Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 918
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Elwell Clare E - - 2005
Greater understanding of the rate of oxygen delivery and uptake in sick preterm and term infants undergoing intensive care is an important aim of brain-orientated neonatal medicine. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a continuous, non-invasive and portable technique which can be used to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) in infants. ...
Murata Yasutaka - - 2005
Cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL), the principal ischemic brain injury in premature infants, is characterized by necrosis of the white matter in the periventricular region and the major neuropathology for spastic motor deficits in cerebral palsy or epilepsy. Recent reports strongly suggest that the brain injury associated with cPVL may have ...
Sundrum R - - 2005
AIMS: To study the relation between risk of cerebral palsy and socioeconomic status. METHODS: A total of 293 children with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy out of 105,760 live births between 1 January 1982 and 31 December 1997 were identified from the special conditions sub-file of the West Sussex Computerised ...
Estienne Margherita - - 2005
This report describes a male infant who developed right upper limb palsy 5 days after birth and contralateral paralysis at 14 days. Abnormal in utero posture of the right arm had resulted in a difficult cephalic delivery. Right shoulder osteomyelitis was diagnosed at age 16 days from clinical, hematologic, and ...
Verdu Alfonso - - 2005
The authors report an infant with congenital hemiplegia associated to heterozygosity for factor V Leiden. Prenatal stroke in the left cerebral hemisphere was diagnosed by ultrasonography at the 28th week of pregnancy, and followed up until birth. Although neonatal neurologic examination was normal, a moderate right hemiparesis developed along the ...
Mori Fumiaki - - 2004
The case reported here relates to a male infant with hydranencephaly who was born at 37 weeks of gestation and died immediately after birth. Post-mortem examination revealed that the cerebral hemispheres had been replaced by fluid-filled cavities within a normal-sized cranium. The membranous hemispheric wall was composed of gliosed tissue ...
Di Iorio Romolo - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: Adrenomedullin (AM) is a newly discovered vasodilator peptide that participates in the regulation of cerebral blood flow. The aim of this study was to investigate whether circulating AM was increased in infants with prenatal asphyxia who developed intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). DESIGN AND METHOD:: A case-control study was performed on ...
Munro Michael J - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: Whether extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants are at risk of cerebral hypoperfusion is uncertain because key issues concerning their cerebral blood flow (CBF) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) are unresolved: (1) whether CBF is pressure-passive or autoregulated; (2) the normal level of MAP; and (3) whether inotropic drugs ...
Hunt Rod W - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: Low superior vena cava (SVC) flow is common in the first hours after very preterm birth and has a strong association with subsequent periventricular/intraventricular hemorrhage. We report the neurodevelopmental outcome at 3 years of age of very preterm babies who had serial echocardiographic studies, including measures of SVC flow, ...
Hamrick Shannon E G - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To determine if the incidence of sonographically detected cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and periventricular hemorrhagic infarction (PVHI) have changed over the past decade and to determine if a decline in cystic PVL was associated with a change in neurodevelopmental outcome. STUDY DESIGN: Premature newborn infants admitted to our intensive ...
Chater Michael - - 2004
Erb's palsy is initially frightening. The infant's arm hangs limply from the shoulder with flexion of the wrist and fingers due to weakness of muscles innervated by cervical roots C5 and C6. Risk factors are macrosomia (large baby) and shoulder dystocia. However, Erb's palsy may occur following cesarian section. The ...
Leijser L M - - 2004
Cerebral ultrasound of preterm infants may show diffuse, bilateral, hyperechogenic "haze" over the thalami and basal ganglia (hyperechogenicity BGT). We explored whether this could be a pathological phenomenon. All cerebral ultrasound examinations performed in 2001 on infants < 35 weeks of age were reviewed. This resulted in a hyperechogenicity and ...
Meyer Philippe Gabriel - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate cerebral hemodynamics in young children with acute subdural hematoma (SDH) and the impact of surgical treatment using transcranial Doppler (TCD). DESIGN: The design was a prospective study of infants with SDH requiring surgical evacuation. SETTING: The setting was the neuro intensive care unit of ...
Karabiber Hamza - - 2004
Diaphragmatic paralysis in newborns is related to brachial plexus palsy. It can be overlooked if thorough examination isn't done. We present a two-weeks-old baby with a birth weight of 3800 grams who had a left-sided brachial plexus palsy and torticollis with an undiagnosed left diaphragmatic paralysis even though he was ...
