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Results 301 - 350 of 937
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Beddek Amanda J - - 2004
Iron acquisition in vivo by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae depends upon a functional TonB system. Tonpitak et al. (W. Tonpitak, S. Thiede, W. Oswald, N. Baltes, and G.-F. Gerlach, Infect. Immun. 68:1164-1170, 2000) have described one such system, associated with tbpBA encoding the transferrin receptor, and here we report a second, termed ...
Fischer Walker Christa - - 2004
Zinc is an essential micronutrient for human growth, development, and immune function. Zinc deficiency impairs overall immune function and resistance to infection. Mild to moderate zinc deficiency can be best detected through a positive response to supplementation trials. Zinc supplementation has been shown to have a positive effect on the ...
Miao Ge - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to supply a scientific basis for uniting the normal reference value standard of hemoglobin of Chinese infant girls. METHODS: A research study was carried out concerning the relationship between the normal reference value of 3,771 examples of hemoglobin of infant girls and altitude ...
Willows Noreen D - - 2004
The prevalence of anemia in Aboriginal children is high, but, given the high burden of infection in these children, the extent to which anemia is due to iron deficiency and/or infection is unclear. To determine the contribution of iron deficiency to anemia, we screened 144 Aboriginal infants (70 boys, 74 ...
Quarmby Lynne M - - 2004
Deciliation, also known as deflagellation, flagellar autotomy, flagellar excision, or flagellar shedding, refers to the process whereby eukaryotic cells shed their cilia or flagella, often in response to stress. Used for many decades as a tool for scientists interested in the structure, function, and genesis of cilia, deciliation itself is ...
Andersen Frank D - - 2004
Iron overload is a serious condition, which may lead to irreversible organ damage. The risk of iron accumulation in pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD) has traditionally been regarded as low, but recent evidence has questioned this notion. We here present a case of a young PKD patient showing evidence of asymptomatic ...
Wu Y - - 2004
To investigate the distribution of microheterogeneous subfractions of transferrin in fetal blood and the influence of highly sialylated transferrins on fetal growth. Serum transferrin concentrations were determined by a standard turbidimetric assay. Microheterogeneous transferrin subfractions were assessed by crossed immunoisoelectric focusing. In normal term infants, total serum transferrin concentrations and ...
Stoltzfus Rebecca J - - 2003
Iron deficiency is considered to be one of most prevalent forms of malnutrition, yet there has been a lack of consensus about the nature and magnitude of the health consequences of iron deficiency in populations. This paper presents new estimates of the public health importance of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), which ...
Baqui Abdullah H - - 2003
Given the high prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies and infectious diseases in infants in developing countries, an evaluation of the efficacy of different micronutrient formulations on infant morbidity is a priority. The efficacy of weekly supplementation of four different micronutrient formulations on diarrhea and acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) morbidity was ...
Walter Tomas - - 2003
Iron-deficiency anemia in infancy has been consistently shown to negatively influence performance in tests of psychomotor development. In most studies of short-term follow-up, lower scores did not improve with iron therapy, despite complete hematologic replenishment. The negative impact on psychomotor development of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy has been well ...
Wolf Abraham W - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of iron therapy on blood lead levels in infants with mildly elevated lead levels and varied iron status. METHODS: Infants from a community-derived sample in Costa Rica were categorized into five groups. Group 1 had iron-deficiency anemia with hemoglobin levels <or=105 g/L. Infants in group ...
Miller Melissa F - - 2003
One method of preventing postnatal iron deficiency is to ensure that the infant is born with a full endowment of iron. We calculated total body iron at birth (TBI) as the sum of hemoglobin iron (HbI) and body storage iron (BSI) in 2021 Zimbabwean newborns, and related TBI to subsequent ...
Rao Raghavendra - - 2003
Cognitive deficits in human infants at risk for gestationally acquired perinatal iron deficiency suggest involvement of the developing hippocampus. To understand the plausible biological explanations for hippocampal injury in perinatal iron deficiency, a neurochemical profile of 16 metabolites in the iron-deficient rat hippocampus was evaluated longitudinally by 1H NMR spectroscopy ...
Mayhew Susan L - - 2003
No population has benefited more from the development and advancement of specialized nutrition support than pediatric patients. Today, neonates comprise the largest group of pediatric patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN). Nutrient needs of neonates differ substantially from other populations, presenting unique challenges in optimizing nutrition care. Neonates are highly susceptible ...
Lozoff Betsy - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine the behavioral and developmental effects of preventing iron-deficiency anemia in infancy. METHODS: Healthy full-term Chilean infants who were free of iron-deficiency anemia at 6 months were assigned to high- or low-iron groups or to high- or no-added-iron groups. Behavioral/developmental outcomes at 12 months of age included overall ...
Cogswell Mary E - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The need for prophylactic iron during pregnancy is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that administration of a daily iron supplement from enrollment to 28 wk of gestation to initially iron-replete, nonanemic pregnant women would reduce the prevalence of anemia at 28 wk and increase birth weight. DESIGN: Between ...
