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Results 301 - 350 of 927
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Suriyawattanakul L - - 2002
The microorganisms Trichosporon cutaneum and Bacillus licheniformis were used to develop a microbial biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor. It was found that T. cutaneum gave a greater response to glucose, whereas B. licheniformis gave a better response to glutamic acid. Hence, co-immobilized T. cutaneum and B. licheniformis were used to ...
Toth B - - 2002
Pre- and postductal arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) rates were measured in 50 healthy vaginally delivered newborn infants to establish reference values of SpO2 rates immediately after birth. We compared the SpO2 values in the pre- and postductal areas and assessed the influence of oxitocin and analgetics applied during delivery. Fifty ...
Dollberg Shaul - - 2002
We prospectively tested the hypothesis that prevention of lateral movement of the head, using a specially designed head support apparatus, would prevent oxygen desaturation in preterm infants restrained in car seats. Preterm infants reaching 34 to 35 weeks' gestation were studied at the week of discharge in 3 different conditions ...
Fawke Joesph - - 2002
This update focuses on recent neonatal research of potential interest to obstetricians. Accurate information on outcomes for infants born at the edges of viability is critical to informing management decisions. New research, population based, gives guidance on short-term survival and long-term neurodevelopmental outcome. Recent research has also highlighted the variation ...
Wolf Martin - - 2002
Three methods by which to determine absolute total cerebral hemoglobin concentration (tHb in micromol/L) by near-infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS) have evolved: (1) tHbo, requiring oxygenation changes and arterial oxygen saturation measurements as a reference using a relative NIRS algorithm, (2) tHbg, using a geometrical multidistance principle and (3) tHbgo, a combination ...
Boloker Judd - - 2002
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Poor prognosis (approximately 50% survival rate and significant morbidity) traditionally has been associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). The authors reviewed a single institution experience and challenged conventional wisdom in the context of a care strategy based on permissive hypercapnea/spontaneous respiration/elective repair. METHODS: From August 1992 through February 2000, ...
Wilson Bernard J BJ - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the population and survival of neonatal and pediatric patients transported by Wilford Hall Medical Center (WHMC) on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) since 1985. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective chart, literature, and database review of pediatric and neonatal patients transported on ECMO by the WHMC ECMO transport team. In ...
Dimitriou Gabriel - - 2002
BACKGROUND: High frequency oscillation (HFO) is now frequently used as rescue support, but it has been suggested that as many as one-third of survivors have abnormal neurodevelopmental findings at follow-up. OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for adverse neurodevelopmental outcome at 1 and 2 years in very prematurely born patients, who, ...
Ellsbury Dan L - - 2002
Despite the use of "oxygen dependence at 36 weeks postmenstrual age" to define bronchopulmonary dysplasia, criteria for the use of oxygen is rarely defined. We surveyed members of the Vermont Oxford Network regarding their criteria. Pulse oximetry saturation thresholds varied widely from <84% to <96%, with only 41% of the ...
Victor Suresh - - 2002
Knowing how long an infant with chronic lung disease (CLD) might require oxygen is a useful tool for counseling parents. We aimed to determine if carbon dioxide levels (PCO2) measured near term in newborn infants with CLD still requiring low flow oxygen would be useful in predicting their duration of ...
Bennett Charlotte C - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical variables predicting adverse outcome in a group of infants with severe respiratory failure who were randomized either to referral for extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or to conventional neonatal intensive care within the United Kingdom. METHODS: Adverse outcome was defined by death or disability by four years ...
Kopotic Robert J - - 2002
Heart rate and oxygenation status are essential to the delivery room assessment of newborn infants. Pulse oximetry (PO) can capture these two variables but low peripheral perfusion, patient motion and the presence of ambient lighting can challenge the technology. New generation pulse oximeters claim to measure through these conditions. The ...
Al-Shanafey Saud - - 2002
While extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used in the management of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), its value is questioned. The charts of all newborn infants who presented in respiratory distress due to CDH over the past 27 years were reviewed. Inborn versus outborn, year of repair, use of ultrasound (US), ...
Schrod Lothar - - 2002
Skin-to-skin care (kangaroo) of premature infants causes orthostatic stress. Therefore, the effect of head elevated body tilt position (HETP) of 30 degrees and supine repositioning on systemic and cerebral oxygenation, circulation and sympathetic-vagal balance was investigated in 36 pre-term infants (25-36 weeks), from day 2 to 12 of life. Continuous ...
Clark P L - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Therapies for neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD) of prematurity have had limited success. AIMS: To determine whether inhaled nitric oxide (INO) administered to very low birthweight infants with developing CLD might improve oxygenation without adverse effects. METHODS: Subjects were 10-30 days of age, birth weight < 1250 g, with ...
