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- - 2000
Smoke inhalation, severe burns, and death from residential fires are devastating events, most of which are preventable. In 1998, approximately 381 500 residential structure fires resulted in 3250 nonfirefighter deaths, 17 175 injuries, and approximately $4.4 billion in property loss. This statement reviews important prevention messages and intervention strategies related ...
Sandmire H F - - 2000
In the past, obstetric textbooks have stated (without evidence) that Erb's palsy is caused by the birth attendant. The mechanism cited is stated to be the application of excessive lateral traction placed on the fetal head and neck. Recent research findings refute this unproven theory. Findings include (1) only 50% ...
Starling S P - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Abusive head trauma accounts for significant morbidity and mortality in infants. We compared a Southern population of victims with those in a previous study of a Western population, which found that men, particularly fathers and mothers' boyfriends, are the most common perpetrators. METHODS: All cases of child abuse identified ...
Sacks D A - - 2000
The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence that, including estimates of fetal macrosomia in patient care, will decrease adverse perinatal outcomes. A literature search for the years 1980 to 1999 was used. Shoulder dystocia and brachial plexus injuries occur more often in macrosomic than in non-macrosomic neonates. ...
Chen G X - - 2000
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the utility of expanding the number and precision of injury categories used in previous occupational mortality studies, this study reanalyzed data from four previous studies of unionized construction workers (construction laborers, ironworkers, sheet metal workers, and operating engineers), by expanding the number of injury categories from 6 ...
Pollack-Nelson C - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: This paper examines two hazard patterns associated with in-home use and placement of car seats and baby carriers: 1) fall injuries resulting from placement on elevated surfaces and 2) suffocation resulting from seat overturn on soft surfaces. DESIGN: Emergency department data reporting on falls suffered by infants aged 6 ...
Hanna B D - - 2000
Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the complex interplay of the sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of the heart. Developmental maturation of the fetus and newborn results in predictable alterations in the neural cardiac control of heart rate. Furthermore, patterns of HRV are closely correlated to clinical outcome in several pathologic situations. ...
Longobardi Y - - 2000
Serious intra-abdominal injuries in neonates are very rare. In addition, the signs and symptoms of hemoperitoneum caused by bleeding from solid viscera are vague and nonspecific and often are not recognized before the onset of hypovolemic shock or death. In this report, we describe a 2-day-old infant who presented with ...
Inder T E - - 2000
This article is focused on the mechanisms underlying primarily ischaemic/reperfusion brain injury in both the term and premature infant. Although the mechanisms involved include similar initiating events, principally ischaemia-reperfusion, and similar final common pathways to cell death, particularly free radical-mediated events, there are certain unique maturational factors influencing the type ...
Wolf H - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To investigate if multivariate risk calculation can discriminate those infants who do not recover after an obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI). STUDY DESIGN: All liveborn infants without lethal congenital abnormalities from 1988 through 1996 with a gestational age > or =30 weeks were included. Outcome variables were all OBPI ...
Gleckman A M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Rapid acceleration-deceleration of an infant's head during intentional shaking should in theory exert stretch or shear forces upon the optic nerves sufficient to cause axonal injury. beta-Amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) immunohistochemistry recently has been shown to be a highly effective method for identifying diffuse axonal injury in the brains ...
Stancić M F - - 2000
We present the case of an infant with a gunshot lesion in the brachial plexus. Intraoperative nerve action potential recordings suggested posterior cord neurolysis and medial and lateral cord grafting. After 3 years' follow-up complete recovery of motor and sensory function was seen as a result of immense nerve regeneration ...
Nathens A B - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Regional trauma systems were proposed 2 decades ago to reduce injury mortality rates. Because of the difficulties in evaluating their effectiveness and the methodologic limitations of previously published studies, the relative benefits of establishing an organized system of trauma care remains controversial. METHODS: Data on trauma systems were obtained ...
Wankhede A G - - 2000
In the present paper, a complete case is discussed, that is from the crime upto judgement in the court of law, from the Forensic point of view. The postmortem examination was conducted by the author in which a metallic fragment of size of a mustard seed was found in a ...
Keren M - - 2000
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder of Infancy has become accepted as a nosological entity. Assessment guidelines and diagnostic criteria have been defined, taking into account the impact of development on the expression of post-traumatic symptoms. Therapeutic reenactment has been considered the cornerstone of the therapeutic process. The issue of deciding what is ...
Tachakra S - - 2000
We obtained follow-up information about the new patients seen at a minor accident and treatment service (MATS) staffed by emergency nurse practitioners (ENPs). A previous study, of 150 teleconsultations in a six-month period starting in April 1996, was used for comparison. In the present series, 150 teleconsultations occurring in a ...
