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Results 351 - 400 of 918
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Bharti Neerja - - 2003
Holoprosencephaly and single cerebral ventricle are uncommon congenital anomalies that are associated with a high rate of perinatal mortality. We describe a neonate who developed recurrent bradycardia along with delayed recovery following frontal craniotomy for the repair of a nasofrontal encephalocoele associated with holoprosencephaly and a single cerebral ventricle. The ...
Roilides Emmanuel - - 2003
Cerebral aspergillosis is a devastating disease in patients with a compromised immune system. A unique case of a male infant with corticosteroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome complicated by pulmonary and cerebral aspergillosis is described. The patient rapidly developed coma and neurological symptoms and died soon thereafter. Central nervous system aspergillosis was diagnosed ...
Kao J T S - - 2003
The H reflex was investigated to determine if it can be useful in the prognosis of obstetrical brachial plexus palsies. The H reflex is an electrically stimulated monosynaptic or oligosynaptic response which can be recorded in peripheral nerves in all muscles of infants up to approximately two years of age. ...
Perrott Sylvia - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the rates and risk factors for major disability in very preterm survivors born to residents of Nova Scotia, Canada between 1992 and 1996. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort study was conducted of all 355 infants born to Nova Scotia residents between 22 and 30 ...
Clark Steven L - - 2003
The rate of cerebral palsy has not decreased in developed countries over the past 30 years, despite the widespread use of electronic fetal heart rate monitoring and a 5-fold increase in the cesarean delivery rate over the same period of time. However, neonatal survival has improved during these decades. These ...
Matsuda Yoshio - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to evaluate the neonatal prognosis after abruptio placentae and placenta previa during pre-term gestation. STUDY DESIGN: A case-control study was performed using a logistic regression model. A poor outcome was defined as neonatal death occurring before hospital discharge or a diagnosis of cerebral palsy. RESULTS: A ...
Reddihough Dinah S - - 2003
Cerebral palsy is the commonest physical disability in childhood, occurring in 2.0 to 2.5 per 1000 live births. Although the total number of children with cerebral palsy has remained stable or increased slightly since 1970, there has been a consistent rise in the proportion of cerebral palsy associated with preterm ...
Dammann Olaf - - 2003
We address the question as to whether Ureaplasma urealyticum or Mycoplasma hominis, cultured from the placenta of very-low-birthweight (VLBW) infants, are associated with an increased risk of (a) fetal vasculitis and (b) ultrasonographic cerebral white matter echolucency. The sample consisted of 464 VLBW infants for whom (i) the surface of ...
Grether Judith K - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate exposure to intrauterine infection as an independent risk factor for spastic cerebral palsy (CP) among very prematurely born infants. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. METHODS: Singleton children with gestational ages less than 32 weeks and birth weights less than 1999 g who survived to age 2 years ...
Koons Anne - - 2003
Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) plays important roles in regulating both respiratory drive and cerebral blood flow. These effects are mediated, in part, by activity of the sympathetic nervous system. We hypothesized that the presence of acute life-threatening events or apnea in term or preterm infants, respectively, would serve as a marker ...
Efron Daryl - - 2003
The adverse effect of hyperglycemia on neurological outcome following cerebral ischemia has been established in both experimental and adult human studies. However, there is a paucity of data to assess this risk in the human infant. This case is the first to describe severe and prolonged iatrogenic hyperglycemia in association ...
Baserga Mariana C - - 2003
Although gavage feedings are considered a standard of care, they are often accompanied by hemodynamic changes that may have important effects on the cerebral circulation. In 23 premature infants receiving intermittent bolus gavage feeds, changes in cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation were studied using near-infrared spectroscopy. Orogastric tube insertion resulted in ...
Colon A J - - 2003
In the pre-operative screening of infants with obstetric brachial palsy (OBP), the results of routine electromyography are often overly optimistic when compared to the peri-operative findings. This prompted us to include investigation of the sensory innervation of these infants using the N20 (the first cortical response to a peripheral stimulation) ...
Halliday H L - - 2003
Chronic lung disease (CLD) remains a major problem in neonatal intensive care units. Persistent inflammation in the lungs is the most likely underlying pathogenesis. Corticosteroids have been used to either prevent or treat CLD because of their potent anti-inflammatory effects. To determine if postnatal corticosteroid treatment is of benefit in ...
Winter Sarah - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine trends in the prevalence of congenital cerebral palsy (CP) over a 16-year period for 1-year survivors using a large, population-based surveillance program. METHODS: We determined birth weight-specific trends in the prevalence of CP in live birth and 1-year survivor cohorts of children in a 5-county metropolitan Atlanta ...
Maertzdorf W J - - 2002
AIM: To determine the volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that should be tapped in preterm infants with posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation as guided by intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV). METHODS: The total number of measurements was 106 in 22 infants. Birth weights ranged from 630 to 2050 ...
Armstead William M - - 2002
Previous studies have observed that the newly described opioid, nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOC/oFQ), contributed to age dependent reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and pial artery diameter after fluid percussion brain injury (FPI). Unrelated studies have noted a similar age dependency in impaired hypotensive cerebral autoregulation after FPI. This study was ...
