocks have raised international concern about the safety of infant hammocks. We therefore tested whether hammock sleep affected oxygenation in infants, when they were at an age of high risk for sudden, unexpected infant death. Healthy, full-term four to eight ...
Ponnusamy Vennila V aNeonatal Unit, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Norwich, Norfolk, bNeonatal Unit, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, - - 2014
Neonates in intensive care are more susceptible to sepsis. Infection is commonly acquired via the transcutaneous portal. It is necessary to identify the most effective yet safest topical antiseptics for use in neonates to reduce nosocomial sepsis. Recent national surveys indicate that a wide range of topical antiseptic preparations are ...
Gostelow Martyn M Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, - - 2014
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains a significant cause of morbidity in hospitalized infants. Over the past 15 years, several drugs have been approved for the treatment of S. aureus infections in adults (linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, daptomycin, telavancin, tigecycline and ceftaroline). The use of the majority of these drugs has extended into ...
Mofenson Lynne M LM Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of - - 2014
Lynne Mofenson and Heather Watts discuss the context and implications of the study by J. Sibuide and colleagues, which provides a detailed analysis of birth defects in infants with in utero antiretroviral drug exposure in the French Perinatal Cohort. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Wang Yu Y College of Pharmacy, Roseman University of Health Sciences, South Jordan, - - 2014
To review the evidence describing the safety of ganciclovir and foscarnet in neonates in order to guide treatment for central nervous system or disseminated herpes simplex infections in cases of acyclovir shortage or resistance. PubMed, Ovid Medline, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were searched using the thesaurus and text-word terms "ganciclovir" ...
Goralski Jennifer L JL Cystic Fibrosis Research and Treatment Center, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill - Medicine, UNC CF Center, CB #7248 101 Manning Drive, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, - - 2014
Airway dehydration in cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to chronic inflammation, ongoing infection and progressive lung disease. Restoration of airway hydration by inhalation of an osmotic agent (hypertonic saline) has been shown to be safe, effective and well-tolerated in adults with CF. Although the safety of hypertonic saline in infants and ...
Rauf Zubair Z Departments of *Obstetrics and Gynecology †Women's and Children's Health, University Department, Liverpool Women's Hospital, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, - - 2014
Assessing the feasibility, acceptability and safety of outpatient labour induction. MEDLINE database was searched for "outpatient labor induction" from January 1, 1986 to February 28, 2013. Main outcomes of interest included hyperstimulation, cesarean births, Apgar scores <7 at 5 minutes, arterial-cord pH of <7.10, and neonatal morbidity/mortality. Overall cesarean rates ...
Kreft Martina - - 2014
Abstract Aim: To compare the efficacy and safety of two misoprostol dosing regimens for induction of labour in primiparous (1P) and multiparous (>1P) women. Methods: Retrospective study of induction of labour using vaginal misoprostol 25 μg vs. 50 μg every 6 h in 942 women at a tertiary centre. The ...
Samiee-Zafarghandy Samira S 1Division of Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology, Children's National Medical Center, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC. 2Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC. 3Department of Pediatrics, Duke University, Durham, NC. 4Department of Pediatrics, Children's National Medical Center, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC. 5Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Children's National Medical Center, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC. 6Intensive Care, Erasmus Medical Center-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. 7Department of Paediatric Pharmacology, University Children's Hospital Basel, - - 2014
In view of the recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration's warning against the use of sildenafil in pediatric patients, we aimed to provide an updated overview of the dosing and safety of sildenafil in infants and to explore the relevance of the present safety concerns to the infant population. The ...
Kessel Irena I Department of Neonatology, Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, - - 2014
Abstract Paracetamol was reported to be effective for PDA closure. We present a case series of PDA closure by paracetamol in 7 premature infants. During the treatment, paracetamol blood levels did not exceed the recommended levels for analgesia and hyperthermia in 6 tested infants. None of the patients demonstrated significant ...
van den Nieuwboer M M Athena Institute, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, the Netherlands Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 318, 1098 SM Amsterdam, the - - 2014
In this study, we systematically evaluated safety aspects in clinical trials with probiotics and synbiotics in young infants (0-2 years of age). This study is an update of earlier reports and covers the recent literature from 2008-2013. The safety evaluation is performed along the Common Terminology Clinical Adverse Events (CTCAE) ...
