Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 928
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Askie L M - - 2001
The issue of whether to abruptly or gradually discontinue supplemental oxygen is a contentious one. There have been mixed results in studies of both humans and animal models on the effects of either method of oxygen cessation on important infant outcomes. In preterm or low birth weight infants, does gradual ...
Finer N N - - 2001
Nitric oxide is a major endogenous regulator of vascular tone. Inhaled nitric oxide gas has been investigated as a treatment for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. To determine whether treatment of hypoxemic term and near-term newborn infants with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) improves oxygenation and reduces the rates of ...
Barrington K J - - 2001
Inhaled nitric oxide has been proven effective in term infants with hypoxic respiratory failure. The pathophysiology of respiratory failure, and the potential risks, differ substantially in preterm infants. Analysis of the efficacy and toxicities of inhaled nitric oxide in infants born before 35 weeks is therefore necessary. To determine whether, ...
Finer N N - - 2001
Nitric oxide is a major endogenous regulator of vascular tone. Inhaled nitric oxide gas has been investigated as a treatment for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. To determine whether treatment of hypoxemic term and near-term newborn infants with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) improves oxygenation and reduces the rates of ...
Askie L M - - 2001
It has been hypothesized that the duration of supplemental oxygen administration, independent of the oxygen concentration, gestational age and/or birth weight, is influential in the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity. Concern regarding the possible deleterious effects of prolonged oxygen supplementation has lead many clinicians to wean infants from oxygen ...
Askie L M - - 2001
Whilst the use of supplemental oxygen has a long history in neonatal care, resulting in both significant health care benefits and harms, uncertainty remains as to the most appropriate range to target blood oxygen levels in preterm and low birth weight infants. Potential benefits of higher oxygen targeting include more ...
Wolkoff L I - - 2000
This article reviews the complex physiology of oxygen transport in the fetus and neonate, and how it differs from the older pediatric patient and adult. The common causes of respiratory distress unique to the neonatal and pediatric populations are reviewed in detail, including a brief discussion regarding the different modes ...
Rais-Bahrami K - - 2000
Marked changes have occurred in the practice of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) since the first survivor in 1975. Coagulation management has been markedly refined, new catheters allow ECMO to be done either in a venoarterial or venovenous (VV) mode, depending on cardiac function in the infant. A new design ...
Wolf M - - 2000
The aim of this study was to compare quantitatively the changes in tissue oxygen saturation (TOS), determined by two algorithms (TOSc and TOSa) based on near-infrared spectrophotometry, to the changes in arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) measured by pulse oximetry. TOSc is an algorithm derived by the manufacturer (Critikon) based on ...
Chu S M - - 2000
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a challenging condition and is associated with a high mortality rate; optimal therapy remains unclear. This retrospective study describes the clinical characteristics of treatment and outcome in 48 infants with CDH. METHODS: Twenty-eight male (58%) and 20 female (42%) infants with CDH ...
Christou H - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: We previously reported improved oxygenation, but no change, in rates of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use or death among infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn who received inhaled nitric oxide (NO) with conventional ventilation, irrespective of lung disease. The goal of our study was to determine whether ...
Kössel H - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: High-frequency ventilation (HFV) and/or inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has reduced ECMO in neonates. But, frequently, improvement with HFV/iNO is temporary and only prolongs lung injury without preventing ECMO. We tried to identify a threshold oxygenation index (OI) that predicts temporary or persistent improvement with HFV/iNO in neonatal ECMO candidates ...
Simma B - - 2000
This retrospective study identifies factors which may predict outcome in preterm infants and infants born at term, ventilated with high-frequency oscillation (HFO). In a 16-bed neonatal and paediatric intensive care unit (level III), 58 consecutive preterm and term infants with a median gestational age of 30 (24-41) weeks and a ...
Soong W J - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The development of ultrathin fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FB) has made the examination of neonatal airways a practical possibility. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of intratracheal oxygen (ITO) administration on blood oxygenation and carbon dioxide (CO2) changes during FB in different body-weight infants. METHODS: Newborns suspected ...
Beresford M W - - 2000
The outcome of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) differs for different stages of the fetus or infant's life (i.e., antenatal, immediate postnatal, and postoperative). Assessing combined data from nonrandomized studies is technically difficult. Following recognized methods of reviewing such trials, we aimed to review the available literature on the outcome of ...
Jaillard S - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a technique of extracorporeal oxygenation used in newborn infants with refractory hypoxemia after failure of maximal conventional medical management, when mortality risk is higher than 80%. We retrospectively reviewed all the neonates treated by ECMO between October 1991 and September 1997 in our newborn ...
McIntosh N - - 2000
Pneumothorax in the newborn has a significant mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis would be likely to improve the outlook. Forty-two consecutive cases of pneumothorax that developed after admission to a tertiary referral neonatal medical intensive care unit over 4 y from 1993 to 1996 were reviewed. The time of onset ...
