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Volpe J J - - 1992
Brain injury in the premature infant and, particularly, the prevention of that injury is an enormous problem. With modern neonatal intensive care, approximately 85% of very low birth weight infants survive, and of these survivals, approximately 5-15% exhibit major spastic motor deficit, grouped under the rubric, 'cerebral palsy', and an ...
Boo N Y - - 1991
A prospective study was carried out on 26,176 Malaysian neonates born in the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur over a 12-month period to determine the incidence and associated risk factors of brachial plexus injuries. This condition was found in 42/26,176 neonates (1.6 per 1000 livebirths). Multiple logistic regression analysis of affected ...
Bull M J - - 1991
Attention must be devoted to proper positioning and selection of an appropriate child restraint system for infants with severe hydrocephalus to reduce the risk of potential injury during motor vehicle travel. Due to the infant's head size, parents may fear the head and neck will fall forward, or they may ...
Brucker J - - 1991
Brachial plexus birth injuries occur at a frequency of 1-2 per 1000 births. Many of these injuries spontaneously resolve. Should spontaneous recovery not occur within the first 4-6 months of life, the prognosis for attaining movement and function of the affected appendage is significantly impaired. The child demonstrates a lifelong ...
Guess D - - 1991
A three-level model was used to explain the emergence and maintenance of rhythmic stereotypy and self-injury. Level I represents rhythmic behaviors as internally regulated and common in normally developing infants, but delayed in onset among children with handicapping conditions. Consistent with homeostasis theory, Level II considers stereotypy and self-injury as ...
Goldsmith J R - - 1991
When the body temperature of a small neonate falls below 35 degrees C, lassitude can be noted; severe derangements of cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, immunological, and hematological systems may also occur depending in part on the duration and severity of hypothermia. Diagnosis requires a low-reading thermometer, lacking which the diagnosis can ...
Hargarten S W - - 1991
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Studies of travel-related mortality and morbidity have been limited to nonfatal events. Causes of travel-related mortality may differ significantly from morbidity and thus have different prevention strategies. DESIGN: We examined the overseas fatalities of US citizen travelers for the years 1975 and 1984. The death certificates were abstracted; ...
Carlan S J - - 1991
Shoulder entrapment during delivery is a true obstetric emergency that can result in significant maternal and infant trauma. Fetal macrosomia, maternal obesity, maternal diabetes and prolonged second stage of labor are associated risk factors. Infant complications of shoulder dystocia include traumatic brachial plexus injury, humeral fracture, clavicular fracture and severe ...
Lee R K - - 1991
Firearm injuries significantly affect mortality rates in many states throughout the United States. We reviewed all deaths due to injuries in all state for 1985 to determine deaths from firearm injury in proportion to deaths from all injuries in each state. We then compared Texas data with those of other ...
Coats T J - - 1991
Baby walkers have been associated with burns, head trauma and other types of injury. A retrospective study of all infants under the age of two years attending an accident and emergency unit demonstrated 22 injuries associated with baby walkers from a total of 1049 attendances. The most serious injuries were ...
Hargarten S W - - 1991
All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) have resulted in over 1,400 deaths and 400,000 injuries in the United States since their introduction in the 1970s. Analysis of deaths due to ATVs have been limited to a few states. Death certificates for ATVs were abstracted for the years 1983 through 1989 in Wisconsin. Fifty-two ...
Arif A - - 1991
The use of steroid and antibiotic prophylaxis no longer is tenable on the basis of recent studies showing their inability to favorably influence the outcome of caustic injuries. The need for early endoscopic and radiologic assessment if not gastroesophagectomy for severe injuries now is the management of choice. Further efforts ...
Sniezek J E - - 1991
More than 20 million non-US residents visit the United States each year. Data on deaths in this country among these non-US residents were obtained from US vital records. These data showed that from 1979 through 1984, 17,988 deaths occurred. Cardiovascular disease (International Classification of Diseases [ICD-9] 390-459) was the leading ...