Villalpando Salvador - - 2003
BACKGROUND: We were interested in identifying possible nutritional reasons for growth faltering among breastfed infants in the rural farming community of San Mateo, Capulhuac, Mexico (2800 m above sea level). OBJECTIVE: We examined the prevalence of inadequate iron and folate status among lactating Otomi women and determined to what extent ...
Wittekind D - - 2003
The components of the hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) stain (i.e. hemalum and eosin Y), their contributions to the typical staining pattern, and the reasons why the H & E stains are the preferred oversight stains for routine diagnostic histopathology are discussed. The essential diagnostic significance of effective nuclear ...
Araya Magdalena - - 2003
Copper deficiency and excess have been recognized as potential health problems for infants and children worldwide. Clinical manifestations of copper deficiency and excess are well characterized but the precise sequence by which high copper intake interacts with genetic control systems, leading to liver damage in infants, is unknown. The possibility ...
Smuts C Marius - - 2003
Infants in developing countries are at risk of concurrent micronutrient deficiencies, because the same causative factors may lead to deficiencies of different micronutrients. Inadequate dietary intake is considered one of the major causes of micronutrient deficiencies, especially among poor and underprivileged children in developing countries. Operational strategies and distribution systems ...
Faldella G - - 2003
At birth, the total body iron content is approximately 75 mg/kg, twice that of an adult man in relation to weight. During the first 6 mo of life, total iron body content increases slightly and exclusive breastfeeding is sufficient to maintain an optimal iron balance. Thereafter, iron body content substantially ...
Pérez-Ferrer A - - 2003
We present a case of surgery in a 2-month-old infant of the Jehovah's Witness (JW) faith weighing 2.8 kg scheduled for left upper lobectomy because of congenital lobar emphysema. He presented with physiological anaemia (haematocrit 33.8%) in accordance with his age. Because of the relative emergency of surgery, a short ...
Koster Ernst H W - - 2003
In line with the ironic processing theory of Wegner (Psychol. Rev. 101 (1994) 34), it is often argued that the suppression of anxiety-related thoughts results in a paradoxical increase of anxiety and thought intrusions, both after and during the thought suppression. In a sample of undergraduate students (14 men, 18 ...
Reclos George J - - 2003
AIM: Correct evaluation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) activity of two ethnic groups using a fully quantitative kit with a simultaneous Hemoglobin Normalization (Hb Normalization) procedure. DESIGN AND METHODS: Two groups of mothers and their healthy full term newborns of Greek (n = 1.166) and Albanian (n = 818) origin were ...
Bosscher Douwina - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Insoluble dietary fiber is a known inhibitor of mineral absorption, whereas the effects of soluble dietary fibers (including prebiotics) are less known. The aim was to study calcium, iron, and zinc availabilities from dairy infant formulas supplemented with soluble dietary fibers and modified starches in vitro. METHODS: Dairy infant ...
Conejo M Carmen - - 2003
The activities of carbapenems against Pseudomonas aeruginosa decreased in the presence of siliconized latex urinary catheters (SLUCs). This effect was associated with the loss of OprD. The zinc that eluted from SLUCs is responsible for this phenomenon. We have found that zinc exerts a negative effect on the expression of ...
Bosscher D - - 2003
Locust bean gum acts as a milk thickener in infant formula because of its high apparent viscosity. The effects of such thickening agents on metabolic and physiologic responses during infancy have not been clarified sufficiently. Due to the increased volume of the digest and the bulking and trapping effects, digestion ...
Marriott L D - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect on growth and iron status in preterm infants of a specially devised weaning strategy compared with current best practices in infant feeding. The preterm weaning strategy recommended the early onset of weaning and the use of foods with a higher energy and protein content than ...
Lind Torbjörn - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Weaning foods frequently contain phytate, an inhibitor of iron and zinc absorption, which may contribute to the high prevalence of iron and zinc deficiency seen in infancy. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate whether either an extensive reduction in the phytate content of infant cereals or the use of ...
Griffin I J - - 2003
Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based The different methods ...
Massaga Julius J - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, and is often complicated by severe anaemia. Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to most affordable antimalarial drugs is an impediment to intermittent chemotherapy. We investigated the effect of presumptive intermittent treatment with amodiaquine and daily iron supplementation ...
Krebs Nancy F - - 2003
The exchangeable zinc pool (EZP) is the sum of the combined pools that exchange with zinc in the plasma within 48-72 h and is thought to be critical for zinc-dependent biological processes. The size of the EZP in adults has been found to be positively related to dietary zinc intake, ...
van Saene H K F - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients receiving parenteral nutrition are at risk of septicaemia. Intestinal dysmotility and impaired gut immunity due to parenteral nutrition promote bacterial overgrowth. Gut overgrowth with aerobic Gram-negative bacilli (AGNB) impairs systemic immunity. The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of gut overgrowth with ...
Hagar Ward - - 2003
Neonatal hemochromatosis is an enigmatic disease. Little is known about iron metabolism in this disease, including the tissue concentration of ferritin or its H and L subunit ratio. The authors report the tissue iron, ferritin, and ferritin subunit content of a child who died at 5 weeks of neonatal hemochromatosis. ...
Kuzma-O'Reilly Barbara - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The desire for evidence-based clinical guidelines for nutritional support of the preterm infant has been identified. Published evidence has not yielded clear guidelines about the best method of delivery, substrate use, or appropriate outcome measure to evaluate nutrition support. In addition, reports on research of nutrition support often fail ...
Thom R - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine the iron status of a selected group of low birthweight infants at approximately 9 months of age, and examine the feasibility of predicting iron status by examining the history of supplementary iron intake. METHODS: All live low birthweight infants recorded in the Dunedin Hospital Queen Mary Maternity ...
Nosaka Tetsuya - - 2003
Dorsoventral patterning depends on the local concentrations of the morphogens. Twisted gastrulation (TSG) regulates the extracellular availability of a mesoderm inducer, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4). However, TSG function in vivo is still unclear. We isolated a TSG cDNA as a secreted molecule from the mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros region. Here we ...
Zlotkin Stanley - - 2003
Although iron deficiency is the most common single-nutrient deficiency in infants and children, other deficiencies may develop concurrently, including zinc deficiency. In previous studies, we used home-fortification with "Sprinkles," single-serve sachets containing microencapsulated ferrous fumarate added to weaning foods, to successfully treat anemia. This mode of micronutrient delivery is amenable ...
Thorsdottir I - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of growth and food intake in infancy on iron status at the age of 12 months in a population with high birth weight and high frequency of breast-feeding. DESIGN: In a longitudinal observational study infants' consumption and growth were recorded. Weighed 2 day food records at ...
Riepe F G - - 2003
A new chromatographic system for the steroid precursor separation and a sensitive radioimmunoassay system for the subsequent measurement of 18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone and 18-hydroxycorticosterone has been developed. 18-Hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone and 18-hydroxycorticosterone were extracted with methylene chloride and separated from cross-reacting steroids by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Anti-18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone and anti-18-hydroxycorticosterone antibodies raised in rabbits ...
Ramakrishnan Usha - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the benefits of prenatal multivitamin and mineral supplements in reducing low birth weight. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a randomized, double-blind clinical trial in semirural Mexico to compare the effects of multiple micronutrient (MM) supplements with those of iron supplements during pregnancy on birth size. DESIGN: Pregnant ...
Wieringa Frank T - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Deficiencies of iron and vitamin A are prevalent worldwide. Single-micronutrient supplementation is widely used to combat these deficiencies. However, micronutrient deficiencies often occur concurrently, and there are many interactions between micronutrients. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated interactions among 3 important micronutrients--iron, vitamin A, and zinc--when they are given as supplements. ...
Juul Sandra E - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Zinc protoporphyrin/heme ratio (ZnPP/H) has been well established as an indicator of functional iron deficiency in subjects 6 months of age to adult. The primary objective of this study was to establish normative values for ZnPP/H in NICU patients and secondarily to explore the utility of this test as ...
Schell Lawrence M - - 2003
To determine the influences of maternal diet and nutrition during pregnancy on the blood lead level of neonates, we conducted a study of mother-infant pairs from lower socioeconomic circumstances living in Albany County, New York. Maternal blood lead (MBPb), anthropometry, and diet were assessed in each trimester. Neonates' blood lead ...
Tabarki Brahim - - 2003
We report two siblings with purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency revealed by isolated spastic paraplegia, whereas symptoms of immune deficiency did not become apparent until 3 years of age. As the concurrence of immunodeficiency and neurologic problems strongly suggests the diagnosis of purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency, special attention should be paid ...
Ogihara Tohru - - 2003
Among various hypothetical mechanisms for the in vivo production of reactive oxygen species, transition metal-catalyzed reactions in cooperation with a biologic reducing agent like ascorbic acid or superoxide may be some of the most important. In the present study, we retrospectively examined the existence of non-protein-bound metal ions, an essentially ...
Yu Tao - - 2003
The effect of asphyxia on iron metabolism and lipid peroxidation in newborn infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) was investigated. Non-protein-bound iron (NPBI) and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric-acid-reactive species; TBARS) in plasma and hematological iron indices were measured in 15 healthy newborn infants (mean gestational age 39 04 weeks, SD 1); 15 ...
Ciccoli Lucia - - 2003
Iron is released in a desferrioxamine (DFO)-chelatable form (DCI) when erythrocytes are challenged by an oxidative stress. In beta-thalassemic erythrocytes, both DCI content and release (after aerobic incubation for 24h) are increased and correlated with the fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels. Since erythrocytes from newborns have an extremely high content of ...
Makino Yasuo - - 2003
A 31-year-old Japanese pregnant woman had no remarkable previous medical and family histories except for artificial abortion in 1993. A full-term normal infant was subsequently delivered in 1998. In this pregnancy, she began to experience general fatigability with a hemoglobin concentration of 8.5 g/dl at 19 weeks of gestation. Although ...
Angulo-Kinzler R M - - 2002
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a very common nutritional problem that alters motor activity. The aim of this study was to compare 24-h motor activity in the home in healthy 6-month-old infants with and without IDA. Activity was assessed via actigraphs on the leg during 24 continuous hours in 17 ...
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