Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 926
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Young T L - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a form of cardiopulmonary bypass therapy used in term or near-term infants with severe cardiorespiratory disorders not responsive to conventional intensive care interventions. An ECMO-associated retinal vasculopathy has been described with little reference to the specific condition of the patient. We examined the eyes ...
Grieve S H - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to test the reliability and variation in the readings of two widely used pulse oximeters in preterm infants. DESIGN: Two different pulse oximeters and a transcutaneous PO2 monitor were used to record the data continuously on a cotside computer database. PATIENTS: Sixteen preterm ...
Subhedar N V - - 1997
AIM: To investigate changes in various cardiorespiratory variables with inhaled nitric oxide (NO), as part of a randomised controlled trial. METHODS: Infants were treated with inhaled NO for 72 hours. Changes in oxygenation were assessed using the oxygenation index (OI). Serial changes in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) were assessed using ...
Parida S K - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: Our purpose was to study the effectiveness of endotracheal tolazoline (ET-Tz) in the treatment of neonatal persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN). STUDY DESIGN: ET-Tz was administered to 12 neonates with a clinical diagnosis of PPHN. The gestational age ranged from 25 to 42 weeks, and the birth weights from 850 ...
Garcia O C - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: This pilot study was designed to assess the impact of topical lidocaine and prilocaine cream on the pain response of very low birth weight infants undergoing percutaneous central venous line insertion. STUDY DESIGN: Infants were randomly assigned to receive 1 to 1.25 gm of the topical anesthetic or to ...
Allen B S - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Recent experimental studies have shown that acute hypoxia followed by abrupt reoxygenation using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) results in an unintended injury mediated by oxygen free radicals, which can be modified by initiating CPB at a lower fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) or by leukocyte filtration. However, the clinical relevance ...
Sun Y - - 1997
Open-loop computer control of inspired oxygen concentration was evaluated in 16 newborn infants requiring mechanical ventilation. FIO2 and oxygen saturation were compared for 2-hour periods of computer versus routine manual FIO2 adjustment. During computer-assisted FIO2 adjustment, patients spent more time at the target SaO2 and less time with SaO2 < ...
Van Meurs K P - - 1997
Elevated pulmonary vascular resistance is seen in premature infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to decrease pulmonary vascular resistance and to improve oxygenation in some patients with respiratory failure. The purpose of this study was to determine whether premature infants with severe ...
Lubec G - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Because the hydroxyl radical is capable of oxidizing phenylalanine to O-tyrosine, we sought to determine whether increased levels of O-tyrosine are found in urine of infants treated with supplemental oxygen. METHODS: A total of 39 consecutively admitted neonates to an intensive care unit were included. Twenty-seven received supplemental oxygen ...
Finer N N - - 1997
Nitric oxide given as an inhalation (INO) is a novel selective pulmonary vasodilator without effects on the systemic circulation. Preliminary observations indicated that INO treatment was associated with improvements in oxygenation in near-term newborn infants with hypoxic respiratory failure and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Subsequently, at least ...
Reise J A - - 1997
Glutathione (GSH) was measured using HPLC-electrochemical detection in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 28 neonates for up to 21 days after birth. GSH levels varied from 0.1-11.2 mumol l-1 (with a geometric mean concentration of 1.3 mumol l-1). GSH in epithelial lining fluid was estimated using the urea dilution method at ...
Vijayakumar E - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine practices related to the use of pulse oximetry in monitoring infants of < 1500 gm birth weight on supplemental oxygen. STUDY DESIGN: A mailing list of all neonatal intensive care units with accredited Neonatal-Perinatal Fellowship programs was prepared. A questionnaire was prepared and mailed to collect information ...
Doski J J - - 1997
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is reported to be used in a significant number of neonates before initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). This report establishes the incidence of infants who require CPR before initiation of ECMO and elucidates survival rates and long-term neurological outcomes. In addition, the authors sought prognostic ...
Graziani L J - - 1997
A total of 355 infants have been treated with ECMO at our hospital between 1985 and 1996, 271 of whom have been enrolled in an ongoing prospective study; of the 271 infants enrolled, 223 (82%) survived, and most function within the normal range of development. Nevertheless, handicapping sequelae, including spastic ...
Greisen G - - 1997
In normal newborn term and preterm infants CBF is relatively low corresponding to a low metabolic rate for oxygen, whereas cross-brain oxygen extraction is similar to that in adults. This provides for a considerable reserve capacity to deal with decreased CBF or decreased oxygen content in arterial blood. CBF reactivity ...
Laubscher B - - 1997
The response to three levels (10 ppm, 20 ppm and 40 ppm) of nitric oxide (NO) was assessed in 30 infants, median gestational age 30 (range 24-42) weeks. All the infants required an inspired oxygen concentration of more than 0.5, despite receiving surfactant where appropriate. All but one infant had ...