Vandenplas Yvan Y *UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium †Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, USA ‡Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Israel §Department of pediatrics, IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, DISCCO, University of Milan, Italy ||Department of Pediatrics, Jeanne de Flandre Lille University Children's Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lille 2, France ¶Department of Translation Medical Science, Section of Pediatrics, University of Naples, Federico II, Italy #Department of Pediatrics, The Medical University of Warsaw; - - 2014
AIM:: The aim of this review is to provide recommendations on the use of hydrolysates in infants when formula feeding is initiated. We performed an overview of reviews followed by a systematic review of subsequently published trials. We did find eight systematic reviews; only one study of limited quality was ...
Bamber Andrew R AR Department of Histopathology, Camelia Botnar Laboratories, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Great Ormond Street, London, WC1N 3JH, UK, - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency, circumstances, demographics, and causes of death of infants dying while seated in car safety seats. A retrospective review of a pediatric autopsy database at a specialist center over a 16-year period was undertaken to identify any infant deaths (aged <1 year), ...
Repa A A Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Division of Neonatology, Pediatric Intensive Care and Neuropediatrics, Medical University Vienna, - - 2014
Blood transfusions are required by most extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants, but sometimes an adequate peripheral venous access cannot be achieved. Under these circumstances, we used 27 Gauge (G) peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) lines that are routinely inserted on the second day of life. Due to their narrow ...
Kent George G Department of Political Science, University of Hawai'i, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA. - - 2014
Fatty acids in breast-milk such as docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, commonly known as DHA and ARA, contribute to the healthy development of children in various ways. However, the manufactured versions that are added to infant formula might not have the same health benefits as those in breast-milk. There is ...
Nuzback Kara - - 2014
Cesarean births can be lifesaving for a mother and her baby during a difficult delivery. But new data indicate overuse of the procedure, often putting mothers at risk of excessive blood loss and long recovery times. Medical groups are now urging physicians to allow longer labor times to cut down ...
Fisher Jeffrey J 0000-0002-2770-4337 National Center for Toxicological Research, US FDA, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079, - - 2014
Potassium iodide (KI) is recommended as an emergency treatment for exposure to radioiodines, most commonly associated with nuclear detonation or mishaps at nuclear power plants. Protecting the thyroid gland of infants and children remains a priority because of increased incidence of thyroid cancer in the young exposed to radioiodines (such ...
Tricco Andrea C - - 2014
Epilepsy affects about 1% of the general population. Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) prevent or terminate seizures in individuals with epilepsy. Pregnant women with epilepsy may continue taking AEDs. Many of these agents cross the placenta and increase the risk of major congenital malformations, early cognitive and developmental delays, and infant mortality. ...
Tonkin S L SL Department of Physiology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New - - 2013
Background Preterm infants are at risk of narrowing of the upper airway while restrained in infant car seats, leading to secondary apnea. However, some infants are able to maintain a normal airway. We hypothesized that this might reflect relatively smaller tongue size. Methods We retrospectively analyzed previously reported respiration-timed lateral radiographs of ...
Koklu Esad - - 2013
Neonatal seizures are often refractory to treatment with initial antiseizure medications. Clinicians turn to agents such as levetiracetam despite the paucity of published data regarding its safety, tolerability, or efficacy in the neonatal population. We describe a neonate who developed anaphylactic shock developing after receiving intravenous levetiracetam. This is the ...
Erlich Nicole - - 2013
Adult humans demonstrate differential processing of stimuli that were recurrent threats to safety and survival throughout evolutionary history. Recent studies suggest that differential processing of evolutionarily ancient threats occurs in human infants, leading to the proposal of an inborn mechanism for rapid identification of, and response to, evolutionary fear-relevant stimuli. ...
