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Heep A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) in premature infants presumably have many causes. It has been proposed that inflammatory processes in the fetomaternal unit play an important role in the pathogenesis of these lesions. OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation of postpartum serum interleukin 6 (IL6) concentration as a ...
Jayasinghe Dulip - - 2003
Perinatal distress in the preterm neonate, and the consequent loss of cerebrovascular autoregulation, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neonatal cerebral lesions. A component of this distress is thought to be hypotension. We examined the autoregulatory capacity of hypotensive and normotensive infants using the 133Xe technique to measure cerebral ...
Vohr Betty R - - 2003
This article reviews experience with longitudinal follow-up of high-risk infants in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Neonatal Research Network. In 1993, the Network initiated a research protocol to provide longitudinal follow-up of infants with birth weight less than 1001 g and infants with higher birth ...
van Gelder-Hasker M R - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and peri- and intraventricular hemorrhages can be detected in fetuses at risk for preterm birth and to establish the clinical significance of this finding. METHODS: Prenatal cerebral sonography was performed in 26 fetuses at risk for uteroplacental insufficiency on the day of inclusion ...
Bartley John - - 2003
Cerebral palsy is a group of brain diseases which produce chronic motor disability in children. The causes are quite varied and range from abnormalities of brain development to birth-related injuries to postnatal brain injuries. Due to the increased survival of very premature infants, the incidence of cerebral palsy may be ...
Surman Geraldine - - 2003
Using a population-based register, this study sought to ascertain changes in the rate and severity of cerebral palsy (CP) in a geographically defined area of the UK among infants weighing less than 1500 g and born between 1984 and 1995. There were 417414 live births in the area, which included ...
Amar Arun P - - 2003
OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Neonatal subgaleal hematomas (SGHs) are infrequent but underdiagnosed collections of blood beneath the galea, often caused by vacuum delivery. With massive bleeding into the subgaleal space, exsanguination and hypovolemic shock can cause death in 20 to 60% of newborn infants. We report the first two known patients ...
Craig Andrew - - 2003
The development of a rodent model in the perinatal rat or mouse that reproduces the principal features of human perinatal white matter injury (periventricular leukomalacia) has been hampered by uncertainty about the developmental window in the rodent that coincides temporally with cerebral white matter development in the premature infant. We ...
Fung G - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: Chorioamnionitis is a risk factor for preterm delivery. Intrauterine infection leads to the fetal inflammatory response which is characterised by elevated cytokine levels. Chorioamnionitis is reported to cause accelerated but abnormal lung maturation, resulting in decreased incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) but increased chronic lung disease (CLD), and ...
Haynes Robin L - - 2003
Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), the major substrate of cerebral palsy in survivors of prematurity, is defined as focal periventricular necrosis and diffuse gliosis in immature cerebral white matter. We propose that nitrosative and/or oxidative stress to premyelinating oligodendrocytes complicating cerebral ischemia in the sick premature infant is a key mechanism of ...
Yoon Bo Hyun - - 2003
Cerebral palsy is a serious motor disorder that appears in early life. The expectation that improved obstetrical and neonatal care would decrease the rate of this condition has not been realised. Recent evidence indicates that white matter brain lesions, often termed periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), are the most important identifiable risk ...
Bharti Neerja - - 2003
Holoprosencephaly and single cerebral ventricle are uncommon congenital anomalies that are associated with a high rate of perinatal mortality. We describe a neonate who developed recurrent bradycardia along with delayed recovery following frontal craniotomy for the repair of a nasofrontal encephalocoele associated with holoprosencephaly and a single cerebral ventricle. The ...
Roilides Emmanuel - - 2003
Cerebral aspergillosis is a devastating disease in patients with a compromised immune system. A unique case of a male infant with corticosteroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome complicated by pulmonary and cerebral aspergillosis is described. The patient rapidly developed coma and neurological symptoms and died soon thereafter. Central nervous system aspergillosis was diagnosed ...
Kao J T S - - 2003
The H reflex was investigated to determine if it can be useful in the prognosis of obstetrical brachial plexus palsies. The H reflex is an electrically stimulated monosynaptic or oligosynaptic response which can be recorded in peripheral nerves in all muscles of infants up to approximately two years of age. ...
Perrott Sylvia - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the rates and risk factors for major disability in very preterm survivors born to residents of Nova Scotia, Canada between 1992 and 1996. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort study was conducted of all 355 infants born to Nova Scotia residents between 22 and 30 ...
Clark Steven L - - 2003
The rate of cerebral palsy has not decreased in developed countries over the past 30 years, despite the widespread use of electronic fetal heart rate monitoring and a 5-fold increase in the cesarean delivery rate over the same period of time. However, neonatal survival has improved during these decades. These ...
Matsuda Yoshio - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to evaluate the neonatal prognosis after abruptio placentae and placenta previa during pre-term gestation. STUDY DESIGN: A case-control study was performed using a logistic regression model. A poor outcome was defined as neonatal death occurring before hospital discharge or a diagnosis of cerebral palsy. RESULTS: A ...
