Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 926
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Ahmad A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Before the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), infants with a severe form of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) had a high mortality and morbidity. Recent studies have shown an improvement in the survival of these infants after ECMO treatment; however, the existing data do not provide sufficient informations regarding ...
Davidson D - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Because of case reports describing hypoxemia on withdrawal of inhaled nitric oxide (I-NO), we prospectively examined this safety issue in newborns with persistent pulmonary hypertension who were classified as treatment successes or failures during a course of I-NO therapy. METHODS: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked, dose-response clinical trial at 25 tertiary ...
Singer D - - 1999
Newborn mammals exhibit a number of physiological reactions which differ from normal adult physiology and are often regarded as signs of immaturity. However, when looked upon from a comparative point of view, it becomes obvious that some of these 'physiological peculiarities' bear striking similarity to adaptation mechanisms known from hypoxia-tolerant ...
Evans M J - - 1999
AIMS: To study the cardiac pathology of infants enrolled in the UK collaborative trial of neonatal ECMO (extra corporeal membrane oxygen) who died following random allocation to a trial arm. METHODS: During the trial, 81 infants died. The hearts of 26 babies were received and examined without knowledge of treatment ...
Dimitriou G - - 1999
Our aim was to identify factors predictive of death in preterm infants in whom inhaled nitric oxide was administered in response to poor oxygenation (oxygenation index > or =15). Of the 23 (median gestational age 28 weeks, range 24-36) infants consecutively so treated, 15 died. Non-survival was commoner in infants ...
Liebelt E L - - 1999
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the administration of 100% oxygen at pressures two to three times ambient pressure, and it significantly increases dissolved oxygen content. Although it has been used successfully to treat decompression illness and arterial air embolism, its role in the treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning remains somewhat controversial. ...
Kinali M - - 1999
Neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD) is usually diagnosed if an infant remains oxygen dependent beyond 36 weeks postconceptional age (PCA). Our aim was to determine whether a shorter duration of respiratory support accurately predicted subsequent respiratory morbidity. A total of 103 infants, median gestational age 29 weeks (range 23-35), were ...
- - 1999
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The benefit of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in improving survival of neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) has never been clearly demonstrated. This may be due to comparisons made between treatment groups of unequal illness severity and the low statistical power of analyses from previous studies. The authors analyzed ...
Rossi A F - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Oxygen transport variables reflect the balance of oxygen delivery and demand. Because oxygen transport in infants undergoing congenital cardiac operations is not well described, we examined oxygen transport in such patients. Differences in oxygen transport between survivors and nonsurvivors and variables that might be predictive of outcome were sought. ...
Thébaud B - - 1999
INTRODUCTION: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) remains a frustrating cause of respiratory failure associated with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Although inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is effective in many infants with PPHN, it often fails to improve oxygenation in infants with CDH. As the increase in vascular smooth muscle ...
Pratt L - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To identify potential neonatal benefits and possible neonatal and maternal complications associated with repeated use of antenatal corticosteroids. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective chart review was done on all gravidas < 34 weeks who were hospitalized and received antenatal betamethasone at our institution between January 1, 1992 and April 30, ...
Reddy V K - - 1999
The pulse oximetry saturation values and the average percentage of time that normal newborns spend at different saturation ranges in the first 6 hours of life were determined in a cross-sectional study. Pulse oximetry saturation values were measured for a single 20-minute period in 101 normal term newborns between 20 ...
Bagshaw O N - - 1999
Sixty-four ASA 1 and 2 infants between the ages of 44 weeks postconceptual age and one year presenting for routine, elective surgery were randomly anaesthetized with either 3% halothane in oxygen (Group H) or 5% isoflurane in oxygen (Group I). Patients in Group I took a mean (SD) time of ...
Cicco G - - 1999
In order to evaluate the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in living tissues we use a new experimental instrument: the optical oximeter (LOX). The LOX uses 2 LEDs, like the pulse oximeter (PO). One LED operates at 670 nm (Hb absorption), the other one operates at 830 nm, i.e., near the ...
Al-Alaiyan S - - 1999
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on the management of neonates with severe persistent pulmonary hypertension refractory to high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. METHODS: The birth weight and the gestational age of infants were 3125.5 +/- 794 g (mean +/- SD) and 39 +/- 2.4 ...
Zanardo V - - 1999
To determine the effect of prolonged dexamethasone therapy on oxygen-dependency clinical phase of prematures with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, we examined a consecutive group of 27 infants (birth weight, < 1500 g and gestational age, < 32 weeks), who remained with a static or deteriorating oxygen-dependency after weaning from the respirator [pre-treatment ...