Guptill K S - - 1991
About 3 to 4 million Americans travel to Mexico every year, yet their mortality experience has never been analyzed. Fatalities among US travelers to Mexico during the years 1975 and 1984 were examined using a previously unanalyzed data source. The leading cause of death to all US travelers to Mexico ...
Gonik B - - 1991
Shoulder dystocia (SD) is an event whose current diagnostic approach is based on subjective criteria alone. Since the risk for immediate neonatal morbidity is critically linked to recognition and appropriate management of this obstetric emergency, we hypothesized that infants having injuries consistent with SD are frequently delivered without the intrapartum ...
Williams B C - - 1990
Using data from the National Center for Health Statistics and the World Health Organization, child injury death rates in the US were compared to those of Canada, England and Wales, France, Netherlands, and Norway. Except for the 1981 Canadian figure, overall US childhood injury mortality was greater than childhood injury ...
Molloy C J - - 1990
One hundred and two paediatric cases of extradural haemorrhage (EDH) were treated in Adelaide, South Australia, during the period 1954-1988; 10 were infants (0-2 years) and 92 were children (2-14 years). There were 9 deaths (mortality 8.8%). Long-term disabilities severe enough to interfere with school and/or employment were seen in ...
Schellhase D E - - 1990
Flexible bronchoscopy (FB) is uniquely suited for the study of large airway lesions in the ventilated premature infant. However, no standardized clinical scoring system of distal tracheal injury exists and the adverse consequences of FB in ventilated premature infants are not well described. Using a prototype Olympus fiberoptic ultrathin bronchoscope ...
Whitaker A - - 1990
Relationships between abnormalities on neonatal serial cranial ultrasound and cognitive development at age one year were examined in 153 low birth weight (LBW) infants. Infants with complex injury (persistent parenchymal echogenicity, lucency, or persistent ventricular enlargement) scored significantly lower on the Bayley Mental Development Index than noninjured infants. Nine of ...
Allan W C - - 1990
The term intraventricular hemorrhage has become associated with a variety of cerebrovascular insults in preterm infants. Because of a shared pathophysiology and timing, these are the neurologic lesions to search for when evaluating sick preterm infants. This complex of lesions is common and, when parenchymal injury occurs, likely to result ...
Duclos P J - - 1990
Cases of lightning-related deaths and injuries that occurred in Florida in 1978-87 were reviewed to determine the factors involved, to quantify the morbidity and mortality related to lightning strikes, and to describe epidemiologically the injuries and circumstances involved. Statewide information on deaths was obtained from death certificates, autopsy reports, and ...
Robertson L S - - 1990
Fatal pedestrian injury rates by cars with relatively sharp front-corner designs were compared to such rates by cars of similar-size with relatively smooth front-corner designs. The relative risk of death by front-corner impact was 26 percent greater among the sharp-cornered cars. Pedestrian death rates from impact with other points on ...
Partyka S C - - 1990
Two national-level data sources are commonly used together to estimate and compare fatality rates by car weight. The weight of each car in a fatal crash is available on the automated files of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Fatal Accident Reporting System; weight is derived by interpreting the Vehicle ...
Marcella S - - 1990
The potential for infant walkers to cause injury to infants was demonstrated by the results of a survey of the practicing pediatricians in the state of Connecticut. There was a significant number of severe injuries reported. In addition, seven cases of infants hospitalized at Bridgeport Hospital because of injuries sustained ...
Broker F H - - 1990
A difficult delivery of a newborn infant may result in a traumatic separation of the proximal humeral epiphysis from the metaphysis through the physis. When the ossification center of the epiphysis is not yet visible radiographically, the correct diagnosis may be missed and the injury may be mistaken for a ...