Reddihough Dinah S - - 2003
Cerebral palsy is the commonest physical disability in childhood, occurring in 2.0 to 2.5 per 1000 live births. Although the total number of children with cerebral palsy has remained stable or increased slightly since 1970, there has been a consistent rise in the proportion of cerebral palsy associated with preterm ...
Dammann Olaf - - 2003
We address the question as to whether Ureaplasma urealyticum or Mycoplasma hominis, cultured from the placenta of very-low-birthweight (VLBW) infants, are associated with an increased risk of (a) fetal vasculitis and (b) ultrasonographic cerebral white matter echolucency. The sample consisted of 464 VLBW infants for whom (i) the surface of ...
Grether Judith K - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate exposure to intrauterine infection as an independent risk factor for spastic cerebral palsy (CP) among very prematurely born infants. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. METHODS: Singleton children with gestational ages less than 32 weeks and birth weights less than 1999 g who survived to age 2 years ...
Koons Anne - - 2003
Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) plays important roles in regulating both respiratory drive and cerebral blood flow. These effects are mediated, in part, by activity of the sympathetic nervous system. We hypothesized that the presence of acute life-threatening events or apnea in term or preterm infants, respectively, would serve as a marker ...
Efron Daryl - - 2003
The adverse effect of hyperglycemia on neurological outcome following cerebral ischemia has been established in both experimental and adult human studies. However, there is a paucity of data to assess this risk in the human infant. This case is the first to describe severe and prolonged iatrogenic hyperglycemia in association ...
Baserga Mariana C - - 2003
Although gavage feedings are considered a standard of care, they are often accompanied by hemodynamic changes that may have important effects on the cerebral circulation. In 23 premature infants receiving intermittent bolus gavage feeds, changes in cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation were studied using near-infrared spectroscopy. Orogastric tube insertion resulted in ...
Colon A J - - 2003
In the pre-operative screening of infants with obstetric brachial palsy (OBP), the results of routine electromyography are often overly optimistic when compared to the peri-operative findings. This prompted us to include investigation of the sensory innervation of these infants using the N20 (the first cortical response to a peripheral stimulation) ...
Halliday H L - - 2003
Chronic lung disease (CLD) remains a major problem in neonatal intensive care units. Persistent inflammation in the lungs is the most likely underlying pathogenesis. Corticosteroids have been used to either prevent or treat CLD because of their potent anti-inflammatory effects. To determine if postnatal corticosteroid treatment is of benefit in ...
Winter Sarah - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine trends in the prevalence of congenital cerebral palsy (CP) over a 16-year period for 1-year survivors using a large, population-based surveillance program. METHODS: We determined birth weight-specific trends in the prevalence of CP in live birth and 1-year survivor cohorts of children in a 5-county metropolitan Atlanta ...
Maertzdorf W J - - 2002
AIM: To determine the volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that should be tapped in preterm infants with posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation as guided by intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV). METHODS: The total number of measurements was 106 in 22 infants. Birth weights ranged from 630 to 2050 ...
Armstead William M - - 2002
Previous studies have observed that the newly described opioid, nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOC/oFQ), contributed to age dependent reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and pial artery diameter after fluid percussion brain injury (FPI). Unrelated studies have noted a similar age dependency in impaired hypotensive cerebral autoregulation after FPI. This study was ...
Okumura Akihisa - - 2002
We prospectively investigated the relation among cerebral blood flow, periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and hypocarbia using Doppler ultrasonography in 53 preterm infants with gestational age between 27 and 34 weeks who required mechanical ventilation during the first 72 h of life. Cerebral blood flow of pericallosal artery was assessed by Doppler ...
Oberlander Tim F - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Children with neurologic impairments have shown diminished pain response compared with control subjects; however, it remains unclear what mechanisms underlie this response or when it develops. If this were also true with premature infants who undergo neonatal intensive care, then infants with parenchymal brain injury (PBI) would be at ...
Murase Masanori - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively investigate the early gastrointestinal function and the nutritional status of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). METHODS: Sixty-five VLBW infants who were admitted to Kakogawa Municipal Hospital were divided into 2 groups: 5 infants were in the PVL group, and the remaining ...
Yiğit Sule - - 2002
Preterm infants are more likely to have disabling cerebral palsy (CP) than term infants. It has been reported that early therapeutic approaches may be appropriate for infants at risk of neuromotor dysfunction, to minimize the degree of future handicaps. Two hundred and twenty-nine infants born at less than 34 weeks' ...
Rodriguez-Morales Edda L - - 2002
The clinicopathological features and immunohistochemistry profile of desmoplastic cerebral astrocytoma of infancy are discussed in a 4 month old male infant who presented with an increasing head circumference more pronounced in the last two weeks prior to admission to the University Pediatric Hospital. This is a rare tumor that occurs ...
Hagberg Henrik - - 2002
Chorioamnionitis correlates to preterm delivery prior to 30 weeks of gestation. In most studies, proxies of intrauterine infection (clinical chorioamnionitis, histological chorioamnionitis, intra-amniotic increase in cytokines) are associated with acute neonatal morbidity and mortality and, at least to some degree, with neurological impairments (periventricular leukomalacia, intraventricular hemorrhage, cerebral palsy, polymicrogyria), ...