Overpeck M D - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: Strong evidence based on case record reviews indicates that the incidence of child homicide reported from death certificates is under ascertained. The characteristics of infant injury fatalities with undetermined, but suspicious, intent were compared for the probability that they should be considered homicides. METHODS: Using linked birth and death ...
Byard R W - - 1999
Infants who are preambulatory and toddlers who have only just learned to walk have particular characteristics that give them a unique susceptibility to drowning in certain circumstances. A study of drowning deaths in 32 infants and children <2 years of age in South Australia over a 35-year period from March ...
Bulas D I - - 1999
Diagnostic imaging plays an important role in evaluating the preterm infant with hypoxic-ischemic injury. The pathologic and radiographic findings of IVH, focal white matter necrosis, and severe anoxic damage are well documented. New observations, including diffuse white matter and cerebellar insults in some survivors, are being made. Understanding the complex ...
Farmer C M - - 1999
Insurance claims were examined for evidence of neck injuries to drivers of passenger cars struck in the rear. Neck injury rates were significantly lower for male drivers, elderly drivers, and drivers in less severe crashes. Even after accounting for differences in driver demographics and crash severity, neck injury rates were ...
Rogers F B - - 1999
HYPOTHESIS: Factors associated with fetal death in injured pregnant patients are related to increasing injury severity and abnormal maternal physiologic profile. DESIGN: A multi-institutional retrospective study of 13 level I and level II trauma centers from 1992 to 1996. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Fetal survival. RESULTS: Of 27,715 female admissions, there ...
Collins J W - - 1999
BACKGROUND: This paper describes deaths of American workers involving forklifts during the 15-year period from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 1994. METHODS: Death certificate data were obtained from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's (NIOSH's) National Traumatic Occupational Fatality (NTOF) surveillance system. The narrative fields on the ...
Finch C F - - 1999
Cricket is a major international sport, generally played in British Common-wealth nations. Although strictly a non-contact sport, injuries in cricket can result in a number of ways. In high level cricket, overuse injuries are common and related to the physical demands of the sport, particularly in the delivery of the ...
Greenes D S - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: 1) To determine whether clinical signs of brain injury are sensitive indicators of intracranial injury (ICI) in head-injured infants. 2) To determine whether radiographic imaging of otherwise asymptomatic infants with scalp hematoma is a useful means of detecting cases of ICI. 3) To determine whether head-injured infants without signs ...
O'Toole B I - - 1999
The specificity of various wartime stressors for different posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms is inconsistently reported in the literature. Combat, wounding, and peritraumatic dissociation have not been assessed together in their effects on each of the various PTSD symptom clusters. This cohort study of a random sample of male Australian ...
Durrheim D N - - 1999
BACKGROUND: One of South Africa's principal tourist attractions is the opportunity to encounter Africa's large mammals in the wild. Attacks by these mammals can be exceptionally newsworthy with potentially deleterious effects on tourism. Little is known about the risk of injury and death caused by wild mammals to visitors to ...
Peterson T D - - 1999
Motor vehicle travel is the primary means of transportation in the United States, providing freedom in travel and enterprise for many people. Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for the young and contribute to a high degree of morbidity and mortality for all ages. Motor vehicle crashes ...
Morrison A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To examine recent trends in unintentional childhood injury mortality in Europe, and to identify the contribution of specific causes. SETTING: The 15 current member countries of the European Union. METHODS: Analysis of mortality data (1984-93) obtained from the World Health Organisation and national government agencies. RESULTS: Injuries continue to ...
Clark R H - - 1999
With the availability of more sophisticated techniques for evaluating the premature neonate comes a parallel responsibility to carefully asses the process of resuscitation and assisted ventilation. The most fragile patients whom delivery room personnel are called to assist are the very low-birthweight preterm neonates. Their lung volumes are small, their ...
Piazza A J - - 1999
In this article, postasphyxial management of the newborn is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the multisystem approach to complications that can occur in an infant who has sustained significant hypoxia and ischemia. The frequently involved organs are reviewed individually with respect to specific complications that arise secondarily to the initial ...
Ropac D - - 1999
The total number of Croatian Army soldiers killed in the period from the beginning of July 1991 until the end of March 1992 was 487. The number of severely wounded was 1,160, and 1,141 soldiers were slightly wounded. The ratio of the killed to wounded was 1:5, except in the ...
Wyszynski M E - - 1999
More than 1 million children are severely abused annually. Shaken baby syndrome (SBS), one example of physical abuse, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. There is a national annual incidence in the United States of 750 to 3,750 cases of SBS. Shaken baby syndrome is defined ...
Kraus F T - - 1999
Thrombi in the fetal circulation of the placenta cause a pattern of clustered fibrotic villi called fetal thrombotic vasculopathy (FTV), which has been associated with serious injuries to neonates, especially brain injuries. Correlation of FTV with visceral thrombi in autopsy specimens might lead to a more accurate estimate of the ...
