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Bare Jessica B - - 2008
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a defect seen in approximately 1 in 3500 live births. A complication of CDH is the herniation of abdominal contents into the chest cavity through the defect, which may prevent normal intrauterine development of the lungs. The resultant pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension causes respiratory ...
Verklan M Terese - - 2008
PURPOSE: To report a serendipitous finding from a larger investigation describing physiologic variability of healthy and sick pre- and full-term neonates transitioning to extrauterine life in whom the oxygen arterial saturations rose to 90% very quickly. SUBJECTS: Thirty-four healthy pre- and full-term neonates and 40 sick pre- and full-term neonates. ...
Roemer V M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia and severe foetal acidosis may lead to cerebral injuries and multi-organ failure. Base excess (BE) and actual pH determined in umbilical artery (UA) blood are valid parameters to measure (metabolic) acidosis. Until now there is no consensus worldwide as to which of the two parameters should preferably be ...
Lacerenza Serafina - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Recently, a new sensor for combined assessment of pulse oximetry oxygen saturation (Spo(2)) and transcutaneous monitoring of carbon dioxide partial pressure (PtcCO(2)) has been introduced (TOSCA 500, Radiometer basel AG, Switzerland) [corrected] We designed this study to evaluate the usability and reliability of TOSCA in neonates with birth weight ...
Seeley E E Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA. - - 2008
Lung protective ventilation has been widely adopted for the management of acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Consequently, ventilator associated lung injury and mortality have decreased. It is not known if this ventilation strategy changes the prognostic value of previously identified demographic and pulmonary predictors of ...
Escrig Raquel - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Extremely low gestational age neonates have very low oxygen saturation in utero and an immature antioxidant defense system. Abrupt increases in oxygen saturation after birth may cause oxidative stress. We compared achievement of a targeted oxygen saturation of 85% at 10 minutes of life when resuscitation was initiated with ...
Kunisaki Shaun M - - 2008
PURPOSE: Infants born with severe tracheal anomalies may not survive beyond the first few hours of life without aggressive cardiopulmonary support and/or emergent airway surgery. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with critically ill neonates supported on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) before tracheal reconstruction. METHODS: A ...
Sola A - - 2008
Oxygen is among the most frequently used therapies in neonates worldwide. Nevertheless, many times it is used unnecessarily. Neonatal practices have changed over the last several years; treatments originally believed to be beneficial have been discarded. Oxygen utilized 'just in case' or 'prophylactically' can lead to great damage previously ignored ...
Bakker Jan - - 2008
The process of death in patients in whom cardiorespiratory support is withdrawn is related to the occurrence of tissue hypoxia that results from an imbalance between the demand for oxygen and the delivery of oxygen to the organs. Limiting the demand for oxygen may thus delay the occurrence of tissue ...
Huddy C L CL Neonatal Unit, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, UK. - - 2008
Trials of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) used short term in preterm infants with severe respiratory failure have to date shown no evidence of benefit, and there have been no trials reporting follow-up to 4 years of age. The INNOVO trial recruited 108 infants (55 iNO arm and 53 controls) from ...
Hoskote Aparna U - - 2008
RATIONALE: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), used for treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn (PPHN), is an oxygen free radical with potential for lung injury. Deferring ECMO with iNO in these neonates could potentially have long-term detrimental effects on lung function. We studied respiratory morbidity (defined as occurrence of respiratory ...
Bar Amir - - 2008
To evaluate the short and long-term clinical effects and the treatment-feasibility of inhaled-furosemide (IF) as compared with placebo via hood in hospitalized infants with viral-bronchiolitis (VB). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot-study was performed in previously healthy infants (0-12 months). Enrolled infants were randomized to receive either IF (2 mg/kg), or ...
Unger Stefan - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The goal was to establish the final supportive therapy determinants of hospital length of stay for bronchiolitis. METHODS: A retrospective case study of a randomly selected 25% of subjects <1 year of age who were hospitalized with bronchiolitis between April 1, 2003, and June 15, 2005 (n = 129), ...
Short Judith A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing awareness of the role of oxygen free radicals in the pathogenesis of many conditions associated with prematurity, which has led to caution in the use of oxygen in neonatal resuscitation. We surveyed the practice of UK pediatric anesthetists with regard to oxygen use in neonatal ...
Quine D - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Hyperoxia and variable oxygenation are associated with morbidity in preterm infants. The optimal range of oxygen tensions is not known. This study aimed to determine whether care based on transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcPO2) or saturation (SpO2) monitoring is associated with less time spent with high oxygen tension and less ...
Quine D - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Oxygen saturation (Spo(2)) monitors are commonly used to determine the need for supplemental oxygen. We aimed to describe the range of arterial oxygen tensions (Pao(2)) observed in preterm infants at saturation levels targeted in current trials. METHODS: In a cohort of 98 consecutive infants born at <29 weeks' gestation, ...