Mittendorf Robert - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of antenatal magnesium sulfate prevents adverse outcomes (neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leucomalacia, death, and cerebral palsy). STUDY DESIGN: In a controlled trial, we randomized mothers in preterm labor to magnesium sulfate, "other" tocolytic, or placebo. At delivery, umbilical ...
Kraus Jürgen A - - 2002
Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are direct artery-to-cerebral venous sinus shunts. Our recent finding of a significantly increased prevalence of factor V (FV) Leiden in patients with DAVFs prompted us to evaluate prothrombinG20210A, MTHFRC677T, beta-fibrinogenG455A, PAI-14G/5G and FXIIIVal34Leu as additional risk factors for thrombophilia in 26 patients with DAVFs and a ...
Maruyama K - - 2002
The aim of this study is to examine the most appropriate timing for EEG recordings in order to predict the risk of cerebral palsy (CP) on the basis of the degree of acute stage abnormalities (ASA) in preterm infants. We retrospectively investigated the correlation between the degree of ASA and ...
Ferrari Fabrizio - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether specific abnormalities (ie, cramped synchronized general movements [GMs]) can predict cerebral palsy and the severity of later motor impairment in preterm infants affected by brain lesions. DESIGN: Traditional neurological examination was performed, and GMs were serially videotaped and blindly observed for 84 preterm infants with ultrasound ...
Kirimi Ercan - - 2002
The cerebral blood flow velocities (CBFV) of infants with perinatal asphyxia and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in the first 12 hours of their lives have been the chief focus of our concern in this study. Cerebral ischemia which can develop in the earlier hours of HIE, and the detection and ...
Drummond P M - - 2002
We report from a well-established cerebral palsy (CP) register the changes in CP rates by gestational age for singleton births over a 25-year period in north-east England. The gestational ages of numerators and denominators are of high accuracy back to 1970 because academic units in paediatrics and obstetrics were studying ...
Han Tai Ryoon - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the outcome of preterm infants and to determine the most important risk factors in the development of cerebral palsy. DESIGN: The outcomes of 437 survivors of preterm infancy (gestational age at birth, <36 wk) born in one center in Korea were reviewed in relation to the clinical ...
Einspieler C - - 2002
Qualitative abnormalities of spontaneous motor activity in newborns and young infants are early predictive markers for later spastic cerebral palsy. Aim of this research was to identify which motor patterns may be specific for later dyskinetic cerebral palsy. In a large, prospectively performed longitudinal study involving four European hospitals we ...
Agarwal R - - 2002
AIMS: To investigate whether antenatal steroids reduce the incidence of cerebral white matter lesions in very low birthweight infants. METHODS: A total of 224 newborn infants of < 31 weeks gestational age and weighing < 1500 g was studied between January 1998 and June 2000. Obstetric and neonatal information was ...
Hutton J L - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy presents with a range of severity of cognitive, motor, and sensory disabilities, which might affect survival. AIMS: To quantify the effects of motor, cognitive, and sensory disabilities, year of birth, birth weight, and gestational age on survival in cerebral palsy. METHODS: A cohort of children with cerebral ...
Vaal Juliette - - 2002
The present study was designed to investigate the contribution of the corticospinal tracts in the regulation and coordination of interlimb couplings and the spatio-temporal organization of kicking movements in young infants. Both healthy infants and those with differing degrees of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) were subjected to a unilateral weight manipulation ...
Grafe Marjorie R - - 2002
Neuropathologic findings in stillbirths oftentimes provide insight into the specific mechanisms leading to death. Examination of the brains of stillborn infants may also identify pathophysiologic processes that result in prenatal brain injury in liveborn as well as stillborn infants and that lead to neurologic disorders in liveborn infants, such as ...
Nehme A - - 2002
Thirty obstetrical brachial plexus palsies involving the upper roots were retrospectively reviewed. There were 20 C5-C6 palsies and ten C5-C6-C7 palsies in which recovery of C7 occurred by the end of the first month. Recovery of elbow flexion at 3 months, C7 involvement and high birthweight were the best early ...
Moon Jeong Bin - - 2002
AIMS: To examine if increased concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in amniotic fluid are associated with the development of cerebral palsy at the age of three years. METHODS: The relationship between amniotic fluid concentrations of MMP-8 and the development of cerebral palsy was examined in 116 preterm singleton newborns (gestational ...
Suzuki Junko - - 2002
The prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP) in 6-year-old children in Shiga Prefecture, Japan, born between 1977 and 1991, was compared in three successive 5-year periods: period I (1977-1981), period II (1982-1986) and period III (1987-1991). Data on the accumulated age-specific prevalence of CP were collected and analyzed. During the study ...
Nelson Karin B - - 2002
Half of cerebral palsy (CP) arises in infants of normal birthweight; yet, many fewer studies seek to identify risk factors for CP in term and near-term infants than in those born very prematurely. There has been no net decrease in the prevalence of CP in term and near-term infants over ...
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