Search Results
Results 151 - 200 of 565
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Shin Hyunjeong - - 2006
AIM: This paper reports a study examining the relationship of maternal sensitivity to maternal identity, social support, maternal-fetal attachment and demographic variables. BACKGROUND: Maternal sensitivity is a mother's ability to perceive and interpret accurately her infant's signals and communications, and then respond appropriately. It is one of the major influencing ...
Samad Lamiya - - 2006
We examined uptake of primary immunisations in infancy and the reasons given by mothers for either incompletely or not immunising their infants. We used data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a cohort of 18,819 infants born between September 2000 and January 2002 in the UK. 95.6% infants were reported to ...
Gupta N - - 2006
Maternal mortality is a major health and development concern. The available information on maternal mortality in rural India is inadequate and scanty. This study presented maternal mortality data from the demographically and developmentally (including for health) poor performing state of Uttar Pradesh. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted utilizing a ...
Teng R-J - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Early neonatal hypotension (ENH) is common in premature infants and has been claimed to occur more frequently in infants born to mothers with severe preeclampsia. Previous studies that showed a relationship between maternal preeclampsia and neonatal hypotension did not control for potential confounding factors such as birth weight and ...
Ochejele, Silas; Federal Medical ...
Context: The Federal Medical Centre Makurdi is the only tertiary health institution in Benue State. Maternal deaths are a frequent occurrence in the centre thereby necessitating this study. Objective: To determine the maternal mortality ratio, the case fatality rate and the contribution of direct obstetric complications to these deaths. Subjects ...
Möhler Eva - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Infant distress to novelty at 4 months of life has previously been identified as an important predictor of longer term emotional development in childhood and adolescence. AIM: To investigate the relationship between prenatal stress and infant reactivity to unfamiliar visual, auditory and olfactory stimuli. STUDY DESIGN: Maternal emotional stress, ...
Torrico Faustino - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Comparing two surveys performed in Bolivia in 1992-1994 and 1999-2001, we reported a significant decrease in the proportions of severe and mortal forms of congenital Chagas disease. This might be due to a reduction of vectorial density (VD) in maternal residence area, raising the question of a possible causal ...
Eising Corine M - - 2006
An increasing number of studies in a variety of taxa demonstrate the role of maternal sex steroids on offspring development. In avian species, mothers deposit substantial amounts of androgens in their eggs, and experimental evidence indicates that these maternal androgens influence the chick's early development. Despite the well-known organizing role ...
Athavale Deepa - - 2006
BACKGROUND: With the recent changes to the UK BCG vaccination programme, the emphasis on childhood immunisation changes to identification and immunisation of at risk neonates. We report our experience of improving the system for provision of early BCG immunisation to high-risk infants born in the east of Glasgow. METHODS: A ...
Al-Adili N - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To assess maternal mortality and determine the most common causes of maternal death among Palestinian women. METHODS: Available data on the 431 women who died between the ages of 15 and 49 years in the West Bank in 2000 and 2001 were reviewed. The data were collected from official ...
Jarrell John F - - 2006
BACKGROUND: A reduction in the secondary sex ratio may be associated with exposure to environmental toxicants. Little data exists relating this outcome to lead exposure, a well-known reproductive toxicant. METHODS: We studied 1980 women having singleton births from 1994 to 1995 and from 1997 to 2001 who participated in a ...
Dumont Alexandre - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The improvement of obstetric services is one of the key components of the Safe Motherhood Programme. Reviewing maternal deaths and complications is one method that may make pregnancy safer, but there is no evidence about the effectiveness of this strategy. The objective of our before and after study is ...
Parker Karen J - - 2006
The stress inoculation hypothesis presupposes that brief intermittent stress exposure early in life induces the development of subsequent stress resistance in human and nonhuman primates. Rodent studies, however, suggest a role for maternal care rather than stress exposure per se (i.e., the maternal mediation hypothesis). To investigate these two hypotheses, ...
Enohumah K O - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality related to anaesthesia is low compared with that resulting from obstetric factors in developed countries. The role of anaesthesia in maternal mortality in developing countries is obscure. The purposes of this study were to determine the incidence of maternal mortality related to anaesthesia, to analyse the causes ...
Mazouni Chafika - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To study maternal and anthropomorphic parameters as potential risk factors for shoulder dystocia. MATERIAL AND METHOD: From a series of 9667 vaginal deliveries between January 1998 and December 2003, a total of 138 cases complicated by shoulder dystocia were retrospectively identified and compared with a control group of 138 ...
Reser Jared Edward - - 2006
This article will propose that humans have an adaptive vulnerability to certain forms of mental retardation, specifically, neuropathological disorders that cause decreased energy expenditure in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex. This hypothesis will be analyzed in terms of the thrifty phenotype paradigm according to which adverse prenatal events can ...
Oyieke J B O - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To review if there is a change in the maternal mortality rate at the Kenyatta National Hospital since the inception of the Millennium Development Goal strategy in 1990, compared to earlier reviews. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Maternal deaths attributed directly to obstetric causes. ...
