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Anstrom John A - - 2002
In premature human neonates, immaturity of cerebral vessels can contribute to clinical problems such as germinal matrix hemorrhage and white matter damage. Afferent cerebral vessels in the brain of term babies express alkaline phosphatase (AP), an ectoenzyme located on the surface of endothelial cells. Using AP enzyme histochemistry we have ...
Schendel Diana E - - 2002
Cerebral palsy is the most common neuromotor developmental disability of childhood, affecting as many as 8,000 to 12,000 children born in the U.S. each year (corresponding to a prevalence rate of between 2 and 3 per 1000 children). Recent improvements in neonatal care have not resulted in a decline in ...
Sävman K - - 2002
AIM: Posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD) is closely associated with white matter damage and neurological disability in the preterm infant. Proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of white matter injury and subsequent cerebral palsy. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in cerebrospinal ...
O'Shea T Michael - - 2002
The focus of this review is on new insights from recent epidemiological research on cerebral palsy in preterm infants. These include: 1) a better understanding of issues related to diagnosis and classification; 2) new information about the brain abnormalities underlying cerebral palsy in preterm infants; and 3) a better understanding ...
Vermeulen G M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate to what extend perinatal factors contribute to the neurodevelopmental outcome in a group neonates born after spontaneous preterm labour with or without prolonged rupture of the membranes (PROM). METHODS: In a cohort of neonates born after the spontaneous onset of labour ...
Collins M P - - 2001
Ventilatory management patterns in very low birth weight newborns, particularly iatrogenic hypocapnia, have occasionally been implicated in perinatal brain damage. However, such relationships have not been explored in large representative populations. To examine the risk of disabling cerebral palsy in mechanically ventilated very low birth weight infants in relation to ...
Perlman J M - - 2001
There is growing evidence that a large number of very low birth weight infants are exhibiting neurobehavioral problems in the absence of cerebral palsy at follow-up that has extended into school age and adolescence. Many clinical factors (ie, chronic lung disease, recurrent apnea and bradycardia, transient hypothyroxemia of prematurity, hyperbilirubinemia, ...
Duggan P J - - 2001
Brain injury is common in very preterm infants, and intrauterine infection is a frequent antecedent of preterm birth. We examined the relation of cerebral damage to intrauterine antigen exposure and inflammation in 50 infants who were born at 23-29 weeks' gestation. Higher concentrations of cytokines (tumour necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha], ...
Amor D J - - 2001
Within the cerebral palsy syndromes, athetosis is most commonly causally associated with serious perinatal complications. Genetic factors are thought to play a lesser role, although the risk of recurrence in siblings has been suggested to be as high as 10%. We have conducted a clinical study of 22 subjects with ...
Lorenz J M - - 2001
Significant advances in perinatology and neonatology in the last decade have resulted in increased survival of extremely premature infants. Survival rates for infants born in tertiary perinatal and neonatal care centers in the United States in the 1990s increase with each week of gestational age from 22 through 26 weeks. ...
Eichler F F Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital of Vienna, - - 2001
The supine or prone positioning of infants has been a cause of much controversy. Recently it has been postulated that the position dependent hypoperfusion of the brainstem represents a possible cause of sudden infant death. To demonstrate position dependency and maturational changes of cerebral perfusion in premature newborn infants we ...
Lewis V E - - 2001
A female infant presented with facial palsy and was found to be severely hypertensive. Plasma renin activity was raised and an angiogram showed middle aortic syndrome. This condition is of unknown aetiology, but positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies may indicate a vasculitis which heals by intimal fibrosis, causing the observed findings.
Cano A - - 2001
The time of parturition defines the length of the intrauterine period of fetal life, a requisite to achieve adequate adaptation to the external environment. Immaturity, a condition whose severity is inversely related to the length of pregnancy, is the main determinant of the increased morbidity and mortality associated with preterm ...
Banerjea M C - - 2001
Hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in preterm and term infants is one major cause of neonatal neurologic morbidity. Depending on the gestational age and the extent of hypoxia, different pathologic findings have been observed. Hypoxic-ischemic lesion of the thalamus is the least common form of cerebral injury. Although long-term outcome with spastic ...
Fortune P M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can detect differences in oxyhaemoglobin signal when applied to the abdomens of neonates with surgically proven splanchnic ischaemia. DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary neonatal referral centre. PATIENTS: Medical and surgical neonates were studied. Two groups were identified, neonates with acute ...
O'Shea T M - - 2001
A relatively brief course of antenatal glucocorticoids (ACS), given to reduce the severity of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants, improves survival and appears to protect against brain damage. In clinical trials as well as observational studies, ACS have been associated with a decreased risk of intraventricular haemorrhage and cerebral ...
Uldall P - - 2001
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the commonest disabling impairment in childhood, with a prevalence of 2-3 per 1000 live births. The Danish Cerebral Palsy Registry is a research registry that contains cases of CP from birth year 1925 and has estimated the birth prevalence since 1950. Data on children with CP ...