O'Neil Joseph - - 2013
Between 2007 and 2012 there have been several recommendations that infants and toddlers ride in a car safety seat (CSS) rear facing until 3 years of age. This study reports the effect of these recommendations on the observed direction of travel for infants and toddlers transported in motor vehicles between ...
Hernik A - - 2013
Milk secretion being an important way of elimination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) poses a concern due to potential risk for breastfed infants. This study aims to provide a tool for assessing such risks to infants exposed to OCPs (through accumulation in the mother's body), using calculated individual margins of safety ...
Tsai I-Jung - - 2013
Intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) is the most efficient form of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for removing toxic substances from patients' bodies. However, the efficacy and safety of IHD in infants and young children with inborn errors of metabolism are still not clear. This retrospective study included patients with urea cycle disorders, ...
Phelps Dale L - - 2013
Background:Myo-inositol given to preterm infants with respiratory distress has reduced death, increased survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and reduced severe retinopathy of prematurity in two randomized trials. Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in extremely preterm infants are needed before efficacy trials.Methods:Infants born in 23-29 wk of gestation were randomized to a single intravenous (i.v.) ...
Hill James - - 2013
Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a known risk factor for paradoxical embolus, especially in the presence of other risk factors such as hypercoagulable states or central lines. A PFO is a common incidental finding in infants and children. However, paradoxical emboli are not common in infants, and so PFO closure ...
Newell Marie-Louise ML Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. - - 2013
The introduction of combination ART to prevent mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) has substantially decreased MTCT rates. However, there are concerns regarding safety of ART exposure for the mother, pregnancy outcome and infant. Changing MTCT prevention guidelines, with expanded eligibility, have led to a rapid increase of ART-treated women and exposed infants in ...
Yates Charlotte C CC Department of Physical Therapy, University of Central Arkansas , Conway, AR. ; Department of Neurobiology, Center for Translational Neuroscience, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences , Little Rock, - - 2013
Hospitalized infants may undergo frequent painful procedures with inadequate pain relief. Alternative pain relief interventions are needed. The aim of this research was to determine the safety of noninvasive electrical stimulation of acupuncture points (NESAP) in neonates who were receiving routine heel sticks. This was a descriptive study performed to ...
McCarthy Lisa K - - 2013
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Hypothermia on admission to the NICU is associated with increased mortality in preterm infants. Many newborns are hypothermic on admission despite using polyethylene bags (PBs). Using exothermic mattresses (EMs) in addition to PBs may reduce hypothermia but increase hyperthermia. We wished to determine whether placing preterm newborns in ...
Parker Margaret G K - - 2013
Background:Pasteurized human donor milk (DM) is recommended by the World Health Organization and American Academy of Pediatrics for preterm infants when mother's own milk is unavailable, yet the extent and predictors of use and criteria for use in US neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are unknown.Objective:This study aimed to evaluate ...
Srinivasjois Ravisha - - 2013
Regular administration of prebiotic oligosaccharides promote beneficial gut flora in infants. We aimed to systematically review randomized controlled trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of prebiotic oligosaccharide supplementation in preterm infants ≤37 weeks of gestation. Available studies from Medline, Embase, comparing formula milk supplemented with or without prebiotics, reporting on ...
Sirois Patricia A PA Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA. - - 2013
This study evaluated effects of perinatal exposure to antiretroviral (ARV) medications on neurodevelopment of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. HIV-exposed, uninfected infants (age 9-15 months) enrolled in Surveillance Monitoring for Antiretroviral Therapy Toxicities, a multisite prospective surveillance study, completed the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition (Bayley-III), assessing cognition, language, ...
Karadag-Oncel Eda - - 2013
Influenza is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in young children. It is associated with high annual attack rates as well as being responsible for frequent outpatient visits and hospitalisations. Children aged <2 years are at the highest risk for serious illness or death during the influenza season. The ...
Togashi Takehiro - - 2013
BACKGROUND:: A 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) containing 6 additional serotypes not included in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has been developed to broaden protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is responsible for over 500,000 deaths annuallyworldwide in children <5 years of age. This study in Japanese infants evaluated the ...
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