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Results 201 - 250 of 915
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Tierney Travis S - - 2008
Most injuries to the neonatal brachial plexus occur acutely at birth, and are iatrogenic in origin. However, when weakness is accompanied by atrophy, nontraumatic etiologies should be considered. The differential diagnosis of chronic congenital brachial plexopathy includes cervical bone malformations, humeral osteomyelitis, varicella, and compression from various types of infantile ...
Reichard Ross - - 2008
Birth injury of the scalp, skull and central nervous system (CNS) is a well-recognized complication of a difficult delivery. The rate of birth trauma has dropped precipitously and now accounts for less than 2% of neonatal deaths. Despite this dramatic decrease in birth-trauma mortality significant injuries still occur. A variety ...
Padmanaban Jeya - - 2008
This study used police-reported motor vehicle crash data from eleven states to determine ejection, fatality, and fatal/serious injury risks for belted drivers in vehicles with conventional seatbelts compared to belted drivers in vehicles with seat integrated restraint systems (SIRS). Risks were compared for 11,159 belted drivers involved in single- or ...
Kim Seong Ho - - 2008
STUDY DESIGN: We present a very rare case of an infant with delayed presentation of spinal cord injury without radiologic abnormality (SCIWORA) after a minor injury. OBJECTIVE: To emphasize the importance of spinal evaluation with MRI in selected cases, even after minor injuries, especially in infants. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: ...
Reading Richard - - 2008
Objective The objective of this study was to present a detailed examination of unintentional injuries in infants <12 months of age treated in emergency departments. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of data for infants <12 months of age from the National Electronic Surveillance System - All Injury Program for ...
Picca Stefano - - 2008
The infant who develops acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery presents unique challenges and opportunities to the clinician and to the investigator interested in the study of AKI pathophysiology. Infants do not have many of the comorbid conditions that confound CPB outcome studies of adults. Because the ...
- - 2008
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, nonirritating gas that is produced through the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. Sources of CO include combustion devices (e.g., boilers and furnaces), motor-vehicle exhaust, generators and other gasoline or diesel-powered engines, gas space heaters, woodstoves, gas stoves, fireplaces, tobacco smoke, and various occupational sources. ...
Glass Hannah C - - 2008
Our objective was to identify clinical predictors of progressive white matter injury. We evaluated 133 infants of <34 weeks of gestation at birth from 2 university hospitals. Infants underwent MRI twice, initially when in stable condition for transport and again at term-equivalent age or before transfer or discharge. Two neuroradiologists ...
Clarke Elizabeth C - - 2008
Clinically, spinal cord injuries (SCI) in infants are different from SCIs in adults. SCI is rarer in infants, and the most common types of associated spinal column injury are different for adults and infants. Initially, infants tend to have higher injury severities and mortality; however, young survivors of SCI typically ...
Härtl Roger - - 2008
OBJECT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a serious public health crisis requiring continuous improvement in pre-hospital and inhospital care. This condition results in a hypermetabolic state that increases systemic and cerebral energy requirements, but achieving adequate nutrition to meet this demand has not been a priority in reducing death due ...
Burns Charlotte M CM Department of Paediatrics, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, - - 2008
Symptomatic neonatal hypoglycemia may be associated with later neurodevelopmental impairment. Brain injury patterns identified on early MRI scans and their relationships to the nature of the hypoglycemic insult and neurodevelopmental outcomes are poorly defined. We studied 35 term infants with early brain MRI scans after symptomatic neonatal hypoglycemia (median glucose ...
Foad Susan L - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The nationwide incidence of neonatal brachial plexus palsy in the United States is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of this condition in the United States and to identify potential risk factors for neonatal brachial plexus palsy. METHODS: Data from the 1997, 2000, and ...
Stola Anita - - 2008
The interruption of placental blood flow during labor with redistribution of cardiac output resulting in increased flow to brain, heart, and adrenal glands at the expense of flow to kidney, gut, and skin can result in systemic organ as well as cerebral injury. Thus, post-resuscitation strategies should focus on both ...
Melendez J - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Severe shoulder dystocia (SD) is associated with neonatal brachial plexus injuries and skeletal fractures, with the former being the commonest cause for litigation related to birth trauma. The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate risk factors for birth injuries in cases presenting with SD. METHODS: ...
Thompson Deanne K - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To compare preterm (PT) and full-term (FT) infant hippocampal volumes and to investigate the relations among PT hippocampal volume, perinatal risk factors, and neurodevelopmental outcome. METHODS: A total of 184 PT and 32 full-term infants underwent magnetic resonance imaging at term equivalent age with manual segmentation of the hippocampi ...
Lavery Shelly - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The demand for early diagnosis and prognostication of cerebral injury in the encephalopathic term infant is increasing to facilitate appropriate management. The single-channel amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (S-aEEG) has been shown to have predictive utility for the severely encephalopathic infant. New bedside aEEG devices with more channels are entering the neonatal ...
Kesler Henry - - 2008
OBJECT: The aim of this study was to characterize the prevalence and demographic features of abusive head trauma (AHT) among infants and children < 36 months of age in Pennsylvania. METHODS: The authors included all cases of substantiated AHT involving children < 36 months of age in Pennsylvania between 1996 ...