Finckh B - - 1999
A micromethod for the rapid simultaneous determination of several lipophilic antioxidants in plasma from newborn infants is presented. Because only 5 microliters of plasma is required, the procedure lends itself for repetitive use in very immature infants at risk for developing so-called "oxygen radical diseases of the premature." The method ...
Fukuda S - - 1999
This study was designed to compare venoarterial (VA) with venovenous (VV) access in the cerebral circulation of newborn infants during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Among 14 infants with VA ECMO, 7 had no intracranial complications (group 1), while the others (group 2) developed intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). In contrast, among 19 ...
Wood K S - - 1999
A randomized nonblinded comparison of two treatment groups was performed to determine whether treatment of infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn using a continuous 6-ppm dose of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) changes the likelihood of death or utilization of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) when compared to infants treated ...
Möller JC - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is still a condition associated with a high mortality, and many patients require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as rescue therapy. Beneficial effects of surfactant and perflubron lavage have been reported. However, pure surfactant supplementation has not been proven to be beneficial in the most severe ...
Erb T - - 1999
Fibreoptic bronchoscopy (FB) is frequently associated with a decline in PaO2, whose degree and duration can be substantial especially in infants. The effect of a face mask, which allows the administration of 100% oxygen and continuous positive airway pressure during FB, on the incidence and severity of hypoxaemia was studied ...
Osiovich H C - - 1998
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Despite the proven effectiveness of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) in the treatment of neonates with severe respiratory failure, this technique is not widely used. The purpose of this study was to assess the authors' policy of preferred use of VV ECMO with a cephalad catheter and to ...
Cheung P Y - - 1998
Although inhaled nitric oxide (INO) improves oxygenation in critically ill neonates, the neurodevelopmental outcome of premature neonates with severe hypoxemic respiratory failure treated with INO has not been reported. Mortality and prospective neurodevelopmental assessment in early childhood were studied in a cohort of 24 very low birth weight neonates (</=1500 ...
Poets C F - - 1998
There is considerable uncertainty regarding the oxygen saturation threshold below which additional inspired oxygen should be given to infants with acute or chronic lung disease. In the absence of data from controlled studies, recommendations can only be based on reference values for healthy infants and on observational studies regarding the ...
Roberts T E - - 1998
To compare the resource implications and short term outcomes of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and conventional management for term babies with severe respiratory failure. Cost effectiveness evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial. 55 approved recruiting hospitals in the United Kingdom. These hospitals provided conventional management, but infants randomised to extracorporeal membrane ...
Dundas I - - 1998
The aims of this study were to compare inter-observer variability within and between two specialized infant lung function testing centres and to develop a strategy for performing and analysing infant respiratory function tests to facilitate future collaborative trials. A protocol for data collection and analysis was developed using similar equipment ...
Undar A - - 1998
Neurologic complications are already well documented after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) procedures in neonates and infants. Physiologic pulsatile flow CPB systems may be the alternative to the currently used steady-flow CPB circuits. In addition to the pulsatile pump, a membrane oxygenator should be chosen carefully, because only a few membrane oxygenators ...
Mercier J C - - 1998
Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been shown to improve oxygenation in severe persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). However, PPHN is often associated with various lung diseases. Thus, response to iNO may depend upon the aetiology of neonatal acute respiratory failure. A total of 150 (29 preterm and 121 ...
Becker J A - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used in the management of infants with cardiorespiratory failure. ECMO causes a decrease in load-dependent measures of cardiac performance that have not been demonstrated to affect patient outcome, while other cardiovascular complications occur which may affect outcome. The purpose of this study was ...
Franck L S - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Complications of opioid analgesia include tolerance and withdrawal. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of morphine and fentanyl on the prevalence of withdrawal after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. METHODS: Two groups of neonates were compared during and after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: a prospective group receiving a continuous infusion of morphine for ...
Finer N N - - 1998
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the evolving outcome of newborns who have congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) using a protocolized approach to management, which includes extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and to present the details of such a management protocol. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of ...
Pringle J - - 1998
An in vitro model of the calf head was used to examine the ability of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to non-invasively determine oxygenation events within the calf head. The brains were removed from 16 calf skulls and replaced with oxygenated dilutions of calf blood that had the oxygen progressively decreased ...
Skimming J W - - 1998
Binding of NO to heavy metal-containing proteins probably accounts for many of its physiologic actions. NO inhalation is a promising new treatment for various disorders of neonates. The therapy is most likely to benefit premature neonates who are hypoxemic despite breathing pure oxygen and those who suffer from impaired carbon ...