Dassel A C - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The influence of the location of the sensor on reflectance pulse oximetry during fetal monitoring in labour was investigated using the newborn infant as a model. METHODS: Seven healthy infants were studied between 19 and 48 hours after term delivery. Recordings of reflectance pulse oximetry were obtained from eight ...
McGahren E D - - 1997
In a series of 61 infants who had congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) treated at our center from 1978 through 1996, 37 of 59 (61%) survived the perioperative period with two infants lost to follow-up. Nine (47%) of 19 infants survived before the introduction of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) into our ...
Su B H - - 1997
AIM: To evaluate the pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) change in very low birth-weight (VLBW) infants at risk of chronic lung disease (CLD). METHODS: The time to peak velocity:right ventricular ejection time (TPV:RVET) ratio calculated from the pulmonary artery Doppler waveform, which is inversely related to PAP, was used. The TPV:RVET ...
Courcoulas A P - - 1997
Despite recent advances in the management of high-risk congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), mortality remains high. Deaths occur later because infants with inadequate pulmonary parenchyma are treated aggressively but eventually succumb to respiratory failure. In an attempt to identify absolute predictors of mortality the authors examined retrospectively their experience with CDH ...
- - 1997
OBJECTIVE: We designed and conducted a randomized, double-masked, controlled multicenter study to determine whether inhaled nitric oxide (INO) in term and near-term infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) would reduce the occurrence of death and/or the initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Infants of 34 weeks gestation ...
Atkinson J B - - 1997
BACKGROUND: The topical hemostatic effect of fibrin sealant that has been solvent/detergent treated and plasminogen depleted was evaluated in a multicenter prospective, randomized controlled study at the cannulation site wound of infants undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). METHODS: The test group received standard cauterization and Fibrin sealant, while the control ...
Varn M M - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Ophthalmic examinations performed in infants undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are recommended because ocular abnormalities have been known to occur after this procedure. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of infants treated with ECMO was subsequently underwent routine ophthalmic examination prior to or immediately after hospital discharge. Examinations were performed ...
Carrasco M - - 1997
The effect of oronasopharyngeal suction (ONPS) on arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) is described in a controlled study of 30 normal term newborn infants. In 15 of them, ONPS was performed immediately after birth. The SaO2 value was recorded through a pulse oximeter. The ONPS group had a significantly lower SaO2 ...
Marro P J - - 1997
The effect of allopurinol to inhibit purine metabolism via the xanthine oxidase pathway in neonates with severe, progressive hypoxemia during rescue and reperfusion with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was examined. Twenty-five term infants meeting ECMO criteria were randomized in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Fourteen did not receive allopurinol, whereas 11 ...
Steinhorn R H - - 1997
A complex vascular abnormality in the lungs, termed alveolar capillary dysplasia (ACD) and misalignment of the lung vessels, has been recently recognized in some infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension. These infants die despite maximal medical support including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Inhaled nitric oxide has been reported to improve oxygenation ...
Azarow K - - 1997
PURPOSE: The optimal therapy for congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is evolving. This study analyzes the results of treatment of CDH in a large tertiary care pediatric center using conventional and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) without extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) contrasting these with a parallel study from a similar large urban ...
Simoes E A - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the time required for equilibration of oxygen saturation (SpO2) and the oxygen flow rate that might predict readiness for oxygen weaning to room air in preterm infants with improving bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective longitudinal cohort study, ...
Stewart D L - - 1997
To evaluate the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in patients with Gram-negative or viral sepsis, a survey of ECMO centres comprising the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization was conducted. Data collected from neonatal and paediatric intensive care units included patient demographics, indicators of infection, presence of cardiac instability and respiratory ...
- - 1997
Neonates with pulmonary hypertension have been treated with inhaled nitric oxide because of studies suggesting that it is a selective pulmonary vasodilator. We conducted a randomized, multicenter, controlled trial to determine whether inhaled nitric oxide would reduce mortality or the initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in infants with hypoxic respiratory ...
Skimming J W - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to test the hypothesis that nitric oxide inhalation increases systemic arterial blood oxygen tension of prematurely delivered infants with respiratory distress syndrome. METHODS: Nitric oxide was administered to 23 preterm infants with a diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome. The infants were randomly assigned to receive ...
McEvoy C - - 1997
Extremely low birth weight infants with chronic lung disease (CLD) have frequent episodes of desaturation (hypoxemia). We quantified oxygenation and episodes of hypoxemia in 55 infants (birth weight < or = 1000 gm) with CLD in the supine versus prone position, for 1-hour time intervals. Oxygen saturation was measured with ...
Greenspan J S - - 1997
The decision to place an infant on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is based on predictions of expected morbidity and mortality. One unknown factor is the relationship between pre-ECMO pulmonary dysfunction and on barotrauma and post-ECMO pulmonary sequelae. To determine whether placement of infants on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) early is ...
Dela Cruz T V - - 1997
The need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and repeated correction of persistent acidosis identifies extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients more likely to develop an intracranial hemorrhage. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for an intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in infants on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). This study was a retrospective-matched, ...
