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Results 551 - 600 of 915
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Bar J - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether known historical risk factors of brachial plexus injury differ between affected neonates and healthy controls. METHODS: The files of all 62 children with Erb's palsy who were diagnosed after birth were reviewed. The control group consisted of 124 randomly selected uninjured infants born within the same ...
Currie A D - - 2001
Non-accidental injury should be suspected and excluded in any infant found to have intracranial and retinal haemorrhage of unknown aetiology. This can be a sensitive issue for both medical staff and parents. We present a case in which the underlying cause of intracranial and retinal haemorrhage was fibromuscular dysplasia. It ...
Poli de Figueiredo L F - - 2001
Road accidents are a major cause of death in Brazil, with rates increasing steadily for years. Our objective here is to report the impact of the new Brazilian Traffic Code, introduced in 1998. Its main new features include a large increase in fines and a rigid penalty scoring system that ...
Hüppi P S - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Brain injury in premature infants is characterized predominantly by perinatally acquired lesions in the cerebral white matter (WM). The impact of such injury on the subsequent development of cerebral WM is not clear. This study uses diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate the effects of cerebral WM ...
Moshiro C - - 2001
This paper describes rates and causes of injury deaths among community members in three districts of the United Republic of Tanzania. A population-based study was carried out in two rural districts and one urban area in Tanzania. Deaths occurring in the study areas were monitored prospectively during a period of ...
Lapidus G - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility of implementing a firearm fatality surveillance system in Hartford County, Connecticut. METHODS: Medical examiner, police, and crime lab data were collected for firearm deaths occurring in Hartford County during 1997. Data included characteristics of victims, suspects, and firearms. We used standard criteria for evaluating an ...
Kanai M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: On the basis of the number of women snowboarders whose vulvar injuries we have recently treated, we believe that the cases of vulvar hematoma and lacerated injuries caused by snowboarding have been increasing. To analyze the causal relation between snowboarding and vulvar injuries, we investigated how women were injured ...
Ishihara H - - 2001
The effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) in predicting neurological recovery in patients with spinal cord injury was evaluated. HBO has been used to treat spinal cord injury, but HBO does not appear to greatly alter the neurological outcome. This is the first report of the use of HBO as ...
Keough L - - 2001
The developing island-nation of Grenada undertook a major road improvement project between 1995 and 1998. In order to determine the effect of those improvements on crash injury and mortality, we reviewed the number of crash-related injuries and deaths for the years 1994 and 1999. After the road improvements, the proportion ...
Patel H I - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Circumcisions and cesarian sections are common procedures. Although complications to the newborn child fortunately are rare, it is important to emphasize the potential significance of this problem and its frequent iatrogenic etiology. The authors present 7 cases of genitourinary trauma in newborns, including surgical management and follow-up. METHODS: The ...
Foster-Barber A - - 2001
Clinical studies of the preterm neonate and animal models of asphyxial brain injury both support a role for proinflammatory cytokines in central nervous system (CNS) injury. There are fewer studies of perinatal CNS injury in the full-term neonate. We have performed a prospective cohort study of full-term infants with perinatal ...
Toti P - - 2001
Chorioamnionitis (CA) is the leading cause of preterm birth and neonatal complications. Even in the absence of a proven infection, fetuses and neonates present a systemic inflammatory response which can be identified by radiological and morphological examination of the thymus. The frequent occurrence of brain injury in neonates with CA ...
Cox E - - 2001
Falls, poisoning, drowning, and burns comprise the four most common causes of unintentional injury death not related to motor vehicles. We examine mortality trends for these causes of injury in Wisconsin over a 10-year period (1986-1996). While national age-adjusted rates for fall mortality have remained relatively stable, Wisconsin has experienced ...
Conroy C - - 2000
The Haddon matrix is a research tool used by injury epidemiologists. Although this matrix has typically been used only in epidemiologic studies, it may serve as a framework to investigate the circumstances of traumatic deaths. This matrix consists of three rows representing time phases (before the injury incident, during the ...
Weintraub A S - - 2000
This article reviews the most common serious head and neck congenital anomalies and traumatic injuries that present at or around the time of birth from the perspective of neonatal caregivers. The focus is on the steps necessary to manage these infants in the delivery room and during the first days ...
Skellern C Y - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: To look for features of non-accidental fractures in infants aged under I year and assess the risk of subsequent morbidity and mortality. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective analysis of 99 children aged under 1 year who presented to the Mater Children's Hospital, Brisbane, between January 1990 and December 1993, and were ...
Zeitz P - - 2000
This analysis describes the frequency and type of injuries among responders to hazardous materials releases. Data were analyzed from states that participated in the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance system maintained by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry from 1996 through 1998. A total of 348 responders were ...
Zarzur A P - - 2000
The objective of this study was to determine whether specimens from infants with palatal defects (PDs) with or without craniofacial malformations (CFMs) exhibit aberrant laryngeal histologic findings compared with specimens from normal infants. Ten laryngeal specimens from infants with PDs with or without CFMs were histologically compared with 7 laryngeal ...
Papasian N C - - 2000
INTRODUCTION: There is controversy over whether there exists a predisposition towards bleeding into the subdural space in infants with benign external hydrocephalus (BEH) or other enlargement of the extra-axial space (e.g. subdural hygroma). The presumed etiology implicates shear forces in over-stretching the extra-axial blood vessels. We have created a model ...
Richman M - - 2000
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the methods and accuracy of mortality data collection and summarize the injury mortality rate in one sector of the State of Olancho, Honduras, with the intent to establish a baseline of injury mortality that will identify potential areas of intervention and serve as a ...
- - 2000
Pickup trucks have become increasingly popular in the United States. A recent study found that in crashes involving fatalities, cargo area passengers were 3 times more likely to die than were occupants in the cab. Compared with restrained cab occupants, the risk of death for those in the cargo area ...
Quan L - - 2000
Previously, we examined the expression of C-reactive protein (CRP) in hepatic tissues in fatal injuries (injury deaths) immunohistochemically, and classified the CRP distribution into three patterns: diffuse (D-) pattern, diffuse with strong positivity in the hepatic lobules; periportal (PP-) pattern, characterized by positive cells in the periportal region of some ...
Xia Z L - - 2000
Fatal occupational injuries in a new development region in Shanghai in east China are described. All occupational deaths in the East Pujiang New Area during the period 1991 through 1997 were abstracted from multiple, overlapping source documents. There were 426 deaths and a crude mortality rate of 9.1 per 100,000 ...
Baeesa S S - - 2000
Trauma is the most common cause of death in childhood and non-accidental injury is the leading cause of death in infants between one month and one year of life. This is a newly emerging entity in Saudi Arabia. However, there is little available literature on the extent of child maltreatment ...
Hwang S K - - 2000
An infantile head injury has unique features in that infants are totally helpless and dependent on their parents, and biomechanical characteristics of the skull and brain are very different from those of other age groups. The authors reviewed a total of 16 infant head injury patients under 12 months of ...
Margulies S S - - 2000
The mechanical properties of the adult human skull are well documented, but little information is available for the infant skull. To determine the age-dependent changes in skull properties, we tested human and porcine infant cranial bone in three-point bending. The measurement of elastic modulus in the human and porcine infant ...
Morrison A - - 2000
PURPOSE: To examine the trends in injury mortality among young people aged 15-24 years residing in the 15 current member states of the European Union between 1984 and 1993. METHODS: As part of a European Commission-funded project entitled European Review of Injury Surveillance and Control (EURORISC), mortality data for all ...
Hijar M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Cross-national comparisons of injury mortality can suggest possible causal explanations for injuries across different countries and cultures. This study identifies differences in injury mortality between Los Angeles (LA) County, California and Mexico City DF, Mexico. METHODS: Using LA County and Mexico City death certificate data for 1994 and 1995, ...
Kochanek Patrick M. - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To present a state-of-the-art review of mechanisms of secondary injury in the evolution of damage after severe traumatic brain injury in infants and children. DATA SOURCES: We reviewed 152 peer-reviewed publications, 15 abstracts and proceedings, and other material relevant to the study of biochemical, cellular, and molecular mechanisms of ...
Lipscomb H J - - 2000
Records from the Office of the North Carolina Chief Medical Examiner were used to describe 3955 deaths, both on and off the job, between 1988 and 1994 from external causes of injury (E-codes) among individuals whose usual occupation was in the construction trades. For the calculation of rates, population sizes ...
O'Sullivan A L - - 2000
Infant injury prevention is an important issue for practitioners who work with adolescent mothers. Data are presented to examine the association between having a young mother and being injured as an infant. Prevention messages need to take into account that parents in general tend to minimize the magnitude of injury ...
- - 2000
Smoke inhalation, severe burns, and death from residential fires are devastating events, most of which are preventable. In 1998, approximately 381 500 residential structure fires resulted in 3250 nonfirefighter deaths, 17 175 injuries, and approximately $4.4 billion in property loss. This statement reviews important prevention messages and intervention strategies related ...
Sandmire H F - - 2000
In the past, obstetric textbooks have stated (without evidence) that Erb's palsy is caused by the birth attendant. The mechanism cited is stated to be the application of excessive lateral traction placed on the fetal head and neck. Recent research findings refute this unproven theory. Findings include (1) only 50% ...
Starling S P - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Abusive head trauma accounts for significant morbidity and mortality in infants. We compared a Southern population of victims with those in a previous study of a Western population, which found that men, particularly fathers and mothers' boyfriends, are the most common perpetrators. METHODS: All cases of child abuse identified ...
