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Tin Win - - 2004
Oxygen is the most commonly used 'drug' in neonatal units as an integral part of respiratory support. It has also been known for half of the century that it is easy to damage the eyes of preterm infants by giving too much oxygen especially in the first few weeks of ...
Tan A - - 2004
100% oxygen is the commonly recommended gas for the resuscitation of infants at birth. There is growing evidence from both animal and human studies that room air is as effective as 100% oxygen and that 100% oxygen may have adverse effects on breathing physiology and cerebral circulation. There is also ...
Wolfson Philip J - - 2003
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is the utilization of a modified heart-lung machine to provide temporary support for patients with severe respiratory or cardiac failure. In contrast to patients managed with traditional cardiopulmonary bypass, patients on ECMO undergo cannulation of relatively accessible blood vessels, are maintained at normal body temperature, and ...
Halasa Natasha B - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The deaths of 4 infants who had confirmed pertussis infection at our hospital during the past year motivated us to review their cases as well as the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in respiratory failure caused by pertussis. METHODS: Retrospective chart reviews of the 4 infants who had ...
Sahni R - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Pulse oximetry is widely used in neonates. However, its reliability is often affected by motion artefact. Clinicians confronted with questionable oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) values often estimate the reliability by correlating heart rate (HR) obtained with the oximeter with that obtained by electrocardiogram. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of motion ...
Misra Shamita - - 2003
Nebulized epinephrine does not improve clinical status or reduce the length of the hospital stay in infants aged <1 year with acute bronchiolitis. It also does not reduce clinical scores during or shortly after medication administration. In this study, infants requiring oxygen and intravenous fluids-presumably the sickest infants in the ...
Mestan Karen K L - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To study whether nebulized nitroprusside (neb-NP) improves oxygenation in term infants with hypoxic respiratory failure (HRF). STUDY DESIGN: We studied 22 newborn term infants (gestational age, 39.7+/-0.4 weeks [mean+/-SEM]; birth weight, 3.6+/-0.1 kg) with hypoxia (Pao2<100 mm Hg) during mechanical ventilation (Fio2=1.0). Sodium nitroprusside (5 mg followed by 25 ...
Stocker Christian - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the acute effects of intravenous sildenafil on haemodynamics and oxygenation, and its interaction with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in infants at risk of pulmonary hypertension early after cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Prospective, randomised trial. SETTING: Paediatric intensive care unit of a children's hospital. PATIENTS AND PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen ventilated ...
Pooboni Suneel - - 2003
Severe B. pertussis infection in infants is characterized by severe respiratory failure, pulmonary hypertension, leukocytosis, and death. This retrospective case analysis highlights the course and outcome of severe B. pertussis infection treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) at a single center. Over the last decade, out of a total caseload ...
Bryk T - - 2003
We report on a case of methemoglobinemia in conjunction with supraventricular tachycardia. A 6-mo-old infant was admitted to hospital with perioral cyanosis three hours after eating a refrigerated mixed-vegetable puree. The patient developed supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) and had a heart rate of 230 beats/min. The arrhythmia resolved spontaneously. A chemical ...
Chou Lih-Lih - - 2003
The purpose of this study was to investigate how premature infants' oxygen saturation changed in response to music therapy while they were receiving endotracheal suctioning. A convenience sample of 30 premature infants was selected from three neonatal intensive care units. A one-group repeated measures design was adopted for this study. ...
Roberts Neil - - 2003
It is often stated that venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) should not be used in inotrope dependent patients. It is our practice to use VV ECMO in most patients with respiratory failure even though many of these patients are receiving significant doses of inotropes. Our objective was to review ...
Thoyre Suzanne M SM School of Nursing, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7460, USA. - - 2003
During the time when preterm infants' oral feeding skills are developing they often experience physiological instability and need assistance from caregivers to maintain adequate oxygenation. Assisting infants to maintain optimal oxygenation during oral feeding requires an understanding of how they express and aim to self-regulate their oxygen status. The purpose ...
Golej Johann - - 2003
The treatment of acute respiratory failure in infants by means of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is thought to be associated with a treatment-related inflammatory reaction, which may deteriorate the underlying disease process. The aim of this study was to compare the venoarterial (VA) and venovenous (VV) modality of ECMO with ...
Bhat Ravindra Yeshwant - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To determine if the prone versus the supine posture was associated with higher oxygenation levels in prematurely born infants before discharge, whether any such effect was explained by alterations in lung volume or respiratory mechanics, and if the changes were greater in oxygen-dependent infants. PATIENTS: Twenty infants (10 oxygen-dependent), ...
van der Heide-Jalving M - - 2003
AIM: To compare short-term effects and neurodevelopmental outcome of neonatal glucocorticoid therapy between two centres. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in two centres using a tapering course of either 5 to 1 mg kg(-1) hydrocortisone (HC; 22 d) or 0.5 to 0.1 mg kg(-1) dexamethasone (DEX; 21 d). In ...
