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Results 251 - 300 of 563
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Madianos P N - - 2001
Clinical data from the first 812 deliveries from a cohort study of pregnant mothers entitled Oral Conditions and Pregnancy (OCAP) demonstrate that both antepartum maternal periodontal disease and incidence/progression of periodontal disease are associated with preterm birth and growth restriction after adjusting for traditional obstetric risk factors. In the current ...
Duangjinda M - - 2001
Parameters for direct and maternal dominance were estimated in models that included non-additive genetic effects. The analyses used weaning weight records adjusted for age of dam from populations of Canadian Hereford (n = 467,814), American Gelbvieh (n = 501,552), and American Charolais (n = 314,552). Method R estimates of direct ...
Webb D - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of maternal length of stay (LOS) legislation on LOS and hospital charges associated with Philadelphia resident live births from 1994 through 1997. DATA SOURCE/STUDY SETTING: This was a descriptive epidemiological study involving secondary data analyses of linked birth record and hospital discharge data pertaining to ...
Khong T Y - - 2001
Placental basal plate myometrial fibers reflect mild placenta accreta. We tested the hypotheses that a macroscopically disrupted area relates to an area where the placenta is focally adherent and that the incidence of placenta accreta is higher than stated in the literature. Sagittal blocks were taken from the basal plate ...
Dimitrakakis C - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To use data from the National Statistical Service of Greece to examine trends in maternal mortality and risk factors for maternal deaths. STUDY DESIGN: Maternal mortality in Greece has been studied from years 1980 to 1996 in total, by cause of death, by residency (urban/rural) and by maternal age. ...
Chen C W - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal self-esteem and maternal attachment in mothers of hospitalized premature infants. The research instruments administered included: a demographic sheet, the Maternal Self-Report Inventory (MSRI), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Leifer's How I Feel About My Baby Now Scale. Thirty-two mothers ...
Ronca A E - - 2001
A major goal of space life sciences research is to broaden scientific knowledge of the influence of gravity on living systems. Recent spaceflight and centrifugation studies demonstrate that reproduction and ontogenesis in mammals are amenable to study under gravitational conditions that deviate considerably from those typically experienced on Earth (1 ...
Majoko F - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine the magnitude, trends and the main causes of maternal death for Harare Maternity Hospital (HMH) and thereby identify potential areas for interventions. DESIGN: A descriptive retrospective analysis of maternal mortality data from the institution included in publications and recent annual reports. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology ...
Wasalathanthri S - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of maternal nutritional status and some other possible determinants on lactational amenorrhea/anovulation. DESIGN: Prospective matched-pairs study. SETTING: Postpartum wards and community and academic settings. PATIENT(S): Thirty matched pairs of otherwise healthy, well-nourished (body mass index > or = 26.00 kg/m2) and undernourished (body mass index ...
Clegg E J - - 2001
Maternal ages at the first maternity (starting), at the last maternity (stopping) and the lengths of intervals between maternities (spacing) have been studied in the Outer Hebridean islands of Harris and Barra for births between the years of 1855 and 1990, a period during which a considerable 'fertility transition' occurred. ...
Bereczkei T - - 2001
Low birthweight and the infant's health status are expected to strongly influence the child's reproductive value and, thus, the maternal decisions on the amount and timing of investment. A total of 590 Hungarian primiparous mothers giving birth in the late 1980s were recruited for the longitudinal study. Mothers of high-risk ...
Brunelli S A - - 2001
N:NIH rats were selectively bred on the basis of high or low rates of ultrasonic vocalization (USV) response to isolation at 10 days of age (Brunelli et al., 1997: Dev Psychobiol 31:255-265). To examine the possibility of postnatal maternal effects in the generational transmission of divergent traits, pups were cross-fostered ...
Wee L - - 2001
Eclampsia and pre-eclampsia are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the obstetric population. The latest triennial report on Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths found hypertensive disorders of pregnancy to be the second most common cause of maternal deaths directly attributable to pregnancy. The management of eclampsia includes the control ...
Shawky S - - 2001
Early marriage of girls, close to age of menarche, is a widespread practice in Arab countries. Knowledge on the cumulative effect of early maternal marriage on maternal and infant health during the childbearing period is insufficient. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of early maternal marriage ...
Stanton C - - 2001
Methods for measuring maternal mortality at national and subnational levels in the developing world lag far behind the demand for estimates. We evaluated use of the national population census as a means of measuring maternal mortality by assessing data from five countries (Benin, Islamic Republic of Iran, Lao People's Democratic ...
Maine D - - 2001
Socioeconomic factors affect nearly every cause of death, but not always in the same ways. Understanding which components of socioeconomic development were responsible for the great declines in maternal mortality in the United States and Britain can help us design effective programs in developing countries. The literature shows that maternal ...
Addison R F - - 2001
In blubber from maternal grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) from Sable Is., NS, sigma DDT (p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT) concentrations declined from 12 micrograms/g lipid in 1974 to 0.5 microgram/g in 1994. Pup blubber sigma DDT concentrations were about 60% of those of their mothers, and declined at similar rates. In maternal ...
LeBlanc G A - - 2000
Laboratory studies have suggested that some alkylphenols and pesticides elicit developmental toxicity to crustaceans. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the possibility that the alkylphenol degradation product 4-nonylphenol is embryotoxic to the crustacean Daphnia magna through its known ability to interfere with the metabolic elimination of testosterone. ...
Shiffman J - - 2000
Does poverty bind developing countries to high levels of maternal death in childbirth? Or, as safe-motherhood advocates claim, do public health and social policy interventions have the potential to accelerate maternal mortality transitions? Globally, almost one in 200 live births leads to the death of the mother, making maternal mortality ...
Berhane Y - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Effective methods for measuring maternal mortality in developing countries are important, particularly in assessing interventions aiming for safer motherhood. Here the performance of different approaches is compared in the same setting. METHODS: Estimates of maternal mortality in a rural Ethiopian community are reported, made by direct observation, a case-control ...
Sawhney H - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To analyse factors associated with maternal mortality in eclampsia and preeclampsia. METHOD: Retrospective analysis of 69 maternal deaths due to (eclampsia-61; severe preeclampsia-8) was carried out during a period of 17 years (1982-1998). Maternal condition on admission, associated complications and principal cause of death was analysed in each case. ...
Olsen B E - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To estimate maternal mortality in two samples of a population in northern Tanzania. SETTING: Rural communities and antenatal clinics, Mbulu and Hanang districts, Arusha region, Tanzania. POPULATION: From a household survey 2,043 men and women aged 15-60, and from an antenatal clinic survey 4,172 women aged 15-59. METHOD: The ...
Biringen Z - - 2000
Maternal representations of the self as parent were assessed via the Parent Attachment and Peer Relationship Interviews (Bretherton, Biringen, Ridgeway, Maslin-Cole, & Sherman, 1989; Biringen & Bretherton, 1988) when children were 39 months of age. Maternal sensitivity and maternal structuring during mother-child interactions were assessed at 18, 24 and 39 ...
Novicoff W M - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to develop a comprehensive risk-assessment approach capable of evaluating maternal and fetal outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Data from 10,984 women and 11,066 infants delivered at 79 military treatment facilities in the United States from 1995 to 1997 were used to develop two individual but complementary risk-adjustment ...
Mirmiran M - - 2000
The fetal biological clock is an endogenous clock capable of generating circadian rhythms and responding to maternal entraining signals. By at least the third trimester of pregnancy fetal diurnal rhythms are entrainable by maternal day-night rhythms. Maternal illness during pregnancy and premature birth are obvious clinical factors that may adversely ...
Fite J E - - 2000
Recent studies in primates have suggested that pre- and peripartum sex steroid hormones may be important determinants of maternal behavior and motivation, since higher levels of prepartum estrogen are associated with maternal competency and infant survivorship. To test the cross-species generality of this finding, we monitored excreted profiles of estradiol ...
Lönnerdal B - - 2000
Breast-fed infants are dependent on an adequate supply of minerals and trace elements for normal growth and development. For most of these elements, the mammary gland appears to have developed mechanisms to regulate their concentrations, even when the maternal diet varies considerably or maternal conditions are affected by different challenges. ...
Paruk F - - 2000
Early-onset pre-eclampsia and late-onset pre-eclampsia, by virtue of their unpredictable nature and prediliction for multi-organ involvement, are associated with substantial maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Recent years have seen the introduction of the concepts of care in specialized units, expectant management of pre-eclampsia, conservative management of the HELLP syndrome ...
Martin J N JN - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is a risk factor for severe preeclampsia. We sought to ascertain whether a similar relationship exists between maternal weight and HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets) as an atypical form of severe preeclampsia. METHODS: In this retrospective investigation, 434 patients with HELLP syndrome were ...
Shaw G M - - 2000
Previous studies have observed an increased risk of approximately twofold or more for neural tube defects (NTD) associated with maternal obesity before pregnancy based on a body mass index (BMI) of > 29 kg/m2. No additional maternal factor appeared substantially to influence this association. Here, we explore further the association ...
Baldo M H - - 2000
The paper examines developments in the assessment and prevention of maternal mortality over the past 2 decades through review of the relevant literature. Problems of classifying and ranking causes, changing methodologies, discrepancies and illogical trends are demonstrated. Identifying causes of maternal mortality by surveillance and death reviews, rather than measuring ...
Loudon I - - 2000
High maternal mortality was a feature of the Western world from the mid-19th century, when reliable record keeping commenced, to the mid-1930s. During this time, maternal mortality rates tended to remain on a high plateau, although there was wide disparity between countries in the height of the plateau. From approximately ...
Einum S - - 2000
Why do highly fecund organisms apparently sacrifice offspring size for increased numbers when offspring survival generally increases with size? The theoretical tools for understanding this evolutionary trade-off between number and size of offspring have developed over the past 25 years; however, the absence of data on the relation between offspring ...
