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Blumenthal Ivan - - 2004
Periventricular leucomalacia is a condition that causes lifelong disability and considerable economic burden. It occurs in premature infants of less than 32 weeks gestation due to their unique anatomical features. The white matter of these infants is poorly vascularised and contains oligodendrocyte progenitors (pre-oligodendrocytes), which are sensitive to the effects ...
Anderson Robert N - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: This report presents injury mortality data for 2001 using the external cause of injury mortality matrix for the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), a detailed and comprehensive framework for tabulating and presenting injury deaths by mechanism and intent of death. Data are presented by age, sex, race, ...
Zahalsky Michael P - - 2004
PURPOSE: We evaluated the risk of epididymal injury in patients undergoing hydrocelectomy and spermatocelectomy, and determined risk factors that may increase the chance of epididymal injury. To our knowledge the incidences of epididymal injury during hydrocelectomy and spermatocelectomy have not previously been reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The pathology reports of ...
Tarnowska Anna - - 2004
BACKGROUND: An abnormal position of nasogastric and rectal tubes can be the cause of iatrogenic injuries Most often it can happen in neonates and premature infants. MATERIAL/METHODS: From 1982 through 2003, we observed 9 neonates (8 premature infants) with perforation of the alimentary tract. RESULTS: In most of these patients ...
Brasili Patricia - - 2004
Traumatic lesions are commonly found in archaeological skeletal samples and provide useful information about various behavioral and cultural aspects of the populations. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between the distribution and types of skeletal traumatic lesions and the different life-styles of past populations. We examined three necropolises in ...
Goldsmith Werner - - 2004
There is significant disagreement among medical professionals regarding the mechanisms for infant brain injury. This disagreement is due in part to the failure by some to acknowledge and incorporate known biomechanical data and models into hypotheses regarding causes. A proper biomechanical understanding of the mechanisms of traumatic brain injury (TBI) ...
Russell Robert - - 2004
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the validity of similar Injury Severity Scores (ISS) generated by different Abbreviated Injury Scale triplets. METHODS: A cohort of trauma patients admitted to a single major trauma service between 1995 and 2002 was studied retrospectively. Mortality rates were compared for groups with identical ISS scores but ...
Hackam David J - - 2004
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine whether firearms are a more prevalent cause of pediatric death in the United States than in Canada. METHODS: All pediatric trauma deaths from 1991 to 1996 in Ontario and Missouri were reviewed. Socioeconomic data were compiled for the two jurisdictions. RESULTS: During the period ...
Wilkins C E - - 2004
This survey of regional neonatal intensive care units determined a prevalence of 38 per 1000 neonates who sustained an extravasation injury that caused skin necrosis. Most injuries occurred in infants of 26 weeks gestation or less, with parenteral nutrition infused through intravenous cannulae. Common treatments were exposing wounds to the ...
Abdel-Aty Mohamed - - 2004
Although the rapid growth in light truck vehicle (LTV) sales, including minivans, sports utility vehicles (SUVs), and light-duty trucks, has not been associated with an overall increase in collisions or traffic deaths in the US, there is a need for a research program to determine whether particular types of collisions ...
Rueda-Domingo Trinidad - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine how the number of passengers, their age and their sex influence the risk of different types of Spanish drivers causing a collision between two or more cars. METHODS: We selected, from the Spanish database of traffic crashes resulting in personal injuries or death, those collisions between two ...
Shin Sang Do - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic characteristics of the death by poisoning in Korea. We recoded the Death Certificates Database by injury based on the short version of the International Classification of External Causes of Injuries (ICECI). We evaluated the mortality rate by total injury and ...
Bertelli J A - - 2004
The towel test consists of covering an infant's face with a towel and seeing if he/she can remove it with either arm. In this study it has been used to aid the clinical and electromyographic assessment of 21 infants with obstetric brachial plexus palsy. At 2 to 3 months, none ...
Rivara F P - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine the number and characteristics of motor vehicle crash deaths related to police pursuits in the United States. METHODS: Analysis of the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the Crashworthiness Data System of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration for the years 1994-2002. RESULTS: There were 2654 fatal crashes ...
Buettiker V - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To compare three different systems of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP): the naso-pharyngeal tube and two-prong systems in newborns, focusing on duration of CPAP, side effects and cost. DESIGN: Randomized clinical study. PATIENTS: Between July 2000 and September 2001 newborns were randomized to three different CPAP systems. Forty infants ...
Jits Roman Y - - 2004
A guidance scheme designed for coping with significant dispersion in the vehicle's state and atmospheric conditions is presented. In order to expand the flyable aerocapture envelope, control of the vehicle is realized through bank angle and angle-of-attack modulation. Thus, blended control of the vehicle is achieved, where the lateral and ...