Mosavat Seyed Abloghasem - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Some special problems of neonates are related to the adverse effects of delivery such as birth trauma with high mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of birth trauma and related risk factors in a referral hospital in Rafsanjan, a city in the ...
Mack Karin A - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to present a detailed examination of unintentional injuries in infants < or = 12 months of age treated in emergency departments. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of data for infants < or = 12 months of age from the National Electronic Surveillance ...
Okereafor Akudo A Department of Paediatrics and Neonatal Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Rd, London, W12 OHS, United - - 2008
We studied (1) the pattern of brain injury in term neonates with encephalopathy with evidence of a preceding hypoxic sentinel event, (2) prenatal and perinatal risk factors, and (3) the correlation between neuroimaging findings and developmental outcomes. We identified, among 500 term neonates with encephalopathy who were studied with MRI ...
Plattner T - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Subendocardial hemorrhages (SE) have been associated with multiple causes of violent and non violent deaths in forensic autopsies such as fatal exsanguination, brain injury and intoxications. METHODS: The presented retrospective study investigates the overall incidence and various causes by an analysis of a total of 1331 forensic autopsies based ...
Adegbehingbe , O O; ...
Birth trauma is a significant cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. This prospective study determined the predictive factors for birth trauma as seen in a Nigerian university teaching hospital. This was a prospective descriptive evaluation of birth trauma at Wesley Guilds Hospital, Ilesa over three years. Semi-structured questionnaire was used ...
Ryan Margaret A K - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Evaluating the incidence of inflicted traumatic brain injuries (inflicted TBI) in young children, and encompassing shaken baby syndrome (SBS) and related injuries, is an epidemiologic challenge. Data available regarding military families in the U.S. may complement other national surveillance efforts. METHODS: A protocol was developed to assess the epidemiology ...
Zafeiriou Dimitrios I - - 2008
Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy, one of the most complex peripheral nerve injuries, presents as an injury during the neonatal period. The majority of the children recover with either no deficit or a minor functional deficit, but it is almost certain that some will not regain adequate limb function. These few ...
Ellingson Katherine D - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Inflicted traumatic brain injury (inflicted TBI) in infants has been the subject of recent preventive interventions, yet the burden of this problem is poorly defined. This article estimates the national incidence of hospitalizations due to inflicted TBI in infants aged <1 year using hospital discharge databases (HDDs) over 3 ...
Bass W Thomas - - 2008
Proinflammatory cytokines have been variably linked to development of cerebral white matter injury (WMI) in preterm infants. Because soluble receptors tightly control cytokine bioactivity, we modeled cytokine-receptor interaction as a predictor of WMI. Plasma from 100 preterm infants was assayed for cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL-1beta, IL-6) and ...
Gunn Alistair J - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to assess evidence for the timing of brain injury associated with clinical encephalopathy in the fetus and newborn. RECENT FINDINGS: Older studies found strong epidemiological links between antenatal factors, including exposure to infection, and acute encephalopathy and later cerebral palsy. In ...
Oehmichen Manfred - - 2008
The discussion surrounding shaken baby syndrome (SBS) arose from the lack of evidence implicating diffuse axonal injury (DAI) as a cause of death. It was assumed instead that injury to the cervical cord, medulla, and nerve roots played a causal role. The present pathomorphological study examines 18 selected infants (<1-year-old) ...
- - 2008
Professional logging is one of the most hazardous occupations in the United States, and the factors contributing to injuries and fatalities associated with this occupation are well documented. However, little has been reported about logging fatalities in the nonoccupational setting. To better characterize nonoccupational logging fatalities, the Vermont Department of ...
Miyazaki Tetsuji - - 2008
A motor scooter carrying two 15-year-old boys collided with the back of an open, parked truck. The tailgate of the truck was down and in a horizontal position. At the autopsy of the driver, horizontal tramline bruises were found on the anterior chest, but the thoracic cage was intact. There ...
Naci Huseyin - - 2008
The importance of road traffic injuries in Turkey is not generally appreciated, in part due to lack of knowledge of its economic burden and in part due to major underestimation in official statistics. The total years of potential life lost and potentially productive years of life lost from mortality were ...
Dissanaike Sharmila - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Motor vehicle collisions are the leading cause of trauma-related death in the United States. Reclined seatbacks may alter crash kinetics and affect occupant outcome. We examined the effect of reclined seatbacks on occupant mortality. METHODS: Our study population consisted of United States traffic crashes from 1995 to 2005, using ...
Strukcinskiene B - - 2008
AIM: Low- and middle-income countries bear far higher road traffic injury mortality rates than high-income countries. This paper considers the changing picture of child traffic injury mortality in Lithuania over a 35-year period. METHODS: Road traffic injury mortality data, mortality data from other causes, and population data have been used ...
Ramachandrappa Ashwin - - 2008
The introduction of new modalities of treatment for the very premature infant and advanced life-support systems have led to a decrease in the neonatal mortality rate, and a consequent increase in the population of the tiniest survivors. Many premature infants that survive their neonatal intensive care unit stay have permanent ...