Cook T M - - 1998
We report changes in arterial blood-gas tensions for up to 5 min of apnoeic oxygenation in 26 anaesthetized paediatric patients (21 children, five infants). Changes in oxygen and carbon dioxide tension were greatest in the first minute of apnoeic oxygenation. In subsequent minutes, rates of change in gas tension were ...
Watanabe T - - 1998
The determination of the cause of death in asphyxiation gas cases is very difficult because of the variation in circumstances surrounding such deaths. To clarify the cause of death and to identify the factors involved in asphyxia, the symptoms during asphyxia, the concentration of gases at the respiratory arrest, the ...
Chang J H - - 1998
Prolonged hospitalization in infants suffering from chronic lung disease who require continuous oxygen therapy can be avoided by oxygen administration at home. In the period from August 1995 to September 1996, 155 very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants were consecutively admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Mackay Memorial Hospital. Of ...
Ng A - - 1998
AIM: To construct a reference range of SpO2 values in healthy preterm infants using a simple data logging device. METHODS: Thirty three healthy preterm infants were monitored for a continuous period of 4 hours at rest using an Ohmeda Biox 3700 E Pulse Oximeter and an electronic data logger (Rustrack ...
Reyes C - - 1998
PURPOSE: The authors reviewed their experience in the management of CDH after the introduction of early high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) during the preoperative stabilization period and delayed CDH repair. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 24 consecutive infants with CDH treated at University of California, Irvine Medical Center (UCIMC) ...
Baumgart S - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cardiac position, left ventricular (LV) mass, and distribution of fetal cardiac output in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) who required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and in control subjects. STUDY DESIGN: Echocardiograms were performed on 23 neonates with CDH shortly after birth, and repeated within 5 days ...
- - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), in terms of mortality and morbidity, in the treatment of cardiorespiratory failure in term infants. METHODS: The criteria for trial entry were: an oxygenation index of >40 or arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) >12 kPa for ...
Parkins K J - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To assess the response of healthy infants to airway hypoxia (15% oxygen in nitrogen). DESIGN: Interventional study. SETTINGS: Infants' homes and paediatric ward. SUBJECTS: 34 healthy infants (20 boys) born at term; mean age at study 3.1 months. 13 of the infants had siblings whose deaths had been ascribed ...
Kinsella J P - - 1998
Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) causes sustained improvement in oxygenation in near-term and term newborns with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), and reduces the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). However, many questions remain concerning the application of inhaled NO to less severely ill infants, its use in units ...
Reickert C A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) has been cited to have a mortality rate of 50%. There have been multiple studies at individual institutions demonstrating potential benefits from various strategies including extracorporeal life support (ECLS), delayed repair, and lower levels of ventilator support. There has been no multicenter survey of institutions ...
Thibeault D W - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: There is a wide variation in published mortality from congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). The prevailing opinion is that this variation is related directly to the degree of pulmonary hypoplasia. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that other factors are important for outcome. The specific objectives of this study ...
Kukita I - - 1998
In a newborn requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation because of hypoxemia due to sepsis (oxygenation index > 40), inhalation of nitric oxide (NO) in a concentration of 16 p.p.m. improved oxygenation and restored spontaneous circulation. Cannulation for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) then was performed safely under NO inhalation. ECMO was discontinued on ...
Araujo V - - 1998
Newborns requiring intensive clinical care are susceptible to a wide range of excessive oxygen free radical production-related problems. In utero, fetal organs, particularly lungs, are exposed to relatively hypoxic tensions which rise abruptly after birth and this transition may cause oxidative injury in the neonate. The aims of this study ...
Huertas J R - - 1998
The most probable factor connecting premature infant problems such as retinopathy, intraventricular hemorrhage and chronic lung disease appears to be the excessive production of oxygen free radicals which can occur as a consequence of oxygen therapy. The aim of our investigation was to elucidate the possible correlations between lipid peroxidation, ...
Lotze A - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether surfactant (beractant) administration to term newborns in respiratory failure and at risk for requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) treatment would significantly reduce the incidence of severe complications through 28 days of age and the need for ECMO. STUDY DESIGN: A ...
Wolf M - - 1998
The total cerebral haemoglobin concentration (tHb in mumol/l) as a major indicator of the oxygen transport capacity is investigated in neonates. Two methods to determine tHb by near infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS) have evolved so far: The first method requires a slow oxygenation change with reference to arterial oxygen saturation (tHbo-method). ...
Hoehn T - - 1998
Does inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) during high-frequency ventilation (HFV) lead to a more pronounced improvement in oxygenation than iNO during conventional ventilation? We report two cases of newborn infants with profound hypoxaemia, who did not respond with an increase in arterial oxygenation following iNO therapy during conventional mechanical ventilation. The ...
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