Saugstad O D - - 2000
The US Food and Drug Administration recently approved nitric oxide (NO) inhalation therapy for newborn infants >34 wk of gestation with hypoxic respiratory failure associated with pulmonary hypertension. In clinical trials, this therapy has reduced the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. It has not reduced mortality, however. A body of ...
Charpie J R - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: Neonates with congenital heart disease may appear hemodynamically stable after operation and then suddenly experience catastrophic decompensation. An improved means of predicting which infants will suddenly die in the early postoperative period may lead to lifesaving interventions. Studies indicate that blood lactate level is proportional to tissue oxygen debt, ...
Oliveira C A - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the use of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in the management of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. METHODS: Computerized bibliographic search on MEDLINE, CURRENT CONTENTS and LILACS covering the period from January 1990 to March 1998; review of references of all papers found on the subject. Only ...
O'Brien L M - - 2000
AIM: To determine normative data for arterial oxygen saturation, measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2), in healthy full term infants throughout their first 24 hours of life. METHODS: Long term recordings of SpO2, pulse waveform, and breathing movements were made on 90 infants. Recordings were analysed for baseline SpO(2), episodes of ...
Rais-Bahrami K - - 2000
An infant with fulminant Citrobacter sepsis and respiratory failure is presented. The severity of respiratory failure and the need for systemic heparinization on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation delayed the opportunity of initial lumbar puncture to rule out meningitis. The infant was successfully treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and long-term antibiotics. Repeated ...
Teller J - - 2000
Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive method of estimating the haemoglobin concentration changes in certain tissues. It is frequently used to monitor oxygenation of the brain in neonates. At present it is not clear whether near infrared spectroscopy of other organs (e.g. the liver as a corresponding site in ...
- - 2000
BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) improved oxygenation and reduced the occurrence of death or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in term and near-term hypoxic neonates. We report the results of neurodevelopmental follow-up of infants enrolled in the NINOS trial. METHODS: Hypoxic infants >/=34 weeks' gestation and <14 days of age were randomized ...
Buss I H - - 2000
The purpose of this study is to determine whether the oxidative injury markers, protein carbonyls and malondialdehyde (MDA), are elevated in tracheal aspirates from very low birth weight (< 1500 g) infants; to determine whether levels correlate with myeloperoxidase as a marker of neutrophil inflammation; and to assess whether high ...
Ko S Y - - 2000
To evaluate the predictive values of oxygenation index (OI), arterial-alveolar oxygen tension ratio (a/APO)2, and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient ((A-a)DO2) for early recognition of responsiveness to high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) in very low birth weight infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), 23 infants who received HFOV treatment for severe RDS ...
Beardsmore C - - 2000
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) improves survival in mature neonates with reversible lung disease. However, ECMO could result in survival of infants with severe respiratory dysfunction who would otherwise have died. Alternatively, infants receiving ECMO might be spared prolonged ventilation and consequent barotrauma, resulting in improved respiratory function. Our aim was ...
Greenough A - - 2000
The chest radiograph of very premature infants at 36 weeks post-conceptional age (PCA) was evaluated with regard to the degree of hyperinflation and cardiomegaly, and the presence of fibrosis/interstitial shadowing, cystic elements, air bronchograms and opacification. The evolution of abnormalities was assessed by comparing the radiograph appearance at 36 weeks ...
Appendino G - - 2000
In addition to widespread flavonoids, a collection of Euphorbia characias from Sardinia afforded 13 oxygenated diterpenoids of the atisane, abietane, pimarane, and kaurane type. Four of these compounds (1, 3a, 7a,b) are new. The accumulation of substantial amounts of biologically active diterpenoids of limited availability, like ent-atisanes endowed with anti-HIV ...
Kuga T - - 2000
The authors report the cases of 2 infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) treated without extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy who were discovered to have hearing loss at 1 year of age. Both boys had been diagnosed as having CDH antenatally and were treated with surgery and high-frequency oscillatory (HFO) ...
Taga G - - 2000
We investigated spontaneous changes in the cerebral oxygenation state of infants during quiet sleeping by using a form of multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy: non-invasive optical topography. Eight infants born at 32-39 weeks were studied at postconceptional term age (38-43 weeks). Spatially synchronized oscillations of changes in the concentration of oxy- and ...
McColm J - - 2000
Preterm infants that develop severe ROP have significantly more fluctuations in their transcutaneous oxygen compared to mild or no ROP, despite the fact that all these infants are kept within clinically 'safe' limits. Current animal models do not accurately reflect this oxygen environment. Our aim was to custom build equipment ...
Voss L J - - 2000
Sudden infant death syndrome has been associated with winter climates, infection, and overwrapping of babies. The hypothesis has been tested in this laboratory that two different causes of increased metabolic rate, high core temperature (via the van't Hoff or 'Q10' effect) and face-cooling, might synergistically induce hyperthermia. This proved not ...