Sacks D A - - 2000
The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence that, including estimates of fetal macrosomia in patient care, will decrease adverse perinatal outcomes. A literature search for the years 1980 to 1999 was used. Shoulder dystocia and brachial plexus injuries occur more often in macrosomic than in non-macrosomic neonates. ...
Chen G X - - 2000
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the utility of expanding the number and precision of injury categories used in previous occupational mortality studies, this study reanalyzed data from four previous studies of unionized construction workers (construction laborers, ironworkers, sheet metal workers, and operating engineers), by expanding the number of injury categories from 6 ...
Pollack-Nelson C - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: This paper examines two hazard patterns associated with in-home use and placement of car seats and baby carriers: 1) fall injuries resulting from placement on elevated surfaces and 2) suffocation resulting from seat overturn on soft surfaces. DESIGN: Emergency department data reporting on falls suffered by infants aged 6 ...
Hanna B D - - 2000
Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the complex interplay of the sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of the heart. Developmental maturation of the fetus and newborn results in predictable alterations in the neural cardiac control of heart rate. Furthermore, patterns of HRV are closely correlated to clinical outcome in several pathologic situations. ...
Longobardi Y - - 2000
Serious intra-abdominal injuries in neonates are very rare. In addition, the signs and symptoms of hemoperitoneum caused by bleeding from solid viscera are vague and nonspecific and often are not recognized before the onset of hypovolemic shock or death. In this report, we describe a 2-day-old infant who presented with ...
Inder T E - - 2000
This article is focused on the mechanisms underlying primarily ischaemic/reperfusion brain injury in both the term and premature infant. Although the mechanisms involved include similar initiating events, principally ischaemia-reperfusion, and similar final common pathways to cell death, particularly free radical-mediated events, there are certain unique maturational factors influencing the type ...
Wolf H - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To investigate if multivariate risk calculation can discriminate those infants who do not recover after an obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI). STUDY DESIGN: All liveborn infants without lethal congenital abnormalities from 1988 through 1996 with a gestational age > or =30 weeks were included. Outcome variables were all OBPI ...
Gleckman A M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Rapid acceleration-deceleration of an infant's head during intentional shaking should in theory exert stretch or shear forces upon the optic nerves sufficient to cause axonal injury. beta-Amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) immunohistochemistry recently has been shown to be a highly effective method for identifying diffuse axonal injury in the brains ...
Stancić M F - - 2000
We present the case of an infant with a gunshot lesion in the brachial plexus. Intraoperative nerve action potential recordings suggested posterior cord neurolysis and medial and lateral cord grafting. After 3 years' follow-up complete recovery of motor and sensory function was seen as a result of immense nerve regeneration ...
Nathens A B - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Regional trauma systems were proposed 2 decades ago to reduce injury mortality rates. Because of the difficulties in evaluating their effectiveness and the methodologic limitations of previously published studies, the relative benefits of establishing an organized system of trauma care remains controversial. METHODS: Data on trauma systems were obtained ...
Wankhede A G - - 2000
In the present paper, a complete case is discussed, that is from the crime upto judgement in the court of law, from the Forensic point of view. The postmortem examination was conducted by the author in which a metallic fragment of size of a mustard seed was found in a ...
Keren M - - 2000
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder of Infancy has become accepted as a nosological entity. Assessment guidelines and diagnostic criteria have been defined, taking into account the impact of development on the expression of post-traumatic symptoms. Therapeutic reenactment has been considered the cornerstone of the therapeutic process. The issue of deciding what is ...
Tachakra S - - 2000
We obtained follow-up information about the new patients seen at a minor accident and treatment service (MATS) staffed by emergency nurse practitioners (ENPs). A previous study, of 150 teleconsultations in a six-month period starting in April 1996, was used for comparison. In the present series, 150 teleconsultations occurring in a ...
Overpeck M D - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: Strong evidence based on case record reviews indicates that the incidence of child homicide reported from death certificates is under ascertained. The characteristics of infant injury fatalities with undetermined, but suspicious, intent were compared for the probability that they should be considered homicides. METHODS: Using linked birth and death ...
Byard R W - - 1999
Infants who are preambulatory and toddlers who have only just learned to walk have particular characteristics that give them a unique susceptibility to drowning in certain circumstances. A study of drowning deaths in 32 infants and children <2 years of age in South Australia over a 35-year period from March ...
Bulas D I - - 1999
Diagnostic imaging plays an important role in evaluating the preterm infant with hypoxic-ischemic injury. The pathologic and radiographic findings of IVH, focal white matter necrosis, and severe anoxic damage are well documented. New observations, including diffuse white matter and cerebellar insults in some survivors, are being made. Understanding the complex ...
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