Hoque M M - - 1990
This paper examines the fatal bicycle accidents which occurred in the period 1981-1984 in Victoria with particular emphasis on nighttime fatalities. The examination provides information on aspects of accident location, environment, problem type, time, and cyclist characteristics. The relationship between actual accidents and cyclists perceived collision danger is also investigated. ...
Khurana R K - - 1990
Injury to the right lateral forehead was followed by headaches, and chronic ipsilateral ptosis, miosis, and forehead hyperhidrosis. Episodes of headache were accompanied by an increase in ptosis, miosis and forehead hyperhidrosis. The headaches abated within 6 weeks but the ptosis and miosis, due to postganglionic sympathetic insufficiency, were persistent. ...
Brown B S - - 1989
This review of claims supports the findings of an earlier study on the incidence of injuries defined by the Injured Infant Act. Assignment of children to Virginia's definition of injury was associated with death in the neonatal period and preexisting maternal conditions likely to contribute to a poor outcome. Expanding ...
Sosin D M - - 1989
Review of US mortality data from 1979 to 1986 identified 315,328 deaths associated with head injury, which represented 2% of all deaths, 26% of injury deaths, and an annualized head injury-associated death rate of 16.9 per 100,000 residents. Motor vehicles (57%), firearms (14%), and falls (12%) were the most frequent ...
Fitzgerald M - - 1989
The flexion reflex threshold has been used as a measure of sensation in a group of premature infants born at 27-32 weeks postmenstrual age. The threshold in an area of local tissue damage created by routine heel lances was half the threshold on the intact heel on the other side. ...
Mabogunje O A - - 1989
Of the 35 women who sustained burn injuries during the puerperium in Zaria, 31 had practised ritual hot baths or "Wankan-jego" which caused severe scalds. Five of the women also developed peripartum cardiac failure. Two died. Three of the newborns also died partly as a result of the mothers' illness. ...
Chagnac A - - 1989
Treatment with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and corticosteroids markedly reduced activity of systemic lupus erythematosis in 10 patients with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis (DPLN) complicated by a nephrotic syndrome. Physiologic and morphometric techniques were used serially before, and 12 and 36 mo post-TLI to characterize the course of glomerular injury. ...
Colohan A R - - 1989
The authors report data collected prospectively on 551 cases of head injury in New Delhi, India, and 822 cases in Charlottesville, Virginia. The mortality rate, adjusted for initial severity of injury, was 11.0% in New Delhi versus 7.2% in Charlottesville (p less than 0.02). There was a striking similarity in ...
DeVivo M J - - 1989
An epidemiologic study of 5131 patients sustaining spinal cord injuries between 1973 and 1980 was conducted to determine and characterize the leading causes of death in this population. Patients who were studied had been admitted to one of seven federally designated regional spinal cord injury care systems and they survived ...
Perlman J M - - 1989
The systemic manifestations of "asphyxia" were evaluated prospectively in 35 consecutively intubated term newborn infants. The following systemic organ injuries were identified most often: (1) renal, ie, oliguria less than 1 mL/kg per hour for at lest 24 hours (40%), an elevated urinary beta-2-microglobulin concentration (57%), azotemia (11%), and an ...
Green J R - - 1989
Rectal injury during childbirth is a complication with potentially debilitating long-term consequences. Several factors have been suggested as influencing the risk of rectal injury. Among these are parity, infant birth weight, and various procedures performed by the birth attendant, including episiotomy. Whether episiotomies protect against or provoke laceration of the ...
Hadley M N - - 1989
The cases of 13 infants (median age, 3 months) who sustained nonaccidental trauma were reviewed. All presented with profound neurological impairment, seizures, retinal hemorrhages, and intracranial subarachnoid and/or subdural hemorrhages. Of 8 infants who died, autopsy was performed on 6. No patient had a skull fracture, and only one had ...
Brown B S - - 1989
In a study of a teaching hospital's newborn records 1986-1987, the definition of severe neurological injury in Virginia's Injured Infants Act was found to be associated with neonatal death, prematurity, and a preexisting maternal condition likely to contribute to poor outcome. The incidence of severe neurologic injury did not approach ...