Kelly Joseph F - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The opinion that injuries sustained in Iraq and Afghanistan have increased in severity is widely held by clinicians who have deployed multiple times. To continuously improve combat casualty care, the Department of Defense has enacted numerous evidence-based policies and clinical practice guidelines. We hypothesized that the severity of wounds ...
Thornley S J - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To describe the methods, characteristics of participants, and report on the preliminary findings of a longitudinal study of cyclists. DESIGN: Web-based survey to establish a cohort of cyclists. SETTING: Participants in the largest mass-participation bicycle event in New Zealand, the Wattyl Lake Taupo Cycle Challenge. PARTICIPANTS: 2469 riders who ...
Zhou Ji-hong - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To analyze characteristics and causes of road crash and injuries in China from 2003 to 2005. METHODS: The data of road crash in 2003-2005 were collected to study the characteristics including total vehicle number, occurrence rates of traffic accidents and serious traffic accidents so as to discuss the causes ...
Grant Maria B - - 2008
Erythropoietin (Epo) leads to the proliferation and differentiation of erythroid precursors, but is also involved in diverse nonhematopoietic biological functions. In this issue of the JCI, Chen, Smith, and colleagues demonstrate that the temporal expression of Epo is critical for determining whether physiological or pathological repair occurs following neurovascular retinal ...
Gerstner Bettina - - 2008
Periventricular leukomalacia is the predominant injury in the preterm infant leading to cerebral palsy. Oxygen exposure may be an additional cause of brain injury in these infants. In this study, we investigated pathways of maturation-dependent oligodendrocyte (OL) death induced by hyperoxia in vitro and in vivo. Developing and mature OLs ...
Lechpammer M - - 2008
Periventricular white matter injury in premature infants occurs following hypoxia/ischaemia and systemic infection, and results in hypomyelination, as well as neuromotor and cognitive deficits later in life. Inflammatory infiltrates are seen within human cerebral white matter from periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) cases. In this study, we examine the time course of ...
Yikilmaz Ali - - 2008
Sonographic patterns of brain injury in the term and near-term infant are quite different from those in the premature infant. Although periventricular leukomalacia and germinal matrix hemorrhage are rarely seen in term infants, selective neuronal injury, parasagittal infarction, focal stroke, diffuse hypoxic-ischemic injury, and deep parenchymal hemorrhages are more common ...
Backe Bjørn - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and prognosis of obstetric brachial plexus injuries and analyze associated risk factors. DESIGN: Analysis of prospectively collected information comprising all births from 1991 to 2000, with complete follow-up of affected children. Setting. St Olav's University Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in the middle part of ...
Glass Hannah C - - 2008
Periventricular leukomalacia is a risk factor for visual impairment in children born prematurely. The impact of diffuse white-matter injury, as detected on magnetic resonance imaging, on early visual function is unknown. We developed two 5-point visual-gaze scores to analyze the association between this clinical assessment and white-matter injury in 93 ...
Gill James R - - 2008
A spectrum of neuropathology occurs in infants who sustain traumatic brain injury. Because of a prolonged survival interval, there is a risk that these deaths may not be recognized as a sequel of trauma. We reviewed the records in New York City of 5 delayed fatalities due to nonaccidental infant ...
Pressler Jana L - - 2008
A classification system of various forms of major newborn birth injuries is clearly lacking in the literature. Currently, no scales exist for distinguishing degrees, extent, or distinctions of major birth injuries. The purpose of this study was to use published and online literature to explore the timing, prediction, and outcomes ...
Zolotov Alexander S - - 2008
The author presents the case report of the rare for infant injury - the laceration of flexor pollicis longus tendon, which requires decisions on some complex questions relating to optimal tendon suture, suture material, type and duration of immobilisation, and the protocol for post-operative management.
Wynne Ryan D - - 2008
Mechanical or anoxic/ischemic brain insult results in reactive gliosis and a pronounced wave of apoptotic secondary degeneration (WSD). Reactive glia express aromatase (estrogen synthase) and glial estrogen synthesis decreases apoptosis and the volume of degeneration. Whether aromatization by glia affects gliosis itself or the initiation/maintenance of the WSD remains unknown. ...
Altimier Leslie - - 2008
Non-accidental head trauma in infants is the leading cause of infant death from injury. Clinical features that suggest head trauma (also known as shaken baby syndrome or shaken impact syndrome) include the triad consisting of retinal hemorrhage, subdural, and/or subarachnoid hemorrhage in an infant with little signs of external trauma. ...
Segal Ava D - - 2008
Successful community and household ambulation require the ability to navigate corners and maneuver around obstacles, posing unique challenges compared to straight-line walking. The challenges associated with turning may contribute to an increased incidence of falling and the occurrence of fall-related injuries. A measure of stability applied to turning gait may ...
Talbert David - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The possibility of shaking an infant sufficiently violently to cause brain damage by head rotational acceleration remains controversial and the nature of the anticipated injuries poorly defined. Animal studies of whiplash injuries have revealed two modes of injury; subdural haemorrhage (SDH) and cortex surface injury (CSI). CSI can be ...
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