Gazzolo D - - 2002
The aim of this investigation was to verify whether plasma S100B could be a useful tool in identifying which infants subjected to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) might develop intracranial haemorrhage (ICH). A case-control study of eight infants who developed ICH during ECMO was conducted. Plasma samples collected daily after ECMO ...
Elbourne D - - 2002
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a complex procedure of life support in severe but potentially reversible respiratory failure, used particularly in mature newborn infants. Although the number of babies requiring ECMO is small, and the ECMO policy invasive and potentially expensive, its benefits may be high. To determine whether ECMO ...
Kecskes Z B - - 2002
Metabolic or mixed (metabolic and respiratory) acidosis are commonly encountered problems in the low birth weight (LBW) infant after delivery, and they may contribute to mortality and morbidity. Causes for the lactic acidosis are multiple and include maternal, placental and fetal factors. It is unclear whether metabolic acidaemia in the ...
Rehan V K - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in the treatment of a variety of neonatal respiratory conditions is associated with improvement in arterial oxygen saturation, decreased long-term morbidity, and an overall improvement in infant survival. We reasoned that CPAP might change diaphragm length by increasing end-expiratory lung volume ...
Drinkwater D C DC - - 2001
BACKGROUND: We examined early results in infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome undergoing the Norwood operation with perioperative use of inhaled nitric oxide and application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: Between April 1997 and March 2001, 50 infants underwent a modified Norwood operation for ...
Kendig J W - - 2001
In 1950, Allan P. Bloxsom (1901-1991), a pediatrician at the St Joseph Hospital in Houston, introduced his positive pressure oxygen air lock (AL) for the delivery room resuscitation of the asphyxiated newborn. The infant's entire body was placed into a cylindrical steel chamber that was tightly sealed and infused with ...
Jankov R P - - 2001
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of a wide range of human disorders. This may be a particularly important pathogenetic mechanism in the newborn nursery. The phrase "oxygen radical disease of prematurity" has been coined to collectively describe a wide range ...
Johnson A N - - 2001
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to test the effect of acoustical foam on the level of noise inside the incubator and examine neonatal response behaviors to changes in environmental noise. METHOD: The study used a repeated measure, within subject, comparative design. Data on 65 premature neonates were collected ...
Robles R - - 2001
The aim of this study is to determine the oxidative state of term and preterm neonates at the moment of birth and during the first days of life, and the influence of exposure to oxygen on the premature neonates.A total of 20 neonates were selected. Group A: 10 healthy full-term ...
Chen J Y - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous vasodilator that is responsible for regulating smooth muscle tone via changes in cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Inhaled NO (iNO) causes pulmonary vasodilatation without affecting systemic vascular resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of ...
Schulze A - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: We determined pulmonary oxygen consumption (VO2lung) in low-birthweight infants with acute lung disease to help explain the greater whole-body oxygen consumption (VO2wb) in these infants with than in those without lung disease. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eleven infants (birth weight 1,076+/-364 g; gestational age 28+/-3 weeks) undergoing mechanical ventilation for ...
Tabbutt S - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Management strategies for preoperative infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) include increased inspired nitrogen (hypoxia) and increased inspired carbon dioxide (hypercarbia). There are no studies directly comparing these 2 therapies in humans. This study compares the impact of hypoxia versus hypercarbia on oxygen delivery, under conditions of fixed ...
Goh A Y - - 2001
Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) improves oxygenation in term and near-term infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) and decreases the need for treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). This mode of treatment is currently being introduced in Malaysia. We report our preliminary experience using low dose inhaled nitric ...
Merchant J R - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Premature infants who are discharged from intensive care nurseries are known to be at increased risk for apnea, bradycardia, and oxygen desaturation while in the upright position. These small infants also do not fit securely in standard infant car seats. Because of these problems, the American Academy of Pediatrics ...
St Clair N - - 2001
Oxygen is one of the most commonly administered drugs in the neonatal intensive care unit. A variety of techniques exists to deliver oxygen to infants who are not on a ventilator or who are not receiving positive pressure. These techniques include oxygen hood, nasal cannula, face mask delivery or "free ...
Kuluz J W - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Measure the fraction of inspired oxygen (F(IO(2))) in infants receiving supplemental oxygen via nasal cannula and identify clinical variables that affect F(IO(2)). METHODS: Hypopharyngeal gas samples were obtained from 20 infants receiving oxygen via nasal cannula at flows between 0 and 4 L/min. F(IO(2)) was calculated using the alveolar ...
Peter C - - 2001
There is no consensus on home oxygen therapy in infancy. We hypothesised that this might lead to considerable variability in the practice of prescribing home oxygen to infants. To assess this variability, a structured questionnaire was sent to all departments of Paediatrics in Germany (n = 380). Response rate was ...