Kermer P - - 1999
There is growing evidence that caspase inhibition exerts neuroprotective effects in various models of neuronal injury in vivo. However, whether caspase inhibition provides long-term neuroprotection is not known yet. In the present study, we therefore investigated the effects of prolonged caspase inhibition on the survival of adult rat retinal ganglion ...
Wagner C L - - 1999
Perinatal asphyxia remains one of the most devastating neurologic processes. Although the understanding of the pathophysiology after perinatal asphyxia is extensive, there are few therapeutic interventions available to prevent or even mitigate the devastating process that unfolds after injury. The search for a safe and efficacious therapy has prompted scientists ...
Scholer S J - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To identify sociodemographic predictors of infant injury mortality and to compare trends in injury mortality rates for high- and low-risk US infants from 1985 to 1991. DESIGN: Historical cohort. SETTING/STUDY PARTICIPANTS: The National Center for Health Statistics linked US infants (<1 year) born from 1985 to 1991 with death ...
Biagas K - - 1999
Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury occurs frequently in infancy and childhood. Events such as perinatal asphyxia, near drowning, respiratory arrest, and near sudden infant death syndrome cause significant mortality and morbidity. Despite current critical care practices, the outcomes from such injuries may be life-long neurologic deficits. This review discusses findings from laboratory ...
du Plessis A J - - 1999
Advances in infant cardiac surgery have resulted in a dramatic decline in mortality rates; however, neurological morbidity remains an important concern. The effectiveness of a number of interventional strategies to prevent or minimize brain injury during open heart surgery are currently being investigated. This article provides an overview of two ...
Gleckman A M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Accurate identification of diffuse axonal injury is important in the forensic investigation of infants who have died from traumatic brain injury. beta-Amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) immunohistochemical staining is highly sensitive in identifying diffuse axonal injury. However, the effectiveness of this method in brain-injured infants has not been well established. ...
Hughes C A - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To review the medical records of neonates found to have birth-associated trauma of the head and neck region. To describe the anomalies, physical findings, and possible sequelae of these injuries and to bring attention to the cause of mechanical birth injury as a potential cause of anomalies in the ...
Beni-Adani L - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Epidural hematoma (EDH) in infants may be difficult to diagnose. The mechanism of injury and the clinical presentation are different from those in older children. We characterized the clinical and radiologic parameters of EDH in infants and correlated them with outcome. Because there are no optimal prognostic tools or ...
Hankins G D - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to assess the impact of forceps rotation on maternal and neonatal injury. STUDY DESIGN: In this retrospective case-controlled study performed at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston all forceps deliveries with a rotation of >/=90 degrees performed between July 1992 and September 1995 were ...
Morrison W A - - 1999
A macroscopically visible scar was present at birth in three infants with a history of injury during amniocentesis at 16-20 weeks' gestation. In several neonates born between 21 and 31 weeks' gestation, chemical injury to the skin caused by extravasation of calcium gluconate healed by formation of a large scar. ...
Wallace M D - - 1999
We evaluated the effects of restraint on occurrences of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and adaptive responses exhibited by 2 individuals across eight response-effort conditions: baseline (no restraints); restraint sleeves without stays; restraints with 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25 thin metal stays; and restraints with five thick metal stays. From this ...
Soori H - - 1999
Deaths from accidental injury in the rural areas of 13 provinces in the Islamic Republic of Iran from 1993 to 1994 were investigated. The crude mortality rate was 4.33 per 1000 and the number of deaths from unintentional injuries was 5213 (10.7% of all deaths). There were more deaths among ...
Meyers J E JE North West Iowa Rehab Consultants, Sioux City, Iowa 51102-3268, USA. - - 1999
The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of neuropsychological assessment for predicting driving competency (as opposed to driving skill). Participants were divided into 2 groups, currently driving and not currently driving, based on patient and family member reports of driving ability. In addition, driving participants were only ...
Greenes D S - - 1998
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to determine whether clinical symptoms and signs of brain injury are sensitive indicators of intracranial injury (ICI) in infants admitted with head trauma, (2) to describe the clinical characteristics of infants who have ICI in the absence of symptoms ...
Hashimoto T - - 1998
A 26-year-old woman developed marked increases in levels of aminotransferases about 24 hours after ingestion of 70 mL of 50% cresol. Responding to supportive measures, the patient recovered without any significant complications. Cresol and/or its metabolite may have caused transient hepato-cellular injury in this patient. In cresol poisoning, hepato-cellular injury ...
Fingerhut L A - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: This report investigates international differences in injury mortality rates among 11 of the countries participating in the International Collaborative Effort on Injury Statistics. METHODS: The cause, intent, and age-specific injury mortality rates are calculated and presented from Australia, Canada, Denmark, England & Wales, France, Israel, New Zealand, The Netherlands, ...
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