Fisher Jason C - - 2008
PURPOSE: Available data comparing the management and outcome of right-sided (R-CDH) vs left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (L-CDH) are inconsistent. Large-volume CDH studies are limited by small numbers of R-CDH or are confounded by compilations from multiple institutions with multiple treatment strategies. Consequently, they are underpowered to draw conclusions. To define ...
Rohana J - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: This prospective observational study was conducted to determine the outcome of newborns with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). They were managed with a protocol of gentle ventilation to avoid barotraumas, and inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) or intravenous magnesium sulphate for treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborns (PPHN). METHODS: All ...
Resnick Steven M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Air travel may pose risks to ex-preterm neonates due to the low oxygen environment encountered during flights. We aimed to study the utility of the preflight hypoxia challenge test (HCT) to detect in-flight hypoxia in such infants. METHODS: Ex-preterm (gestation < or = 35 completed weeks) infants ready for ...
Sedowofia Kofi - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants receiving supplemental oxygen therapy experience frequent fluctuations in their blood oxygen levels, the magnitude of which has been associated with the incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity in such infants. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate in a relevant animal model whether the immature brain with ...
Adlerberth Ingegerd - - 2008
The establishment of the intestinal microbiota commences at birth and new bacteria establish in succession during the first years of life until an adult-type highly complex microbiota has been achieved. The first bacteria to establish in the neonatal gut are usually aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria, like enterobacteria, enterococci and ...
Mugford Miranda - - 2008
Neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a complex procedure of life support used in severe but potentially reversible respiratory failure in term infants. Although the number of babies eligible for ECMO is small and the use of ECMO invasive and potentially expensive, its benefits may be high. To determine whether ...
Claure Nelson - - 2007
Premature infants are at an increased risk of ophthalmic, neurologic, and respiratory sequelae related to inadequate maintenance of oxygenation and exposure to increased levels of inspired oxygen. Management of inspired oxygen is complicated in this population by an increased variability in oxygenation. Automated regulation of the fraction of inspired oxygen ...
Watson J C - - 2008
The evolution of habitual bipedalism is still a fundamental yet unsolved question for paleoanthropologists, and carrying is popular as an explanation for both the early adoption of upright walking and as a positive selection pressure once a terrestrial lifestyle had been adopted. However, to support or reject any hypothesis that ...
Su P H - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and poor ventilation-perfusion matching are commonly found in preterm infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and respiratory failure. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) can improve gas exchange and decrease pulmonary vascular resistance. This study was conducted to determine whether iNO therapy improves oxygenation in such ...
Darst Jeffrey R - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A case report of an infant with hemodynamic compromise and impending collapse due to congenital junctional ectopic tachycardia. Medical therapy was maximized and he required the rapid initiation of extracorporeal life support, in order to achieve hemodynamic stability. RECENT FINDINGS: This case report briefly reviews the presentation ...
Smith Karen E - - 2008
The potential negative impact of early blood oxygenation on development of specific cognitive and motor outcomes in children born at very low birth weight (VLBW; 1000-1500g) has not been examined even though these infants are exposed to varying durations and amounts of oxygen as part of their neonatal care. While ...
Beardsmore Caroline S - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been shown to be effective in term neonates with severe but reversible lung disease within the context of randomized, controlled trials. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation now has been open to a wider population of infants in the United Kingdom, and other treatments have become available. The ...
Grafe Marjorie R - - 2008
Hypoxic newborns have traditionally been given supplemental oxygen, and until recently, guidelines for neonatal resuscitation recommended that 100% oxygen be used. Exposure to 100% oxygen after hypoxic injury, however, may exacerbate oxidative stress. The current study evaluated the effect of exposure to 100, 40 or 21% oxygen after neonatal hypoxic-ischemic ...
Buckmaster Adam G - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether continuous positive airway pressure therapy would safely reduce the need for up-transfer of infants with respiratory distress from nontertiary centers. METHODS: We randomly assigned 300 infants at >30 weeks of gestation with respiratory distress to receive either Hudson prong bubble continuous positive airway ...
Charette Kevin - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of decreasing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) prime volume for neonates and small infants by using low prime oxygenators, small diameter polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing and removing the arterial line filter (ALF) in an effort to reduce intraoperative exposure to multiple units of packed red blood cells ...
Everest N J - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Rupture of the membranes in the second trimester is reported to be associated with high rates of pregnancy loss, neonatal mortality and morbidity. This article describes the outcomes of liveborn infants delivered following a prolonged period of membrane rupture occurring before 24 weeks' gestation. PATIENTS AND SETTING: Over a ...
Logan J W - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Recent reports suggest that specific care strategies improve survival of infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). This review presents details of care from centers reporting high rates of survival among CDH infants. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a MEDLINE search (1995 to 2006) and searched all citations in the Cochrane ...
Hayakawa Masahiro - - 2007
We evaluated whether a correlation existed between fetal pulmonary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and postnatal mortality, as well as the requirements for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in infants with prenatally diagnosed, isolated left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Twenty-one pregnant women carrying fetuses with CDH underwent 30 MRI scans, and ...