Okumura Akihisa - - 2002
We prospectively investigated the relation among cerebral blood flow, periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and hypocarbia using Doppler ultrasonography in 53 preterm infants with gestational age between 27 and 34 weeks who required mechanical ventilation during the first 72 h of life. Cerebral blood flow of pericallosal artery was assessed by Doppler ...
Oberlander Tim F - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Children with neurologic impairments have shown diminished pain response compared with control subjects; however, it remains unclear what mechanisms underlie this response or when it develops. If this were also true with premature infants who undergo neonatal intensive care, then infants with parenchymal brain injury (PBI) would be at ...
Murase Masanori - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively investigate the early gastrointestinal function and the nutritional status of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). METHODS: Sixty-five VLBW infants who were admitted to Kakogawa Municipal Hospital were divided into 2 groups: 5 infants were in the PVL group, and the remaining ...
Yiğit Sule - - 2002
Preterm infants are more likely to have disabling cerebral palsy (CP) than term infants. It has been reported that early therapeutic approaches may be appropriate for infants at risk of neuromotor dysfunction, to minimize the degree of future handicaps. Two hundred and twenty-nine infants born at less than 34 weeks' ...
Rodriguez-Morales Edda L - - 2002
The clinicopathological features and immunohistochemistry profile of desmoplastic cerebral astrocytoma of infancy are discussed in a 4 month old male infant who presented with an increasing head circumference more pronounced in the last two weeks prior to admission to the University Pediatric Hospital. This is a rare tumor that occurs ...
Hagberg Henrik - - 2002
Chorioamnionitis correlates to preterm delivery prior to 30 weeks of gestation. In most studies, proxies of intrauterine infection (clinical chorioamnionitis, histological chorioamnionitis, intra-amniotic increase in cytokines) are associated with acute neonatal morbidity and mortality and, at least to some degree, with neurological impairments (periventricular leukomalacia, intraventricular hemorrhage, cerebral palsy, polymicrogyria), ...
Mittendorf Robert - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of antenatal magnesium sulfate prevents adverse outcomes (neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leucomalacia, death, and cerebral palsy). STUDY DESIGN: In a controlled trial, we randomized mothers in preterm labor to magnesium sulfate, "other" tocolytic, or placebo. At delivery, umbilical ...
Kraus Jürgen A - - 2002
Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are direct artery-to-cerebral venous sinus shunts. Our recent finding of a significantly increased prevalence of factor V (FV) Leiden in patients with DAVFs prompted us to evaluate prothrombinG20210A, MTHFRC677T, beta-fibrinogenG455A, PAI-14G/5G and FXIIIVal34Leu as additional risk factors for thrombophilia in 26 patients with DAVFs and a ...
Maruyama K - - 2002
The aim of this study is to examine the most appropriate timing for EEG recordings in order to predict the risk of cerebral palsy (CP) on the basis of the degree of acute stage abnormalities (ASA) in preterm infants. We retrospectively investigated the correlation between the degree of ASA and ...
Ferrari Fabrizio - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether specific abnormalities (ie, cramped synchronized general movements [GMs]) can predict cerebral palsy and the severity of later motor impairment in preterm infants affected by brain lesions. DESIGN: Traditional neurological examination was performed, and GMs were serially videotaped and blindly observed for 84 preterm infants with ultrasound ...
Kirimi Ercan - - 2002
The cerebral blood flow velocities (CBFV) of infants with perinatal asphyxia and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in the first 12 hours of their lives have been the chief focus of our concern in this study. Cerebral ischemia which can develop in the earlier hours of HIE, and the detection and ...
Drummond P M - - 2002
We report from a well-established cerebral palsy (CP) register the changes in CP rates by gestational age for singleton births over a 25-year period in north-east England. The gestational ages of numerators and denominators are of high accuracy back to 1970 because academic units in paediatrics and obstetrics were studying ...
Han Tai Ryoon - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the outcome of preterm infants and to determine the most important risk factors in the development of cerebral palsy. DESIGN: The outcomes of 437 survivors of preterm infancy (gestational age at birth, <36 wk) born in one center in Korea were reviewed in relation to the clinical ...
Einspieler C - - 2002
Qualitative abnormalities of spontaneous motor activity in newborns and young infants are early predictive markers for later spastic cerebral palsy. Aim of this research was to identify which motor patterns may be specific for later dyskinetic cerebral palsy. In a large, prospectively performed longitudinal study involving four European hospitals we ...
Agarwal R - - 2002
AIMS: To investigate whether antenatal steroids reduce the incidence of cerebral white matter lesions in very low birthweight infants. METHODS: A total of 224 newborn infants of < 31 weeks gestational age and weighing < 1500 g was studied between January 1998 and June 2000. Obstetric and neonatal information was ...
Hutton J L - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy presents with a range of severity of cognitive, motor, and sensory disabilities, which might affect survival. AIMS: To quantify the effects of motor, cognitive, and sensory disabilities, year of birth, birth weight, and gestational age on survival in cerebral palsy. METHODS: A cohort of children with cerebral ...