Atanasov A - - 1997
Recent development of sophisticated intensive care technique for use in newborn infants with the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) has resulted in changes in the therapeutic strategies and moved the problem of neonatal survival into the realm of new therapeutic realities. At present, the mechanical ventilation methods form an integral part ...
Chan D K - - 1997
Several factors suggested to predict mortality in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) have not always been applicable in different centers. A retrospective review was conducted of 19 consecutive neonates in Singapore in whom CDH was diagnosed within 12 hours of birth to identify factors associated with mortality. Of the 19 cases, ...
McDonald J V - - 1997
While the use of the centrifugal vortex ECMO pump as an alternative to a roller-occlusion pump offers distinct advantages, unacceptable hemolysis may occur during its use in newborn infants. The authors studied 87 consecutive neonatal patients with respiratory failure supported with venoarterial ECMO using a centrifugal vortex pump. Baseline mean ...
Despotova-Toleva L - - 1997
Morbidity and mortality analysis in prematurely born low birth weight (LBW) neonates, very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) neonates forms the cornerstone in current pediatric decision-making from both medical and socioeconomic point of view. The successful introduction of artificial ventilation for neonatal respiratory failure ...
Dimitriou G - - 1997
The speed of action and side-effects of systemic verus inhaled steroids was compared in infants with mild-moderate oxygen dependency. Forty infants (median gestational age 27 weeks) were randomized to receive either 10 days of dexamethasone (systemic group) or budesonide (100 micrograms qds) (inhaled group). At randomization, there was no significant ...
Germain J F - - 1996
The prognosis of antenatally diagnosed congenital diaphragmatic hernias (CDH) is clearly related to the degree of pulmonary hypoplasia (PH). After birth, controversies remain regarding the implementation of various therapies, especially the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). In the literature, the persistence of a Pao2 below 100 mm Hg and ...
Halliday H L - - 1996
This study is based on clinical data from a retrospective series of 54 infants with meconium aspiration syndrome treated with porcine surfactant at a median age of 14 h (range 1-176 h). Median arterial/ alveolar oxygen tension ratio (a/A PO2 ratio) before treatment was 0.08 (range 0.02-0.23) and oxygenation index ...
Stolar C J - - 1996
An important consequence of the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) era is a renewed interest by pediatric surgeons in the infant with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). As increasing numbers of the infants survive, previously unappreciated aspects of the problem are being unmasked, provoking important questions as to their etiology. Importantly, as ...
Lally K P - - 1996
Since the introduction of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support for neonatal respiratory failure, the use of ECMO for infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia has increased significantly. ECMO is offered to infants with a high risk of dying (with reported survival rates of 38% to 65%). Unstable infants can be placed ...
Goldman A P - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical role of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in the treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective open observational clinical study. SETTING: A regional cardiac and pediatric intensive care unit. METHODS: Twenty-five consecutive near-term neonates (> 35 weeks gestation) with severe PPHN ...
Tang S F - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been shown to cause selective pulmonary vasodilatation and improve ventilation-perfusion matching and may be an important therapeutic option for the treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). We report our experience on the use of iNO in neonates with severe PPHN. METHODOLOGY: ...
Finer N N - - 1996
Venovenous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) using a double lumen catheter has become an accepted method of providing ECMO support for critically ill newborn infants. In addition, use of the cephalic jugular catheter can provide augmented venous blood flow, potentially prevent increased cerebral venous pressure, maintain cerebral venous blood flow, ...
Porter J S - - 1996
The effects of epidural fentanyl on the incidence of maternal hypoxaemia during labour and on neonatal welfare were examined. Women were randomly allocated to receive one of two epidural infusions, bupivacaine 0.125% alone or bupivacaine 0.0625% with 2.5 micrograms.ml-1 fentanyl, and maternal arterial oxygen saturation was monitored continuously until delivery. ...
Lessin M S - - 1996
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was used successfully in two children who had respiratory failure secondary to smoke inhalation injury. The first involved a 20% body surface area burn with initial carboxyhemoglobin of 26%. The patient developed varicella pneumonia, which complicated his respiratory failure; he was placed on ECMO for 7 ...
Hauer A C AC St. Bartholomew's Hospital, Medical College, Academic Department of Paediatric Gastro-enterology, London, - - 1996
In a prospective, randomised, open trial 103 term newborns with persisting dyspnoea, tachypnoea and/or cyanosis were treated with oxygen for 5-10 min and then with oxygen plus mask continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for another 5-15 min. Cases with overt prenatal or intrapartum obstetric pathology had been excluded from the ...
Roosevelt G - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Although corticosteroids are commonly prescribed in the treatment of bronchiolitis, there is no evidence on the efficacy of these drugs in this disorder. We designed a randomised, double-blind, prospective study to assess the efficacy of dexamethasone in infants with bronchiolitis who require hospital management. METHODS: Infants younger than 12 ...
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