Egreteau L - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To assess incidence and clinical risk factors of chronic oxygen dependency (COD) among survivors who were born at or before 31 weeks' gestation. METHODS: This prospective, multicenter study enrolled 802 infants who were born at or before 31 weeks' gestation and admitted to 8 level III neonatal intensive care ...
Somme S - - 2001
New trends in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for respiratory failure in the newborn were reviewed. Following a decade of clinical research, ECMO is now the standard treatment for newborn respiratory failure when all other conventional less-invasive treatment options have been exhausted. As of July 2000, 15,525 newborns with respiratory failure ...
Hartnoll G - - 2001
BACKGROUND: It has previously been shown that, in preterm babies, routine sodium supplementation from 24 hours after birth is associated with increased risk of oxygen dependency and persistent expansion of the extracellular compartment. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether this is mediated by a delayed fall in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). Postnatal ...
Lin S C - - 2001
The indirect calorimetric system of measuring O2 consumption and CO2 production has been developed for energy expenditure estimation of premature infants. This apparatus requires an input room air mixing with pure oxygen to obtain a stable gas with definite oxygen concentration flowing into the hood for neonatal breath or supplemental ...
Yu T - - 2001
Recent studies in aerobic-nitrifying biofilms demonstrated the heterogeneity of biofilms used in wastewater treatment and led to modifications of the homogeneous assumptions in the conventional biofilm kinetic models. However, the stratification in aerobic-anaerobic biofilms has not been well investigated because of a lack of effective experimental tools. In this study ...
Moore C A - - 2001
The aim of this study was to determine whether it is more efficient for adolescents with low lumbar myelomeningocele (MM) to walk with a reciprocal or a swing-through gait pattern. Energy measurements for subjects with MM were compared for reciprocal and swing-through gait and also with an able-bodied control group. ...
Bauer J - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Methylxanthines are among the most commonly prescribed drugs in neonatal intensive care. This study evaluates the effect of caffeine on oxygen consumption and metabolic rate in premature infants with idiopathic apnea. METHODS: Eighteen preterm infants at gestational ages from 28 to 33 weeks and birth weights of 890 to ...
Chou H C - - 2001
PURPOSE: This study sought to identify the factors predictive of the short-term outcome in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records from September 1985 to December 1998 for all infants born with CDH and managed at National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). Coexisting pathology and measures ...
Tin W - - 2001
AIM: To determine whether differing policies with regard to the control of oxygen saturation have any impact on the number of babies who develop retinopathy of prematurity and the number surviving with or without signs of cerebral palsy at one year. METHODS: An examination of the case notes of all ...
Southgate W M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the international experience concerning neonates with trisomy 21 (T21) managed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and to compare and contrast this group of patients to the neonatal ECMO population as a whole. METHODS: Data from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization for newborn infants placed on ECMO between ...
Sreenan C - - 2001
This study documents how congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is managed in level III neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in western Canada and examines perinatal factors predictive of the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Information was obtained retrospectively from all level III NICUs in western Canada about the management of ...
Darling E M - - 2001
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been found effective in supporting infants with severe cardiac dysfunction following open heart surgery. Centers using this mode of support can also, in instances of single ventricle morphology, consider the option of eliminating the oxygenator from the standard ECMO set-up and thereby provide roller pump ...
Yamaguchi N - - 2001
BACKGROUND: This is the first report about a prospective clinical investigation to study the efficacy and safety of nitric oxide (NO) inhalation in infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) in Japan. METHODS: Patients in the present study had to meet the following entry criteria: (i) they had ...
Herpin P - - 2001
Asphyxia during delivery is considered a main cause of stillbirth in pigs, but piglets suffering from intermittent asphyxia during delivery are also less viable at birth and less prone to adapt to extrauterine life. In an effort to improve pig viability, one attractive solution would be to increase oxygen supply ...
Barratt C W - - 2001
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: This communication describes the initial stage of a research project concerning the monitoring of SpO2 in infants prone to periods of spontaneous oxygen desaturation whilst freely moving around their home environment. The primary aim was to determine an appropriate probe type and site together with an assessment of ...
Nagaya M - - 2001
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been recognized to be beneficial to overcome not only persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, but also cardiopulmonary distress due to neonatal sepsis. However, few papers have reported on the efficacy of ECMO for surgical sepsis in neonates with underlying diseases. This paper reports our ...
Barrington K J - - 2001
Inhaled nitric oxide has been proven effective in term infants with hypoxic respiratory failure. The pathophysiology of respiratory failure, and the potential risks, differ substantially in preterm infants. Analysis of the efficacy and toxicities of inhaled nitric oxide in infants born before 35 weeks is therefore necessary. To determine whether, ...
Askie L M - - 2001
The issue of whether to abruptly or gradually discontinue supplemental oxygen is a contentious one. There have been mixed results in studies of both humans and animal models on the effects of either method of oxygen cessation on important infant outcomes. In preterm or low birth weight infants, does gradual ...
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