DeGrazia Michele - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To explore the stability of the one-point Infant Car Seat Challenge and risk factors that may be associated with oxygen desaturation events. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This descriptive, nonexperimental, observational study examined the responses of 49 premature infants during two 90-minute Infant Car Seat Challenges at a tertiary health ...
Tiruvoipati R - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) remains the mainstay of management in neonates with severe but potentially reversible respiratory failure. In the UK, ECMO is available only as a supraregional service at four centres. OBJECTIVE: To explore regional variations in ECMO referrals and neonatal deaths due to severe respiratory failure in ...
Clucas Luisa - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the rate of compliance with hospital guidelines for alarm limits for pulse oximetry in preterm infants on oxygen therapy. METHODS: All infants admitted to the nurseries at the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, with gestational age <32 weeks or birth weight ...
Coe Kristi - - 2007
One of the problems that plagues premature infants is retinopathy of prematurity, a potentially blinding disease that occurs because the retina is immature before 34 weeks gestation and must develop in a suboptimal environment when a baby is born early. Prevention by minimizing oxygen exposure has been somewhat effective, but ...
Bhatt Parul - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Four infant deaths in one year due to pertussis at our hospital prompted a retrospective chart review to determine the trends in pertussis hospitalizations in children < one year of age over the past 14 years. METHODS: All medical records from July 1988-June 2002 with pertussis-specific ICD-9 codes were ...
Truog W E - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: We calculated in a referral population of term and near-term infants with hypoxic respiratory failure (HRF) as a primary presenting problem the overall survival rate, the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and the incidence of apparently irreversible disorders. STUDY DESIGN: All infants >or=36-week gestation admitted at <or=72 h ...
Mariani Gonzalo - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pre- and post-ductal oxygen saturation (SpO2) levels during the first minutes after birth in healthy term infants. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective cohort study, sensors were placed on the right hand and on 1 foot of the neonate. Pre- and post-ductal SpO2 levels were recorded during ...
Kritikos Demetrios E - - 2007
The degradation of reactive black 5 (RB 5), a representative diazo dye found in textile effluents, by means of ultraviolet irradiation (9W UVA) over TiO(2) suspensions, ultrasound irradiation (80kHz, 135W) and their combined application was investigated. Several commercial TiO(2) catalysts were screened and an anatase Hombicat UV 100 sample exhibited ...
Robinson Paul D - - 2007
In a world of increasing immigration of a diverse range of nationalities, hereditary hemoglobin variants will be increasingly encountered, and should be considered in infants and children presenting with low saturations. We present a case report of an infant presenting with low oxygen saturations, who was extensively investigated before the ...
Schultz Cynthia M - - 2007
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The incidence of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) approximates 1 in 3000 births, with mortality rates up to 50%. The ability to accurately and easily predict the outcomes of these infants could be a valuable management tool. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a simplified clinical ...
Tin W - - 2007
Oxygen is the most commonly used therapy in neonatal nurseries as an integral part of respiratory support. The goal of oxygen therapy is to achieve adequate delivery of oxygen to the tissue without creating oxygen toxicity. Oxygen must have been given to newborn preterm babies more than any other medicinal ...
Konduri G Ganesh GG Medical College of WI, Dept of Pediatrics and the Children's Research Institute, Milwaukee, WI 53201-1997, USA. - - 2007
To report the neurodevelopmental outcome of infants enrolled in a randomized multicenter trial of early inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in term and near-term neonates with hypoxic respiratory failure and pulmonary hypertension. Neonates born at > or = 34 weeks gestation who required assisted ventilation and had an oxygenation index > ...
Maguire Maria A - - 2007
PURPOSES: To characterize the total hemoglobin concentration ([THb]) and oxyhemoglobin saturation (%HbO2) time courses after brief dorsiflexion maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and to determine whether these responses varied by gender. METHODS: Eighteen healthy, moderately physically active subjects (nine male) lay supine and performed two or more 3-s dorsiflexion MVC. [THb] ...
Chotigeat Uraiwan - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Respiratory failure in term and near term infants is often associated with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and contributes to hypoxemia in these infants. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is currently used as a pulmonary vasodilator to improve oxygenation in neonates with severe respiratory failure. OBJECTIVE: To determine outcome ...
Handy Jonathan - - 2007
The origin of hyperlactataemia during critical illness is complex but its presence can provide an indicator of inadequate tissue oxygen delivery. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) represents a unique situation where systemic oxygen delivery can be directly measured and controlled. In the previous issue of Critical Care, Ranucci and colleagues use this ...
Perrotta C - - 2007
Acute bronchiolitis is the leading cause of medical emergencies during winter in children younger than two years of age. Chest physiotherapy is thought to assist infants in the clearance of secretions and to decrease ventilatory effort. To determine the efficacy and safety of chest physiotherapy in infants aged less than ...
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