Finer N N - - 2000
Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) is a novel selective pulmonary vasodilator without significant effects on the systemic circulation. Initial case studies of near-term newborn infants with hypoxic respiratory failure and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn showed that INO was associated with improvements in oxygenation. There have now been at least ...
Daub M E - - 2000
Fungi in the genus Cercospora produce cercosporin, a potent singlet oxygen (1O2)-generating photosensitizer that plays a critical role in the ability of these fungi to parasitize plants. Although plants, mice, bacteria and many fungi are sensitive to cercosporin, Cercospora species are resistant to its toxicity. The cellular resistance of these ...
Kim E S - - 2000
Since the first use in neonates in 1974, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been a life-saving technology for newborns with respiratory and cardiac failure. ECMO has been used to treat a variety of cardio-respiratory problems, including meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate (PPHN), congenital diaphragmatic hernia ...
Hoehn T - - 2000
The role of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in the treatment of severe hypoxemic respiratory failure of term neonates has been firmly established in several randomized trials. In contrast, the use of iNO in premature newborns has remained controversial. As of 1999, there are data of three randomized controlled trials involving ...
Hartnoll G - - 2000
AIM: To compare the effects of early against delayed sodium supplementation on oxygen dependency and body weight, in preterm infants of 25-30 weeks of gestational age. METHODS: Infants were stratified by gender and gestation and randomly assigned to receive a sodium intake of 4 mmol/kg/day starting on either the second ...
Askie L M - - 2000
This section is under preparation and will be included in the next issue. In preterm or low birth weight infants, does gradual versus abrupt discontinuation of supplemental oxygen influence mortality, retinopathy of prematurity, lung function, growth or development? The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. ...
Askie L M - - 2000
This section is under preparation and will be included in the next issue. In preterm or low birth weight infants, does early versus late weaning from supplementary oxygen influence mortality, retinopathy of prematurity, lung function, growth or development? The standard search strategy of the Neonatal Review Group was used. This ...
Barrington K J - - 2000
This section is under preparation and will be included in the next issue. To determine whether, in preterm newborn infants who have hypoxic respiratory failure, treatment with inhaled nitric oxide improves oxygenation and reduces the rates of death, or adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Electronic and hand searching of pediatric/neonatal literature and ...
Finer N N - - 2000
This section is under preparation and will be included in the next issue. To determine whether treatment of hypoxemic newborn infants with inhaled nitric oxide (INO) improves oxygenation and reduces the rates of death, or the requirement for ECMO. Electronic and hand searching of pediatric/neonatal literature and personal data files. ...
Askie L M - - 2000
This section is under preparation and will be included in the next issue. In preterm or low birth weight infants, does targeting ambient oxygen concentration to achieve a lower versus higher blood oxygen range, or administering restricted versus liberal supplemental oxygen, influence mortality, retinopathy of prematurity, lung function, growth or ...
du Preez M J - - 1999
The aims of the study were to estimate the pharmacokinetic parameters, clearance rate (CL), and volume of distribution (V) of theophylline in premature neonates during the first few days after birth, and to identify factors contributing to interindividual variability. The authors obtained 263 serum concentrations from 105 apneic premature neonates ...
Kavvadia V - - 1999
Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) can be an effective vasodilator in pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PHN). The aim of this study was to determine whether differences in arginine levels, from which endogenous NO is produced, explain the variability in response to NO and whether the arginine levels were lower in ...
Vermeulen M J - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of 1-h daytime awake oximetry as a means of weaning oxygen flows in infants with oxygen dependent chronic lung disease. METHODS: A cohort study of oxygen dependent infants enrolled in a 3-month period. One hour of awake oximetry data were compared with equal time periods ...
Watterberg K L KL Department of Pediatrics, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033-0850, USA. - - 1999
BACKGROUND. Many extremely low birth weight infants (<1000 g) show biochemical evidence of adrenal insufficiency in the first week of life, correlating with subsequent development of chronic lung disease (CLD). We conducted a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled pilot study to test whether early treatment with low-dose hydrocortisone for 12 days (1 ...
Gupta R - - 1999
AIM: To determine whether individualised limits for arterial oxyhaemaglobin saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO(2)) are more effective for detecting hypoxia and hyperoxia in sick newborn infants than setting fixed limits. METHODS: Six hundred and ninety two simultaneous measurements of SpO(2) and partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO(2)) were ...
Somaschini M - - 1999
Term and near-term newborn infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), symptomatic in the first 24 h of life or diagnosed antenatally, without other significant malformations were treated at our hospital with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) as a primary modality of ventilation and elective delay in surgical repair after a period ...
Mok Q - - 1999
The management of 32 consecutive term infants referred with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn were reviewed. Despite indices suggesting severe cardiorespiratory failure with a median alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient of 591 torr (inter-quartile range 432-618) and oxygenation index of 31 (18-44), all but one patient responded to conventional treatment with ...
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