Leary Sam S Medical Research Council, Environmental Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. - - 2006
Size and body proportions at birth are partly determined by maternal body composition, but most studies of mother-baby relationships have only considered the effects of maternal height and weight on offspring birth weight, and few have examined the size of effects. Paternal size and body composition also play a role, ...
van den Bergh Bea R H - - 2006
Antenatal maternal anxiety has been shown to be related to infant temperament, childhood disorders, and impulsivity in adolescence. This study prospectively investigated whether antenatal maternal anxiety is associated with performance on a continuous performance task. Sixty-four adolescents (mean age, 15 y; 34 boys, 30 girls) were examined with a computerized ...
Sunderam Saswati - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To link data from the US assisted reproductive technology (ART) registry with the Massachusetts birth-infant death file to create a comprehensive dataset on the circumstances surrounding conception and maternal and infant outcomes for a population of ART-conceived infants. METHODS: The authors sought to link data for 3704 ART-conceived live-born ...
Paavola L - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Maternal responsiveness has been found to have an important role in early language acquisition. From early on, children can also be regarded as active participants in interaction who demonstrate increasing competence in conveying messages to their interactive partners. Hence, in order to demonstrate consistent effects of maternal responses, it ...
Small Maria J - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The maternal mortality ratio in Haiti remains one of the highest in the world at 600/100 000 live births. Preeclampsia- and eclampsia-related complications are one of the leading causes of maternal death. In this resource-limited setting, effective, efficient hospital-based interventions are necessary to reduce this risk. Our objective was ...
Ross Louise - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Reducing the worldwide mortality ratio by 75 per cent between 1990 and 2015 is a key Millennium Development Goal. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the accepted 'gold standard' to assess the effectiveness of interventions but they are not always appropriate for practical, ethical or economic reasons in developing countries. ...
Badyaev Alexander V - - 2005
Adaptive evolution is often strongly influenced by maternal inheritance that transfers the parental strategies across generations. The consequences of maternal effects for the offspring generation depend on the between-generation similarity in environments and on the evolved sensitivity of the offspring's ontogeny to maternal effects. When these factors differ between sons ...
Ruiz R Jeanne - - 2005
There is growing evidence that maternal prenatal stress may be hazardous to infant health. Changes in maternal hormonal and immune function as a result of stress may adversely affect the immune function and neurodevelopment of the fetus. Prenatal stress in the mother may produce lasting effects on the (1) infant's ...
WaƄkowska Marta - - 2006
This study was designed to investigate the histochemical effects of maternal deprivation on the adrenocorticotrophic and gonadotrophic axes in the hypothalamo-pituitary unit of preweanling lambs. Twelve-week-old female lambs were divided into either the control (lambs reared under undisturbed maternal conditions; n=3) or the maternally deprived group (lambs separated for three ...
Fawcus S R - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To audit trends in maternal mortality in the Peninsula Maternal and Neonatal Service (PMNS) over a 50-year period, with respect to rates and patterns of causation. DESIGN: Retrospective and prospective audit. SETTING: The PMNS, an integrated perinatal service composed of primary, secondary and tertiary facilities in Cape Town. Population ...
Sullivan Scott A - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Our study's objective was to determine the relationship between state-specific maternal mortality ratios and the density of maternal-fetal medicine specialists. STUDY DESIGN: State maternal mortality ratios from 1994 to 2001 were calculated from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention WONDER database. Practitioner distribution data were obtained from professional ...
Roso V M - - 2005
(Co)variance components, direct and maternal breed additive, dominance, and epistatic loss effects on preweaning weight gain of beef cattle were estimated. Data were from 478,466 animals in Ontario, Canada, from 1986 to 1999, including records of both purebred and crossbred animals from Angus, Blonde d'Aquitaine, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Maine-Anjou, ...
Benton T G - - 2005
The way that mothers provision their offspring can have important consequences for their offspring's performance throughout life. Models suggest that maternally induced variation in life histories may have large population dynamical effects, even perhaps driving cycles such as those seen in forest Lepidoptera. The evidence for large maternal influences on ...
Andersen D H - - 2005
Maternal effects on progeny wing size and shape in a homozygous parthenogenetic strain of Drosophila mercatorum were investigated. The impact of external maternal factors (heat stress) and the impact of internal maternal factors (different maternal and grand maternal age) were studied. The offspring developed under identical environmental conditions, and due ...
Benowitz-Fredericks Z Morgan - - 2005
Recent studies examining patterns and consequences of variation in maternally deposited steroids in avian egg yolk have demonstrated that these maternal hormones can have dramatic effects on chick phenotypes. However, maternal steroids are not the only source for avian embryos, which activate endocrine axes relatively early in development and are ...
Quinlivan J A - - 2005
We examined whether the prenatal detection of family violence and initiation of a comprehensive prenatal individualised care program could ameliorate the impact of family violence on maternal attachment to her infant at 6-months of age. An assessment of domestic violence was established for each subject at the 1(st) antenatal visit ...
Poindron Pascal - - 2005
In mammals, the activation of maternal behaviour depends on internal maternal factors related with parturition. The nature of these factors may vary between species, although oestradiol, foetus expulsion and intracerebral oxytocin are the most commonly encountered. They induce a period of specific receptivity to some sensory cues provided by the ...