McGovern P - - 2000
Relatively little is known about the role that leave policies--family, parental, or maternity-leave policies--play in facilitating time off work after childbirth. Yet time off is a critical element of leave policies, as it facilitates the mother's recovery from childbirth and promotes maternal-infant attachment. Using data from Minnesota, the state with ...
Orach C G - - 2000
A community-based retrospective maternal mortality study using the Sisterhood method was conducted in Gulu district between February and March 1996. The objectives were to estimate the magnitude of and identify factors associated with maternal mortality in the district. A total of 5522 adult respondents, randomly selected from 27 parishes, of ...
Kassim O O - - 2000
Complications from falciparum malaria are responsible for over one million infant deaths annually. There is as yet no clinically protective vaccine that has been developed against human malaria parasites. While several studies have demonstrated the inhibitory properties of human sera against Plasmodium falciparum, there is no reported investigation that has ...
Wimmer E A - - 2000
The maternal determinant Bicoid (Bcd) represents the paradigm of a morphogen that provides positional information for pattern formation. However, as bicoid seems to be a recently acquired gene in flies, the question was raised as to how embryonic patterning is achieved in organisms with more ancestral modes of development. Because ...
Legnain M - - 2000
We conducted a clinicoepidemiological study of 14 maternal deaths out of 79,981 live births at Al-Jamahiriya Hospital, Benghazi between 1993 and 1997. The maternal mortality rate per 100,000 live births was 17.5. The reproductive profile of these women was: mean age 31.5 +/- 6.9 years, mean parity 4.5, mean birth ...
Hoyert D L - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The 1998 public awareness campaign on Safe Motherhood called attention to the issue of maternal mortality worldwide. This paper focuses upon maternal mortality trends in the United States and Canada, and examines differentials in maternal mortality in the United States by maternal characteristics. METHODS: Data from the vital statistics ...
Nagata M - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted for evaluating incidence of maternity blues in Japan, in addition to clarifying the relationship between maternity blues and maternal attachment, and the factors involved. METHOD: A questionnaire survey was conducted on 417 mothers having given birth at the Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital. The questionnaire ...
Font F - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Deaths from maternal causes represent the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age in most developing countries. It is estimated that the highest risk occurs in Africa, with 20% of world births but 40% of the world maternal deaths. The level of maternal mortality is difficult to ...
Hieu D T - - 1999
This report presents the first population-based estimates of maternal mortality in Vietnam. All the deaths of women aged 15-49 in 1994-95 in three provinces of Vietnam were identified and classified by cause. Maternal mortality was the fifth most frequent cause of death. The maternal mortality ratio was 155 deaths per ...
Fowles E R - - 1999
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of demonstrating the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) on the development of a maternal identity. DESIGN: Quasiexperimental design with matched groups. METHODS: As part of a larger longitudinal study examining maternal identity, pregnant women were recruited during prenatal classes or routine obstetrical visits; they ...
Sameshima H - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine the causes of maternal deaths by intracranial haemorrhage in Japan. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of records relating to maternal deaths in 1991 and 1992. SAMPLES: Two hundred and thirty maternal deaths, including 25 cases of primary intracranial haemorrhage and two cases with secondary bleeding. METHODS: Attending doctors were ...
Buckley K - - 1999
Fetal and Infant Mortality Review (FIMR) has been a dynamic process from its inception in the 1980s. Essentially, it is a local, community-driven process that has grown and been refined as more communities adopt the methodology. The National Fetal and Infant Mortality Review (NFIMR) Program, a partnership between the federal ...
Shtrasburg S - - 1999
Amyloid enhancing factor (AEF) is a substance formed during amyloidogenesis that accelerates amyloid deposition in tissues. The administration of AEF followed by AgNO3 (inflammatory stimulus) to mice results in amyloidosis within 6 days. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the offspring of amyloidotic mice are exposed to ...
Ujah I A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine the magnitude and trend of maternal mortality in Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria. SUBJECT: All women dying in pregnancy, labour and puerperium. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal mortality ratio, trend of maternal mortality, age, antenatal booking status, ...
Maloney S - - 1999
Recent studies indicate that fetal cells persist in maternal blood for decades after pregnancy. Maternal cells are known to engraft and persist in infants with immunodeficiency, but whether maternal cells persist long-term in immunocompetent offspring has not specifically been investigated. We developed sensitive human leukocyte antigen-specific (HLA-specific) PCR assays and ...
Ngom P - - 1999
This report presents key findings from a maternal mortality study conducted in the Kassena-Nankana District of northern Ghana in 1997-98. Sibling history data collected in the course of this survey are analyzed together with longitudinal data from the Navrongo Demographic Surveillance System (NDSS). A comparison between mortality data from these ...
Sullivan M C - - 1999
Control, as an aspect of maternal interaction, has been found to be an important component to optimal child development. Maternal control style is defined as a mother's tendency to be controlling or supportive of her child's autonomy. The relationship between two types of maternal characteristics, proximal and distal, and maternal ...
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