Vaal Juliette - - 2002
The present study was designed to investigate the contribution of the corticospinal tracts in the regulation and coordination of interlimb couplings and the spatio-temporal organization of kicking movements in young infants. Both healthy infants and those with differing degrees of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) were subjected to a unilateral weight manipulation ...
Grafe Marjorie R - - 2002
Neuropathologic findings in stillbirths oftentimes provide insight into the specific mechanisms leading to death. Examination of the brains of stillborn infants may also identify pathophysiologic processes that result in prenatal brain injury in liveborn as well as stillborn infants and that lead to neurologic disorders in liveborn infants, such as ...
Nehme A - - 2002
Thirty obstetrical brachial plexus palsies involving the upper roots were retrospectively reviewed. There were 20 C5-C6 palsies and ten C5-C6-C7 palsies in which recovery of C7 occurred by the end of the first month. Recovery of elbow flexion at 3 months, C7 involvement and high birthweight were the best early ...
Moon Jeong Bin - - 2002
AIMS: To examine if increased concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in amniotic fluid are associated with the development of cerebral palsy at the age of three years. METHODS: The relationship between amniotic fluid concentrations of MMP-8 and the development of cerebral palsy was examined in 116 preterm singleton newborns (gestational ...
Suzuki Junko - - 2002
The prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP) in 6-year-old children in Shiga Prefecture, Japan, born between 1977 and 1991, was compared in three successive 5-year periods: period I (1977-1981), period II (1982-1986) and period III (1987-1991). Data on the accumulated age-specific prevalence of CP were collected and analyzed. During the study ...
Nelson Karin B - - 2002
Half of cerebral palsy (CP) arises in infants of normal birthweight; yet, many fewer studies seek to identify risk factors for CP in term and near-term infants than in those born very prematurely. There has been no net decrease in the prevalence of CP in term and near-term infants over ...
Anstrom John A - - 2002
In premature human neonates, immaturity of cerebral vessels can contribute to clinical problems such as germinal matrix hemorrhage and white matter damage. Afferent cerebral vessels in the brain of term babies express alkaline phosphatase (AP), an ectoenzyme located on the surface of endothelial cells. Using AP enzyme histochemistry we have ...
Schendel Diana E - - 2002
Cerebral palsy is the most common neuromotor developmental disability of childhood, affecting as many as 8,000 to 12,000 children born in the U.S. each year (corresponding to a prevalence rate of between 2 and 3 per 1000 children). Recent improvements in neonatal care have not resulted in a decline in ...
Sävman K - - 2002
AIM: Posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD) is closely associated with white matter damage and neurological disability in the preterm infant. Proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of white matter injury and subsequent cerebral palsy. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in cerebrospinal ...
O'Shea T Michael - - 2002
The focus of this review is on new insights from recent epidemiological research on cerebral palsy in preterm infants. These include: 1) a better understanding of issues related to diagnosis and classification; 2) new information about the brain abnormalities underlying cerebral palsy in preterm infants; and 3) a better understanding ...
Vermeulen G M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate to what extend perinatal factors contribute to the neurodevelopmental outcome in a group neonates born after spontaneous preterm labour with or without prolonged rupture of the membranes (PROM). METHODS: In a cohort of neonates born after the spontaneous onset of labour ...
Collins M P - - 2001
Ventilatory management patterns in very low birth weight newborns, particularly iatrogenic hypocapnia, have occasionally been implicated in perinatal brain damage. However, such relationships have not been explored in large representative populations. To examine the risk of disabling cerebral palsy in mechanically ventilated very low birth weight infants in relation to ...
Perlman J M - - 2001
There is growing evidence that a large number of very low birth weight infants are exhibiting neurobehavioral problems in the absence of cerebral palsy at follow-up that has extended into school age and adolescence. Many clinical factors (ie, chronic lung disease, recurrent apnea and bradycardia, transient hypothyroxemia of prematurity, hyperbilirubinemia, ...
Duggan P J - - 2001
Brain injury is common in very preterm infants, and intrauterine infection is a frequent antecedent of preterm birth. We examined the relation of cerebral damage to intrauterine antigen exposure and inflammation in 50 infants who were born at 23-29 weeks' gestation. Higher concentrations of cytokines (tumour necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha], ...
Amor D J - - 2001
Within the cerebral palsy syndromes, athetosis is most commonly causally associated with serious perinatal complications. Genetic factors are thought to play a lesser role, although the risk of recurrence in siblings has been suggested to be as high as 10%. We have conducted a clinical study of 22 subjects with ...
Eichler F - - 2001
The supine or prone positioning of infants has been a cause of much controversy. Recently it has been postulated that the position dependent hypoperfusion of the brainstem represents a possible cause of sudden infant death. To demonstrate position dependency and maturational changes of cerebral perfusion in premature newborn infants we ...
Lorenz J M - - 2001
Significant advances in perinatology and neonatology in the last decade have resulted in increased survival of extremely premature infants. Survival rates for infants born in tertiary perinatal and neonatal care centers in the United States in the 1990s increase with each week of gestational age from 22 through 26 weeks. ...
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