Kleinman P K - - 1989
In 1984 we started a two-year program in Worcester (Mass.) and Boston to provide additional radiologic data for the medical investigation of suspected fatal infant abuse. During that period the investigation of 12 cases of unexplained infant death included the review of complete radiographic skeletal surveys by a pediatric radiologist. ...
Clancy R R - - 1989
The role of spinal cord injury in the pathogenesis of abnormal motor signs (depressed tone and reflexes) following severe perinatal hypoxia-ischemia was prospectively evaluated by clinical, electrophysiological, and neuropathological examinations in 18 asphyxiated neonates. All infants had an abnormal mental status (lethargy or coma), and seizures were present in 12. ...
Baba S P - - 1989
In Southern Sudan it is a commonly held belief that the unerupted deciduous canine tooth is injurious to the health of infants and that it causes diarrheal diseases. The teeth are therefore often removed by native extractors in an attempt to alleviate the symptoms of these dangerous diseases. This study ...
Hope P L - - 1988
Abnormalities detected by a mechanical sector scanner were compared 'blind' with autopsy findings in the brains of 56 infants born at less than 33 weeks gestation. Intraventricular haemorrhage was found in 53 of 112 hemispheres and had been accurately diagnosed by ultrasound (sensitivity 91 per cent; specificity 81 per cent). ...
Ellis W G - - 1988
Neuropathologic evidence of prenatal brain damage, chiefly in cerebral white matter, was found in 25% of infants who died at 7 days of age or less, with a total of ten preterm (16%) and 12 term (48%) infants among the 89 subjects studied. Few clinical features distinguished infants with prenatal ...
Miller H J - - 1988
This study reviews pneumobelt use in an acute rehabilitation facility. All pneumobelt users between 1976 and 1986 were identified. Their age, sex, diagnosis, and time required to adjust to the pneumobelt were studied, as were patterns of use at discharge. Information was collected about use after discharge and about reported ...
Rogers R W - - 1988
This study assessed the effects of dashboard stickers and signature sheets on safety belt use among occupants of state-owned vehicles in three Florida agencies. The stickers and signature sheets contained information regarding a regulation requiring safety belt use and a consequence of a 25% reduction in benefits for noncompliance if ...
Bull M J - - 1988
Correct use of car seats for small children is essential to prevent serious injuries and death from automotive accidents. Failure to use a car seat properly can contribute to serious injury or death of a child. A case study in which misuse of a car seat occurred is reported. The ...
Murray F - - 1988
The effects of joint action of SO(2) and HF on three Eucalyptus species were studied by exposing them to combinations of < 13, 122 or 271 microg m(-3) of SO(2) and 0.03, 0.39 or 1.05 microg m(-3) of HF in open top chambers for 120 days. HF and SO(2) reduced ...
Wikström I - - 1988
The risk of traumatic injury and low Apgar score was studied in 473 infants with a birth weight of 4500 g or more at term (LFD) and 473 infants with normal weight (NFD, birth weight +/- 1 SD of mean for the respective gestational age). The LFD group comprised 3.2% ...
Roland E H - - 1988
We report the clinical, radiological, and neuropathological features of selective brainstem injury in an asphyxiated term infant. Disproportionate injury to thalamus, basal ganglia, and brainstem with relative sparing of cortex and subcortical white matter is observed occasionally after acute total asphyxia. Although this entity has been well documented neuropathologically, the ...
Brodsky L - - 1987
Microscopic pathology of the distal trachea at autopsy was retrospectively reviewed in 51 low birth weight infants (less than 1250 g). Twenty-six patients from 1977 who had nasal and/or orotracheal intubation and who underwent suctioning with uncontrolled deep suctioning technique were compared to 25 patients from 1980 who had orotracheal ...
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