White-Traut Rosemary C - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To compare the developmental patterns of heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SaO2) of premature infants with and without central nervous system (CNS) injury, and evaluate whether a multisensory intervention altered this development. SAMPLE: Thirty-seven premature infants born at 23-26 weeks with normal head ultrasounds ...
Dandona Rakhi - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Road traffic crashes are an important cause of death and disability in India. Reliable and accurate data are necessary to plan strategies to reduce death and disability due to road traffic crashes. We assessed the utility of the available data on deaths due to road traffic crashes for road ...
Montazeri A - - 2004
Road traffic accidents are considered to be the second highest cause of mortality in Iran. A study was conducted to describe road-traffic-related mortality data in Iran in a given period. All Iranian mortality data on road traffic accidents between March 1999 and 2000 (one complete Iranian calendar year) were obtained. ...
Le Strange Elisabeth - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebellar atrophy may occur as a result of a primary injury, such as infarction or hemorrhage. Impaired growth of a non-injured cerebellum may be seen as a secondary effect related to damage in other remote but connected areas of the brain, or so-called diaschisis. We sought to ...
Hott Jonathan S - - 2004
Cervical spine injuries in the pediatric population typically affect the upper cervical region. The authors present the first reported case of a subaxial C6-7 unilateral locked facet joint in a neurologically intact 10-month-old infant. To date, this patient's nonoperative treatment has been successful. The proposed biomechanical mechanism of this injury ...
Wall H - - 2004
1. This study included two designs of furnished cages for 16 hens; H-cages divided into two apartments by a partition with pop holes in the middle of the cage, and fully open O-cages, without a partition. The hypothesis was that in this rather large group of birds the pop hole ...
Martz Erin - - 2004
Because the onset of a spinal cord injury may involve a brush with death and because serious injury and disability can act as a reminder of death, death anxiety was examined as a predictor of posttraumatic stress levels among individuals with disabilities. This cross-sectional study used multiple regression and multivariate ...
Kloiber Lydia L - - 2004
After the death of their four-month-old infant, the parents were charged with injury to a child by starvation. The medical examiner documented blunt force trauma and severe malnutrition at autopsy, but the cause of death was undetermined. The legal team hired a neonatal dietitian who was able to determine that ...
Layne Larry A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The surveillance of occupational injury mortality in the United States has evolved over the last century. Currently there are two different data sources used for the study of occupational injury mortality. Each system varies in methodology, leading to different census counts. We provide an overview and analysis of similarities ...
Ballesteros Michael F - - 2004
Pedestrian deaths constitute the second largest category of motor vehicle deaths in the US. The present study examined how pedestrian injury is associated with vehicle type, while controlling for vehicle weight and speed.Police, trauma registry, and autopsy data were linked for injured pedestrians. Logistic regression analyses were performed to control ...
Rice Thomas M - - 2004
PROBLEM: On July 1, 1998, in an effort to ameliorate the problem of high teenage driver crash rates, California implemented a graduated driver licensing system (GDLS). METHOD: Data on injury crashes of 16- and 17-year-old drivers from a pre-GDLS year were compared with data from two post-GDLS years. Per-capita crash ...
Stadlin Alfreda - - 2003
Improvements in both obstetric and paediatric care have been responsible for a continuing reduction in mortality in extremely premature infants. However, higher survival rates have been at the expense of more long-term neurological damage. Various animal models have been developed to study the effect of hypoxic-ischemic insults on the brain. ...
Denton Scott - - 2003
Several controversies exist regarding ultimately lethal head injuries in small children. Death from short falls, timing of head injury, lucid intervals, presence of diffuse axonal injury (DAI), and subdural hematoma (SDH) as marker of DAI are the most recent controversial topics of debate in this evolving field of study. In ...
Greiffenstein M Frank - - 2003
Neuropsychologists rely on demographic variables to form assumptions about premorbid status, and most use years of education as the main variable. School records are a more objective basis for such estimation, particularly in litigated cases. In the present study, final cumulative grade point average (GPA) was regressed on to Halstead-Reitan ...
Helmkamp James C - - 2003
During the 14-year period from 1990-2003, West Virginia experienced 220 deaths related to All Terrain Vehicles (ATVs). Death rates in West Virginia however, were significantly higher than the national rate or those of any of the its five surrounding states. About 25% of the West Virginia deaths occurred in children ...
Kay Andrew D - - 2003
There is evidence that apolipoprotein E (apoE) and amyloid beta-protein (Abeta), which are implicated in the pathology of chronic neurodegenerative disorders, are involved in the response of the brain to acute injury; however, human in vivo evidence is sparse. We conducted a prospective observational study to determine the magnitude and ...
Poggi Sarah H - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare maternal, neonatal, and second stage of labor characteristics in shoulder dystocia deliveries that result in permanent brachial plexus injury with shoulder dystocia deliveries that result in no injury. STUDY DESIGN: Our cases were culled from a database of deliveries that resulted ...