Walker Gregor - - 2003
Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has become an accepted therapeutic measure in the treatment of infants, children and adults with reversible respiratory or cardiac failure. The principle behind ECLS involves obtaining access to drain blood from the venous circulation into the extracorporeal circuit where it is oxygenated and cleansed of carbon ...
Downard Cynthia D - - 2003
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a life-threatening anomaly with a significant mortality rate. Despite widespread prenatal diagnosis, few parameters have been well defined to aid in prediction of outcome of these infants. Antenatal maternal steroid administration and foetal surgery are not proven interventions. Postnatal treatment has changed over the last ...
Wenzel Philip J - - 2003
The presence of the MeO-5 in the structure 5-methoxyamphimidine (5) is unusual in the light of a recent analysis of the relationships among sponge- and tunicate-derived pyridoacridines. We explore a possible biochemical pathway, from neoamphimidine (2) to 5-methoxyamphimidine (5). The results of semiempirical and ab initio calculations are presented to ...
Skarsgard Erik D - - 2003
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The Canadian Neonatal Network collects clinical data prospectively on every admission to each of its 17 tertiary level units in Canada. The purpose of this study was to interrogate the network database to determine case volumes, outcomes, and resource utilization for several neonatal surgical conditions. METHODS: The network database ...
Bhutani Vinod K - - 2003
Respiratory failure remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal population. Infants with hypoxemic respiratory failure because of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), and pneumonia/sepsis have a potential for increased survival with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Other treatment options previously limited ...
Kalyn Angela - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the physiological variance in a closed (CS) vs an open suction (OS) protocol in intubated infants. STUDY DESIGN: Infants were stratified into three weight groups in a randomized crossover trial. Heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide, and end-tidal carbon dioxide ...
Sinha Sunil K - - 2003
Despite the knowledge that excess amounts of oxygen in the blood (hyperoxia) can be damaging to preterm infants, there is a wide variation in approaches to oxygen therapy within neonatal intensive care units. This is predominantly determined by institutional or individual practices or preferences and might stem from a lack ...
Sadiq H Farouk - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) improves oxygenation and reduces the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in infants with severe persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). The effectiveness of iNO in the treatment of moderate PPHN has not been adequately defined. We therefore conducted a randomized, prospective multicenter study to ...
Campbell Brendan T - - 2003
PURPOSE: Although extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a potentially lifesaving intervention, the effect of ECMO on neonatal mortality has never been evaluated. In this study, we examined the relationship between increased ECMO utilization and its effect on the neonatal mortality rate in the state of Michigan. METHODS: Neonatal mortality data ...
Truog William E - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine predictors of sustained response to inhaled nitric oxide (INO) and the financial impact of INO commercialization. DESIGN/METHODS: We evaluated the records of extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)-eligible infants consecutively treated with INO. We calculated the charges for INO therapy and for ECMO for each patient so treated. PUBLISHED ...
Askie, Lisa Maree
Background: Physiological studies have shown that many preterm infants and infants with chronic lung disease may suffer chronic hypoxaemia, which possibly leads to poor growth and development. Anecdotal reports indicate that there is a drive to increase the oxygen saturation target range to a higher level in these infants due ...
Walker G M - - 2003
This questionnaire study was designed to determine how consultant paediatricians perceived the value of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in the treatment of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). A significant number believed that the survival of infants with MAS who received ECMO was lower than reported. Early discussion with an ECMO centre ...
Kohelet David - - 2003
BACKGROUND: High frequency oscillatory ventilation has proved valuable in recruiting and sustaining lung volume; the combined treatment may augment nitric oxide delivery to target vessels. NO therapy lowers pulmonary resistance and improves oxygenation. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively review data on changes in oxygenation-indicated by arterial/alveolar PO2 ratio, oxygenation index, and outcome--in ...
Jaillard Sophie M - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Management of neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) has undergone many changes associated with increased survival of high-risk CDH. However, little is known about the long-term outcome of CDH infants. METHODS: Follow-up was performed in 85 newborn infants with CDH admitted in our neonatal intensive care unit between January ...
Ungerleider Ross M - - 2003
Despite the ability to surgically correct complex defects in neonates and infants, limitations in outcome are sometimes encountered in relation to exposure to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The deleterious effects of CPB in neonates are often pronounced because of their immature tissue/organ function and the disparity between the CPB circuit size ...
Wolf Martin - - 2003
Near infrared spectrophotometric (NIRS) algorithms to determine the tissue oxygen saturation (TOI) assume a semi-infinite, homogenous tissue geometry. At the head, the clear cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer may violate this assumption. The aim was to estimate the error in the TOI values caused by the CSF layer in vitro and ...
Lloyd J - - 2003
Oxygen has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and is rigorously monitored in today's neonatal intensive care units. Recent research using a feline model has shown an improvement in ROP outcome of kittens treated with supplemental oxygen. Current treatment for ROP by retinal ablation is ...