Maynard Sharon E - - 2005
Preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific syndrome of hypertension and proteinuria, is characterized by defective placental vasculogenesis and widespread maternal endothelial dysfunction. Although the manifestations of preeclampsia are primarily maternal, the burden of morbidity and mortality is often on the neonate, since the only effective treatment-delivery of the fetus and placenta-often results in ...
Loo Kek Khee - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relations of sociodemographic factors and infant neurobehaviors to maternal confidence in China. METHODS: The Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, Family APGAR, and Maternal Confidence in Caring for the Newborn scales were administered to 40 healthy, full-term neonates. RESULTS: Range and regulation of state, autonomic stability, and ...
Varner Michael W - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that oligohydramnios would be diagnosed more frequently in the warm summer months when dehydration might be more common. METHODS: The clinical diagnosis of oligohydramnios was extracted from the databases of four completed National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal Fetal Medicine Units Network protocols. These ...
Wilson A J - - 2005
Heritable maternal effects have important consequences for the evolutionary dynamics of phenotypic traits under selection, but have only rarely been tested for or quantified in evolutionary studies. Here we estimate maternal effects on early-life traits in a feral population of Soay sheep (Ovis aries) from St Kilda, Scotland. We then ...
King Suzanne - - 2005
There exists considerable research on the effects of prenatal maternal stress on offspring. Animal studies, using random assignment to experimental and control groups, demonstrate the noxious effects of prenatal maternal stress on physical, behavioural and cognitive development. The generalizability of these results to humans is problematic given that cognitive attributions ...
Weisskopf Marc G - - 2005
Fish consumption may be beneficial for a developing human fetus, but fish may also contain contaminants that could be detrimental. Great Lakes sport-caught fish (GLSCF) are contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), but the effects of these contaminants on birth outcome are not clear. To distinguish potential ...
Wilson Alastair J - - 2005
Reproductive and early life-history traits can be considered aspects of either offspring or maternal phenotype, and their evolution will therefore depend on selection operating through offspring and maternal components of fitness. Furthermore, selection at these levels may be antagonistic, with optimal offspring and maternal fitness occurring at different phenotypic values. ...
Dekker G A - - 2005
Preeclampsia still ranks as one of obstetrics major problems. Clinicians typically encounter preeclampsia as maternal disease with variable degrees of fetal involvement. More and more the unique immunogenetic maternal-paternal relationship is appreciated, and as such also the specific 'genetic conflict' that is characteristic of haemochorial placentation. From that perspective preeclampsia ...
Ujah I A O - - 2005
The adolescent maternal mortality ratio is high in Jos, north-central Nigeria. The main causes of maternal deaths among the adolescents were unsafe abortion, eclampsia and sepsis. The Hausa/Fulani ethnic group constituted the largest ethnic group of adolescent maternal deaths in our study. The risk factors for adolescent maternal mortality found ...
Oladapo Olufemi T - - 2005
To determine the frequency of near-miss (severe acute maternal morbidity) and the nature of near-miss events, and comparatively analysed near-miss morbidities and maternal deaths among pregnant women managed over a 3-year period in a Nigerian tertiary centre. Retrospective facility-based review of cases of near-miss and maternal death which occurred between ...
Betrán Ana P - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Despite the worldwide commitment to improving maternal health, measuring, monitoring and comparing maternal mortality estimates remain a challenge. Due to lack of data, international agencies have to rely on mathematical models to assess its global burden. In order to assist in mapping the burden of reproductive ill-health, we conducted ...
D'Amato Francesca R - - 2005
In rats and mice, the ultrasonic vocalizations emitted by pups have been suggested to modulate maternal behavior. In the present study we show that the number of calls emitted by mouse pups can reflect maternal responsiveness. Maternal responsiveness towards pups was evaluated on postnatal day 8 using a three-compartment cage ...
Lema V M - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality in Malawi continues to increase despite the global SMI and national safe motherhood programme's efforts to reduce it. OBJECTIVES: To identify the social, demographic and reproductive profiles of women suffering a maternal death, the main immediate causes and the operational factors. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive survey. SETTING: ...
Hopkins William D - - 2004
Left-sided maternal cradling has been widely reported in human populations. In this paper, I review the evidence of laterality in maternal cradling and infant positional biases in non-human primates. The review revealed some evidence of population-left sided cradling in great apes but little consistency in bias was found among Old ...
De Lathouwers Mieke - - 2004
Studies on Cercopithecine primate maternal styles, using factor analysis on a set of maternal behaviors, commonly render two factors that describe separate dimensions of maternal behavior: protectiveness and rejection. The aims of this study were to 1) investigate whether this method for determining maternal styles in Cercopithecine species can be ...
Weinstock Marta - - 2005
Recent studies in humans suggest that alterations in the activity of the neuroendocrine system mediate the effects of psychosocial stress on fetal development and birth outcome. Chronic maternal distress compromises the normal regulation of hormonal activity during pregnancy and elevates free circulating corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), probably of placental origin, before ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >