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Results 451 - 500 of 937
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Fomon S J - - 2000
As a part of our effort to explore various aspects of ferrokinetics in infancy, the present study was designed to determine the timing of entry of an orally ingested iron isotope into circulating erythrocytes, and the effect of the level of dietary iron [0.3 mg/100 kcal (418.4 kJ) vs. 1.8 ...
Arvas A - - 2000
The aim of this study was to evaluate the iron status of full-term babies breast-fed exclusively for four months and the importance of iron supplementation. One hundred sixteen term infants followed up since the newborn period by a well baby clinic were included in the study. Iron deficient and/or anemic ...
Fomon S J - - 2000
Throughout the world, the most common nutritional deficiency disorder of infants is iron deficiency. Developing effective strategies for preventing iron deficiency requires detailed knowledge of iron retention under ordinary living conditions. For the adult population, such knowledge is at an advanced stage, but relatively little is known about infants. Many ...
Fomon S J - - 2000
Erythrocyte incorporation of an administered iron isotope has been used as a surrogate for iron retention on the assumption (validated in normal and iron-deficient adults) that 80-100% of the retained isotope is promptly incorporated into circulating erythrocytes. This assumption has not been validated in infants or children. The purpose of ...
Hobbie C - - 2000
To assess mothers' knowledge of good infant nutritional practices, a survey was conducted by the Institute of Pediatric Nutrition. The survey addressed issues related to breast-feeding, the use of iron-fortified formula, frequent spitting up, the introduction of cow's milk into the infant diet, and the nutritional value of fruit juice. ...
Thibeault D W - - 2000
Oxygen radicals are considered to be major causative factors in many illnesses of preterm infants. This article reviews the antioxidant defenses in immature animals and preterm infants, and attempts to quantitate their vulnerabilities to oxidants. Sources of oxidants, including hyperoxia, iron, parenteral nutrition, nitric oxide, and prooxidants, and their impact ...
Jaime-PÉrez JosÉ Carlos - - 2000
Objective: To investigate the iron status of women at term and its impact in their neonates. Study design: Serum ferritin (SF) was measured in 201 women at term and in their newborns. The relationship between maternal and infant SF and hemoglobin (Hb) and the effects of partial prenatal care and ...
Lubocka Z - - 2000
Cribra orbitalia is mostly diagnosed as being of nutritional origin, especially iron deficiency anaemia, and as the effect of infectious diseases and parasitic infestations. That lesion of the orbital roof is the good indicator of the biological state of the prehistoric populations. The frequency of occurrence of the cribra orbitalia ...
Nuoffer J M - - 2000
A patient with a severe phenotype of carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency (CATR)(McKusick 212138) is reported. Prior to birth, a defect in beta-oxidation was suspected because of neonatal death of six siblings. Dietary treatment during neonatal adaptation and the subsequent six months of life and a trial of carnitine supplementation are reported. ...
O'Brien K O - - 1999
Optimal mineral intake is crucial, especially during the period of rapid growth that occurs during infancy and childhood. Two minerals that have been found to play key roles during this period are iron and zinc. Supplementation studies have shown that these minerals have significant effects on birth weight as well ...
Verhoeff F H - - 1999
Maternal malaria and anaemia, pregnancy and infant outcomes are reviewed among a cohort of mothers and their babies living in Chikwawa district, southern Malawi. Overall, 4104 women were screened at first antenatal visit and 1523 at delivery. Factors independently associated with moderately severe anaemia (MSA; < 8 g haemoglobin/dl) in ...
Lartey A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Koko, a fermented maize porridge used as the primary complementary food in Ghana, has been implicated in the high prevalence of child malnutrition. Weanimix, a cereal-legume blend developed by the United Nations Children's Fund and the Ghanaian government, has been promoted as an alternative. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect ...
Maier R F - - 1999
AIM: To determine if there is an association between high transferrin saturation and the C282Y HFE gene mutation in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. METHODS: One hundred and forty three VLBW infants receiving recombinant erythropoietin and 3 to 9 mg/kg/day of enteral iron were studied. Genomic DNA was extracted from ...
Beard J L - - 1999
In Latin America, 10-30% of reproductive age females and upwards of 40-70% of pregnant women may be iron deficient. The true prevalence in young children and infants is often hard to determine because of problems in survey design, data collection, or sampling. There is little doubt, however, that iron deficiency ...
Bothwell T H - - 1999
Iron fortification has been used for decades in a number of industrialized countries to combat iron deficiency and seems to have played a significant role in reducing its prevalence, especially in infants and women. The overall strategy has been one in which staples such as wheat, flour, have been fortified ...
Moody G J - - 1999
We measured red blood cell iron incorporation (RBC-inc) in 13 human milk-fed premature infants (birthweight 1037 +/- 289 g, gestational age 27 +/- 2 wk, weight at start of study 1571 +/- 426 g) who were receiving full tube-feedings of human milk fortified with a commercial human milk fortifier (FortHM). ...
- - 1999
Despite the American Academy of Pediatrics' (AAP) strong endorsement for breastfeeding, most infants in the United States are fed some infant formula by the time they are 2 months old. The AAP Committee on Nutrition has strongly advocated iron fortification of infant formulas since 1969 as a way of reducing ...
Griffin I J - - 1999
AIMS: To prospectively evaluate the iron nutritional status of preterm infants fed either a term (0.5 mg/dl iron) or preterm (0.9 mg/dl) formulas fortified with iron after hospital discharge. METHODS: Healthy low birthweight preterm infants were randomly assigned into three groups at the time of hospital discharge. Group A were ...
Friel J K - - 1999
In parts of Canada including Newfoundland and Labrador and among Aboriginal peoples, infants still consume evaporated milk (EM) formulas for cultural and economic reasons. At 3 and 6 months, full-term infants fed EM (n = 30) received low intakes of iron, thiamine, selenium and had higher weight velocity than breastfed ...
Redline R W - - 1999
Diffuse nonmeconium-related pigment was observed in the chorioamnion of 36 of 1,023 placentas over 4 years and evaluated by iron staining. Stains were negative in 13 cases and positive in chorionic plate and membranes (diffuse chorioamnionic hemosiderosis [DCH]) in 23 cases (3/1,000 deliveries; 25/1,000 placentas). Gestational age at delivery was ...
Kilbride J - - 1999
BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of 50-65% iron-deficiency anaemia in mothers and infants in Jordan was reported by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) in 1990. Iron-deficiency in infancy has been shown to delay cognitive and psychomotor development with long-term consequences. While socioeconomic deprivation and inadequate nutrition are known ...
Caulfield L E - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Maternal zinc deficiency during pregnancy may be widespread among women in developing countries, but few data are available on whether prenatal zinc supplementation improves maternal and neonatal zinc status. OBJECTIVE: We studied whether maternal zinc supplementation improved the zinc status of mothers and neonates participating in a supplementation trial ...
Friel J K - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential trace element required by three enzymatic systems, yet there are no reports of Mo deficiency in infants. Low-birth-weight infants (LBW) might be at risk for Mo deficiency because they are born before adequate stores for Mo can be acquired, they have rapid growth requiring ...
Levine M A - - 1999
Before the development of firearms, the horse was crucial to warfare and, before the invention of the steam engine, it was the fastest and most reliable form of land transport. It is crucial to the life of nomadic pastoralists on the Eurasian steppe and played a major role in the ...
Nestel P - - 1999
In 1996, the Honduran Ministry of Health conducted a national micronutrient survey of children 12-71 months old, which also included an assessment of the nutrition status of their mothers/caretakers. The 1,126 mothers/caretakers who participated in the survey tended to be short and plump. About 15% of them were at obstetric ...
el-Foghy Z - - 1999
Serum iron, serum total iron binding capacity and tranferrin saturation levels were measured in 45 infants, of whom 19 had urinary tract infections confirmed by positive suprapubic aspiration. The control group comprised 26 healthy infants with negative results. Mean serum iron and transferrin saturation values were significantly lower in infants ...
Akinkugbe F M - - 1999
Hematological parameters and the iron status of 50 randomly selected infants who were attending the research infant welfare clinic of the Institute of Child Health, Ibadan (ICHI), for routine immunization were studied. Investigations included estimations of packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), serum iron (Fe), unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC) and ...
Goto K - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Subclinical alterations of small intestinal function have been reported frequently in tropical countries. Studies of small intestinal permeability to lactulose and mannitol were therefore completed in Guatemalan infants from a low-income, periurban community to assess the prevalence of altered intestinal function and the factors associated with this condition. METHODS: ...
Renault F - - 1999
We describe the electrophysiological findings in 2 infants with deficient cobalamin intake. After normal development, psychomotor regression appeared after the 6th month, leading to severe hypotonia and apathy before the 12th month. Electrodiagnostic evaluation showed sensory neuropathy in both cases, associated with motor neuropathy in 1 case. Thus, in an ...
Beck H P - - 1999
During a randomized placebo-controlled trial of chemoprophylaxis against Plasmodium falciparum malaria and iron supplementation, in infants living under conditions of intense transmission, all samples of P. falciparum obtained from children aged 5 and 8 months were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for the msp2 locus. One ...
Mayatepek E - - 1999
Leukotrienes are potent oxygenated metabolites derived from the 5-lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. They comprise the cysteinyl leukotrienes (LTC4, LTD4, LTE4) and LTB4. The rate limiting step in the formation of cysteinyl leukotrienes is the conversion of LTA4 to LTC4 catalyzed by the enzyme LTC4 synthase. Recently, the first ...
Blasco J - - 1999
The accumulation of cadmium, copper and lead and their effects on aspartate and alanine aminotransferases in digestive gland, gills, foot and soft body in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum were examined. The animals were exposed to different concentrations: Cd (200-600 micrograms.l-1), Pb (350-700 micrograms.l-1) and Cu (10-20 micrograms.l-1) for 7 days. ...
Thuy L P - - 1999
Holocarboxylase synthetase is one of two enzymes known to be involved in the metabolism of biotin. It catalyses the fixation of biotin to inactive apocarboxylases yielding active carboxylases. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to multiple carboxylase deficiency which is fatal in the absence of prompt diagnosis and treatment with biotin. ...
Kivivuori S M - - 1999
The aim of this study was to compare two different doses and means of administration of iron in recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO)-treated very low birth-weight (VLBW) infants. VLBW infants (n = 41) were randomized to one of three groups. Fourteen infants were treated with rHuEPO (300 IU/kg three times a ...
Rao R - - 1999
Fetal brain iron deficiency occurs in human pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus or intrauterine growth retardation. Because neurocognitive deficits are more common in the offspring of these pregnancies, we tested the hypothesis that perinatal brain iron deficiency predisposes the neonatal hippocampus, a structure important for memory processing, to injury. Brain ...
Soubasi V - - 1999
The in vivo influence of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEpo) and iron on human neutrophil (PMN) antimicrobial function was assessed. A total of 21 preterm infants were randomized to receive either 200 U/kg/other day of rHuEPO+12 mg/kg/day of iron (EPO+high Fe, seven infants) or 200 U/kg/other day of rhEPO+4 mg/kg/day of ...
Lockitch G - - 1998
Iron and Copper are essential trace elements for growth and development of the human infant but are toxic in excess. Lethal cirrhotic syndromes in the neonate and infant have been associated with both copper and iron overload. The relative importance of underlying genetic susceptibility and acquired excess of iron or ...
Hertrampf E - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Estimations of iron absorption from infant formulas are based on 20-year-old data. Data about iron bioavailability from currently used infant formulas are scarce, considering that during the last decades, formulas have had modifications that could affect iron absorption. METHODS: Bioavailability of isotopically labeled iron (55Fe and 59Fe) from several ...
Scott S M - - 1998
We have suggested from previous studies that increases in early neonatal epidermal growth factor (EGF) concentrations were dependent on adequate glucocorticoid hormone concentrations. In order to examine this relationship, matched values for cortisol and EGF in 193 preterm infants on days 2 and 6 were compared. Gestational age had a ...
McDonald M C - - 1998
This study was designed to identify differences in red blood cell (RBC) incorporation and iron absorption in premature infants between iron provided in a premature infant formula compared with iron provided as a supplement between feedings. We used a triple stable isotope technique in which 13 infants received 57Fe mixed ...
Makrides M - - 1998
Six-month-old breast-fed infants were randomly allocated to a high iron (8.2 +/- 2.9 mg/day, n = 36) weaning diet or a control group (5.2 +/- 3.4 mg/day, n = 26). We could detect no effect of increased iron intake from weaning foods on iron status of these iron-sufficient infants at ...
Friel J K - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Zinc and iron may share common pathways for absorption and compete for uptake into mucosal cells. We determined whether elevated ratios of zinc to iron would interfere with erythrocyte incorporation of iron in premature infants both during and between feeds. METHODS: In the first experiment, five premature infants (<2500 ...
Roncagliolo M - - 1998
Iron deficiency anemia has long been thought to have effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Finding direct evidence of this in human infants, however, has been challenging. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) provide a noninvasive means of examining an aspect of the CNS that is rapidly maturing during the age ...
Haram-Mourabet S - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that the concentration of major essential mineral elements in meconium correlate with gestational age (GA) or birth weight. To verify this premise we determined the concentration in meconium of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, copper, zinc, iron, and manganese. METHODS: Thirty-four appropriate for age singleton infants without major congenital ...
Persson L A - - 1998
We analysed whether 12-month-old Swedish infants who have been fed iron-fortified and relatively zinc-rich foods, according to current recommendations, have adequate iron and zinc status. A cohort of 76 healthy, full term Swedish infants was followed regarding feeding habits and growth from birth to 12 months of age, when haemoglobin, ...
Engelmann M D - - 1998
During weaning the infant has a high iron requirement, and highly available dietary iron is needed to ensure optimal iron status. Muscle tissue has been identified as an enhancer of nonheme iron absorption in adults, although the influence of meat on nonheme iron absorption in infants has not been previously ...
Freeman V E - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: To assess iron status in a sample of clinically well, Caucasian children and explore the complex factors which contribute to iron deficiency during infancy. DESIGN: Infants recruited at birth and followed longitudinally at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 36 months; feeding practices and socioeconomic ...
Dewey K G - - 1998
To evaluate the effect of introducing complementary foods before 6 mo of age, we randomly assigned 164 infants who had been exclusively breast-fed for 4 mo to continue being exclusively breast-fed until 6 mo (EBF group) or to receive iron-fortified foods in addition to breast milk from 4 to 6 ...
Lönnerdal B - - 1998
Full-term human infants are believed to possess adequate copper stores to last through weaning regardless of the copper content of the diet they are fed. This may not be generally true, however; a combination of low copper intake and low bioavailability from the diet may lead to copper deficiency. More ...
Walter T - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: For bottle-fed babies or nursing infants who receive milk supplements, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the use of iron-fortified infant formula. Because these recommendations have not been universally adopted, the hematologic effects of currently available low-iron formulas need to be determined. STUDY DESIGN: Healthy Chilean 6-month-old infants (without ...
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