Vento Máximo - - 2002
In a prospective, randomized, blinded trial we have studied the effects of resuscitation upon oxygenation in a group of asphyxiated newly born infants receiving room air or 100% oxygen as the gas source. During the acute phase of asphyxia and until the resuscitation procedure concluded, we determined serial blood gases ...
Meyts Isabelle - - 2002
The aim of this study was to establish normal values for overnight oxygen saturation (SpO2) in healthy term infants using an oximeter which takes into account motion artifacts and to compare these to normal values collected with a previous generation oximeter not correcting for motion artifacts. We recorded overnight SpO2 ...
Stening Waltraud - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Parents in industrialized societies make increasing use of infant slings to carry their infants. This study was conducted to determine whether infants who are carried in slings are at risk of experiencing clinically relevant changes in cardiorespiratory measurements. METHODS: In a 3-period crossover trial, 24 preterm and 12 term ...
Gupta Anju - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of inhaled nitric oxide (INO) in pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PH) in a single center over 5 years using gentle ventilation (GV), without hyperventilation or induced alkalosis. METHODS: Data from 229 consecutive infants with PH of varied etiology treated with INO and GV, and ...
Stevens Timothy P - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a malformation of the diaphragm that allows bowel to enter the thoracic cavity, resulting in pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension. Approximately 50% of CDH patients are treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The optimal gestational age for delivery of term infants with CDH at ...
Su Bai-Horng - - 2002
Forty-eight infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) from July, 1997 to June, 2001 were enrolled for a prospectively study to determine the role of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) treatment and to determine an appropriate weaning strategy of NO. The initial dose of NO was started at 10 ...
Srisuparp Pimol - - 2002
Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) therapy has been demonstrated to acutely improve oxygenation in preterm infants with severe pulmonary disease. Administration of iNO to the premature infants with less severe pulmonary illness has not yet been studied extensively. Therefore, the authors performed a pilot study enrolling thirty-four premature infants with respiratory ...
Prokopenko Alexander A - - 2002
The large difference in carbon and oxygen isotope data from the marine record between marine oxygen isotope stage 12 (MIS 12) and MIS 11, spanning the interval between about 480 and 380 kyr ago, has been interpreted as a transition between an extremely cold glacial period and an unusually warm ...
Chotigeat Uraiwan - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the outcome of nitric oxide treatment in infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) who failed high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). METHOD: This study was conducted from July 1, 2000 to June 30, 2001 at the neonatal intensive care unit of Queen Sirikit National ...
Kotecha S - - 2002
Supplemental oxygen is a safe and effective treatment for infants with established chronic lung disease who are not at risk of further progression of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Oxygen saturations of < 92% should be avoided and a target range of at least 94-96% aimed for. The saturation target range ...
Wang H-W - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible involvement of nitric oxide and its toxic metabolite--peroxynitrite--in the pathogenesis of recurrent tonsillitis. Tonsil specimens with recurrent inflammation were obtained from patients who required tonsillectomies as surgical treatment for their conditions. The relatively normal tonsils were obtained from patients who ...
Weinberger Barry - - 2002
Oxygen causes tissue injury through the formation of reactive oxygen intermediates and peroxidation of membrane lipids. Premature infants, who have severely reduced antioxidant defenses, are particularly sensitive to the toxic effects of oxygen. Supplemental oxygen in premature infants contributes to the development of chronic lung disease (bronchopulmonary dysplasia), characterized by ...
Nuntnarumit Pracha - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of tolazoline as a rescue treatment for hypoxemia in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. METHODS: Retrospective chart review on case series of infants weighing < 750 g at birth who received tolazoline during a severe hypoxemic episode while receiving maximal ventilator support for respiratory ...
Isobe Kenichi - - 2002
To investigate whether or not the mode of delivery produces differences in cerebral oxygenation, cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation was measured using full-spectrum near infrared spectroscopy in 26 healthy term newborn infants immediately after birth. Infants in group 1 (n=20) were delivered vaginally, and those in group 2 (n=6) by elective ...
Hui T T - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The introduction of inhaled nitric oxide (INO) and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFV) has had a profound effect on the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for respiratory failure in neonates without congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in the demographics and ...
Alpard Scott K - - 2002
The use of extracorporeal technology to accomplish gas exchange with or without cardiac support is based on the premise that "lung rest" facilitates repair and avoids the baso- or volutrauma of mechanical ventilator management. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), a modified form of cardiopulmonary bypass, has been shown to decrease mortality ...
Dimitriou G G Children Nationwide Regional Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, King's College Hospital, London, - - 2002
To determine if differences in respiratory muscle strength could explain any posture related effects on oxygenation in convalescent neonates. Infants were examined in three postures: supine, supine with head up tilt of 45 degrees, and prone. A subsequent study was performed to determine the influence of head position in the ...
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