Hnat Michael D - - 2003
A 28-year-old woman admitted to the emergency department with a Glascow Coma Scale score of 4 after a closed head injury resulting from a motor vehicle crash was found to have a positive serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin level of 27 mIU/mL. After stabilization and treatment for her closed head injury, ...
Liggett A - - 2003
The trials over the deaths of Matthew Eappen and Victoria Climbie have highlighted the importance of forensic evidence in cases of suspected child abuse. The debate as to whether bruises, fractures or head injuries have been sustained as a result of previous trauma or non-accidental injury is central to these, ...
Slaughter Bill - - 2003
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among inmates in a county jail population. RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A standardized interview was used to determine prevalence of TBI in 69 randomly selected inmates. To examine cognitive and emotional differences between subjects with ...
Duncan J R - - 2003
Intrauterine infection has been associated with fetal brain injury and preterm birth. We have recently shown that repeated exposure to bacterial endotoxin leads to hypoxia and brain injury in the preterm ovine fetus and we considered it possible that endotoxin could also damage the placenta. Our aim therefore was to ...
Jones Gregory P - - 2003
A premature twin infant presented with clinical signs of shoulder injury shortly after birth. He had been delivered by cesarean section due to malpresentation. Bony abnormality was not initially recognized on plain radiographs, but ultrasound revealed a Salter-Harris II fracture of the proximal humerus. Plain radiographs are limited in the ...
Prange Michael T - - 2003
OBJECT: Rotational loading conditions have been shown to produce subdural hemorrhage and diffuse axonal injury. No experimental data are available with which to compare the rotational response of the head of an infant during accidental and inflicted head injuries. The authors sought to compare rotational deceleration sustained by the head ...
Solagberu B A - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: This study was done to highlight the pattern and distribution of trauma deaths in a Nigerian teaching hospital in order to enhance trauma research, improve treatment strategies and prevent trauma deaths. PATIENTS AND METHODS: a prospective data collection was done for 24 months beginning September 1999 detailing the age, ...
Steenland Kyle - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Deaths due to occupational disease and injury place a heavy burden on society in terms of economic costs and human suffering. METHODS: We estimate the annual deaths due to selected diseases for which an occupational association is reasonably well established and quantifiable, by calculation of attributable fractions (AFs), with ...
Tomashek Kay Marie - - 2003
Half of all postneonatal mortality (PNM; deaths among infants aged 28-364 days) in the United States is caused by potentially preventable causes such as sudden infant death syndrome, infections, and injuries. A detailed analysis of PNM attributable to injury has not been conducted and may provide useful data in prioritizing ...
McCann Michael - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Contact with electrical current is the fourth leading cause of deaths of construction workers. This study evaluates electrical deaths and injuries to construction workers. METHODS: Two sources of data were analyzed in detail: (1) 1,019 electrical deaths identified by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries ...
Hamrick Shannon E G - - 2003
Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in term infants. The developing brain is uniquely vulnerable to hypoxic-ischemic injury, with a complex evolution of injury that affords opportunities for intervention, yet potentially jeopardizes normal maturational processes. Data published over the past year have provided insights into the evolution ...
Kerr George R - - 2003
From studying the deaths of Texas adolescents from injury during 1996 through 1998, we compiled data showing major causes. Injuries accounted for 3760 deaths and 75% of all adolescent deaths. Unintentional injuries (accidents) accounted for 65% of injury deaths and 49% of all deaths. Motor vehicle traffic accidents accounted for ...
Pickett William - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Injuries to infant children are an important health concern, yet there are few population-based analyses from which to develop prevention initiatives. This study describes the external causes, natures, and disposition from an emergency department of infants with injuries for a geographically distinct population in Eastern Ontario. METHODS: Epidemiologic analysis ...
Thompson Kimberly M - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to quantify and characterize the role of bath seats in infant mortality from bathtub drowning. METHOD: Risk analysis of bathtub drowning deaths for infants aged 6-10 months was performed using data available from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), birth and mortality ...
Bass N M - - 2003
Cephalometric measurement of the face in terms of aesthetics can be difficult and misleading due to the variability of the intra-cranial reference lines. Extra-cranial references are more accurate, but can be time-consuming to apply. The Aesthetic Horizontal is an intuitive datum line related to the 'photographic position' of the head, ...
Wong Cynthia A - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Neurological injury associated with present day labor and delivery is thought to be unusual. The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence, severity, and duration of postpartum lumbosacral spine and lower extremity nerve injury and identify factors related to nerve injury. METHODS: All women who delivered a ...
Geddes J F - - 2003
A histological review of dura mater taken from a post-mortem series of 50 paediatric cases aged up to 5 months revealed fresh bleeding in the dura in 36/50, the bleeding ranging from small perivascular haemorrhages to extensive haemorrhage which had ruptured onto the surface of the dura. Severe hypoxia had ...
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