Blair E - - 2001
This report describes trends, predictors, and causes of mortality in persons with cerebral palsy (CP) using individuals identified by the Western Australian Cerebral Palsy Register and born between 1958 and 1994. Two thousand and fourteen people were identified (1154 males, 860 females), of whom 225 had died by 1 June ...
Lin Y - - 2001
Quantitative analyses of cross-sectional areas of the thalami, caudate nuclei, and lentiform nuclei were performed in 29 preterm infants (16 males, 13 females; mean age 29.6 weeks, age range 27 to 24 weeks,) with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). MRI was carried out in the infants between 9 and 18 months of ...
Huang W L - - 2001
Glucocorticoids regulate oligodendrocyte maturation and the myelin biosynthetic pathways. Synthetic glucocorticoids, the corticosteroids have been successfully used in clinical practice as a single course to enhance lung maturation and reduce mortality and morbidity in preterm infants with no long-term neurologic or cognitive side effects. However, a trend has arisen to ...
Topp M - - 2001
The Cerebral Palsy Register in eastern Denmark has collected cases using a uniform data sampling procedure since birth year 1979. We have investigated changes in the rate of cerebral palsy, related to gestational age, mortality and perinatal risk factors in children born 1983--90. The total cerebral palsy birth prevalence decreased ...
Wilson-Costello D - - 2001
Although cerebral palsy is the most common neurologic impairment among very low-birth-weight survivors, its etiology remains uncertain. Current research supports the role of both antenatal and neonatal factors in the pathogenesis of cerebral palsy among these extremely premature infants. Important antenatal risk factors include chorioamnionitis and multiple placental lesions. Maternal ...
Hashimoto K - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is the most important factor in cerebral palsy in preterm infants. METHODS: In the present study, we investigated 747 preterm infants of less than 36 weeks gestation who were repeatedly examined by cranial ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) scanning at around 40 weeks of corrected post-menstrual ...
Mercuri E - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of prothrombotic disorders in a well-characterized cohort of infants with neonatal stroke and to document any association of prothrombotic disorders with the type of infarct seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical outcome. METHODS: Twenty-four infants ...
Badawi N - - 2001
Newborn encephalopathy is a clinically defined condition of abnormal neurological behaviours in the newborn period. Though most cases have their origin in the preconceptional and antepartum period, newborn encephalopathy represents a crucial link between intrapartum events and permanent neurological problems in the child. The birth prevalence of newborn encephalopathy ranges ...
Blair E - - 2001
The terms trend and cerebral palsy are defined emphazing the non-diagnostic nature of the cerebral palsy label. Criteria necessary for valid estimation of trends include constant methods of estimating population based numerators and denominators over a number of years, which render them hard to obtain, particularly in developing countries. Trends ...
Kusaka T - - 2001
Near-infrared topography with indocyanine green was used to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the temporal lobes of infants. The mean rCBF in infants without neural abnormality was 14.5 +/- 3.1 ml/100 g/min, and the rCBFs in the fronto-temporal, temporal, and occipito-temporal regions were 15.1 +/- 3.9, 15.4 +/- ...
Pierrat V - - 2001
AIMS: To compare the ultrasound (US) evolution and neurodevelopmental outcome of infants with localised (grade II) and extensive (grade III) cystic periventricular leucomalacia (c-PVL). METHODS: Over a nine year period, c-PVL was diagnosed in 96/3451 (2.8%) infants in two hospital cohorts. Eighteen were excluded from the study. Thirty nine infants ...
Thorngren-Jerneck K - - 2001
Total and regional cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRgl) was measured by positron emission tomography with 2-((18)F) fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)FDG) in 20 term infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) after perinatal asphyxia. All infants had signs of perinatal distress, and 15 were severely acidotic at birth. Six infants developed mild HIE, twelve moderate ...
Dammann O - - 2001
Periventricular leukomalacia is a white matter disorder, the neonatal cranial ultrasound images of which predict long-term developmental limitations among preterm infants. The vulnerability of oligodendrocytes has led to the hypothesis that oligodendrocytes suffer the primary damage, with axonal damage occurring as a consequence. In this article, we discuss the differential ...
Kenyon S L - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Preterm, prelabour rupture of the fetal membranes (pPROM) is the commonest antecedent of preterm birth, and can lead to death, neonatal disease, and long-term disability. Previous small trials of antibiotics for pPROM suggested some health benefits for the neonate, but the results were inconclusive. We did a randomised multicentre ...
Hirayama A - - 2001
Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants, who died at 12 hours to 7 days after birth, with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), were examined by means of neuropathological and immunohistochemical methods. Fourteen infants without PVL were used as controls. Anti-beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and ionized calcium-binding adaptor ...
Liao S L - - 2001
Several etiologies for causing periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) in preterm infants have been investigated worldwidely. The aim of this study is to investigate whether hypocapnia plays a role in the pathogenesis of the subsequent development of PVL. From Jan. 1997 to June 1998, 91 premature infants (mean gestational age 28.8 +/- ...
Evans K - - 2001
There is a high risk of cerebral palsy (CP) following neonatal encephalopathy (NE) with fits, often attributed to intrapartum asphyxia. The evidence for the association is inconclusive and antepartum factors offer an alternative explanation. A cohort study was carried out to assess the evidence for and against hypoxic ischaemic injury ...
Kinzler W L - - 2001
The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of prenatally diagnosed unilateral cerebral ventriculomegaly and also to assess neonatal outcome in infants with this prenatal diagnosis. A computerized ultrasonography database identified fetuses with isolated and nonisolated unilateral cerebral ventriculomegaly from October 1994 to June 1999. The Denver II ...
Murphy B P - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The specific aim of this study was to quantify at term the influence of postnatal systemic dexamethasone treatment for neonatal chronic lung disease on subsequent brain growth and development in premature infants without evidence of severe intraventricular hemorrhage or white matter injury. METHODS: Eighteen premature (23 to 31 weeks) ...
Zaramella P - - 2001
This study presents a new measure of the hemodynamic changes to an auditory stimulus in newborns. Nineteen newborns born at 28-41 wk and aged 1 to 49 d were studied in waking and/or sleeping state, for a median time of 4 min 40 s before, 2 min 40 s during, ...
Terzidou V - - 2001
Prematurity is probably the major factor associated with brain damage in newborns. Our growing knowledge of the biochemical mechanisms leading to the onset of labour at term allows the biochemical correlates of the epidemiological risk factors for prematurity to be understood. Infection is the major cause of early preterm labour ...
Ness J K - - 2001
Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a leading cause of white matter damage, a major contributor to cerebral palsy in premature infants. Preferential white matter damage is believed to result from vulnerability of the immature oligodendrocyte (the pro-OL) to factors elevated during ischemic damage, such as oxygen free radicals and glutamate. In order ...
Barrington K J - - 2001
Recent reports have raised concerns that postnatal steroids may cause neuro-developmental impairment in preterm infants. This systematic review was performed with the objective of determining whether glucocorticoid therapy, to prevent or treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia, impairs neuro-developmental outcomes in preterm infants. A systematic review of the literature was performed. Medline was ...
Valkama A M - - 2001
In order to assess the predictive value of neonatal brain perfusion with single photon emission computed tomography (SPET) with regard to neuromotor outcome at a corrected age of 18 months, 34 infants with birth weight <1,500 g and gestation age <34 weeks underwent brain technetium-99m ethylcysteinate dimer (99Tc(m)-ECD) SPET at ...
Pichler G - - 2001
Tilting is known to cause changes in hemodynamics due to hydrostatic pressure. The present study is an analysis of changes in cerebral hemodynamics measured by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) following tilting up and down in preterm and term infants. A significantly different effect of tilting up in comparison to tilting ...
Petersen M C - - 2001
In recent years there have been a number of advances in understanding of predisposing and protective factors in the development of cerebral palsy in infants. Multiple gestation births, maternal infection, and maternal and fetal thrombophilic conditions all predispose to the development of CP in the infant. Opportunities for prevention of ...
Xiong X X Perinatal Research Center, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada. - - 2001
One of the prevailing hypotheses for the pathogenesis of preeclampsia is the "ischemic model." It assumes that reduced uteroplacental perfusion is the primary step and the point of convergence of diverse pathogenic processes in the development of preeclampsia. One might expect a fetus under such "ischemic conditions" to be at ...
Mazighi M M Service de Neuroradiologie Diagnostique et Thérapeutique, Hôpital Bicêtre; Le Kremlin Bicêtre, - - 2000
We report two cases of a rare association of brain and spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in an infant and in an adult. Both patients were embolised with glue with good clinical and morphological results. The first patient is an infant with a suspected family history of Rendu Osler Weber disease ...
Al-Qattan M M - - 2000
Since the establishment of the obstetrical brachial plexus clinic in Saudi Arabia, the author has designed a prospective study in which the indication for brachial plexus surgery in infants with Erb's palsy was the lack of active elbow flexion against gravity at 4 months of age. Forty-three infants were included ...
Oorschot D E - - 2000
Recent retrospective, observational studies describe an association between maternal administration of magnesium and a reduction in cerebral palsy in low birthweight infants. Cerebral palsy is thought to result mainly from hypoxia-induced brain injury, and its incidence is increasing due to recent advances in obstetric and newborn intensive care. The findings ...
Miller V - - 2000
Neonatal cerebral infarction in term infants has many possible causes, including bacterial meningitis, inherited or acquired coagulopathies, trauma, and hypoxia-ischemia. However, a specific cause often cannot be identified. Neurologic symptoms in the neonatal period are often subtle and nonspecific, even in infants with large infarctions involving an entire cerebral artery ...
Pedersen S J - - 2000
The aim was to assess motor function during infancy in order to predict later function, mainly cerebral palsy. The neuromotor development of a population-based cohort of 209 of 236 (89%) survivors with a birthweight less than 2000 g was assessed using the Infant Neurological International Battery (INFANIB) and detailed neurological ...
Shinwell E S - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To study the long term neurodevelopmental outcome of children who participated in a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study of early postnatal dexamethasone treatment for prevention of chronic lung disease. METHODS: The original study compared a three day course of dexamethasone (n = 132) with a saline placebo (n ...
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