Jacobsson Bo - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: In a thesis examine infectious and inflammatory mechanisms involved in preterm birth and cerebral palsy. STUDY DESIGN: Four cross-sectional studies and a case control study. RESULTS: Microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity and inflammation in this population of Swedish women in preterm labor and preterm prelabor rupture of membranes ...
Walstab Janet E - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors during the neonatal period that are associated with the subsequent development of cerebral palsy (CP). DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Ten hospitals in Victoria, Australia. SAMPLE: Cases were babies with moderate or severe CP identified from the Victorian Cerebral Palsy Register. Controls were matched with cases for ...
Palmer Frederick B - - 2004
Abstract Strategies for the early detection and diagnosis of cerebral palsy include multiple measures of the underlying brain abnormalities and their neurodevelopmental consequences. These measures can be grouped into the categories of pathogenesis, impairment, and functional limitation. Neuroimaging techniques are the most predictive measures of pathogenesis of cerebral palsy in ...
Gilbertson Michael - - 2004
Perinatal exposure to methylmercury is known to result in severe neurological effects on the developing fetus and infant, including cerebral palsy, mental retardation, and seizures. Males are more susceptible than females to neurological damage from perinatal methylmercury exposures. Preliminary analyses of data and statistics for the hospitalization rates of males ...
Zafeiriou Dimitrios I - - 2004
The primitive reflexes and the postural reactions comprise one of the earliest, simplest, and most frequently used tools among child neurologists to assess the central nervous system integrity of infants and young children. Infants with cerebral palsy have been known to manifest persistence or delay in the disappearance of primitive ...
Imai Tomihiro - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to prove the presence of transient phrenic nerve palsy in children after cardiac surgery by successive recordings of diaphragmatic action potentials (DAPs), and to decide the indication of diaphragmatic plication in infants with postoperative phrenic nerve palsy. METHODS: The DAPs were recorded from ...
Topp Monica - - 2004
BACKGROUND: A European multicenter study (Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe, SCPE) was used to describe changes over time in multiple birth rates and cerebral palsy (CP) rates among multiple born infants, to compare CP rates and clinical types between multiples and singletons, and to analyse the influence of birth ...
De Vries Linda S - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To assess sequential high-resolution cranial ultrasound (US) in high-risk preterm infants to predict cerebral palsy (CP). STUDY DESIGN: Preterm infants were prospectively studied (n=2139), 1636 <or=32 weeks gestational age (GA) (group A) and 503 with a GA of 33 to 36 weeks (group B). US was performed once a ...
Kissack Christopher M - - 2004
Fluctuations in cerebral hemodynamics have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acquired brain damage in babies born prematurely. This study examined the changes in cerebral fractional oxygen extraction (FOE) over the first 3 d after birth in 25 very-low-birth-weight preterm infants. Twelve infants had no major cerebral injury and 13 ...
Tolsa Cristina Borradori - - 2004
Placental insufficiency with fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is an important cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity and is subsequently associated with significant neurodevelopmental impairment in cognitive function, attention capacity, and school performance. The underlying biologic cause for this association is unclear. Twenty-eight preterm infants (gestational age 32.5 +/- 1.9 ...
Huang Hsin-Chun - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown that certain cytokines in amniotic fluids are correlated to premature labor and neonatal brain insults. AIMS: We investigated whether different fetal phagocyte and vascular mediators including IL-8, myeloperoxidase (MPO), PGE(2) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) levels were correlated to prematurity and cerebral palsy ...
Ilves P - - 2004
AIM: To evaluate the role of early (up to 12 h) changes in cerebral blood-flow (CBF) velocity in predicting the severity of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) and long-term outcome in asphyxiated term infants. METHODS: CBF velocities were investigated by colour Doppler ultrasonography in 81 healthy and 60 asphyxiated term infants at ...
Moukoko Didier - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Glenoid dysplasia and posterior shoulder subluxation with resultant shoulder stiffness is a well-recognized complication in infants with neonatal brachial plexus palsy. It is generally considered to be the result of a slowly progressive glenohumeral deformation secondary to muscle imbalance, physeal trauma, or both. Recent publications about infantile posterior shoulder ...
Roll C - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Doxapram is used to treat apnea of prematurity when there is an insufficient response to methylxanthine treatment. As an unwanted side effect, reduced cerebral perfusion has been seen in methylxanthine-treated infants while effects of doxapram on the cerebral perfusion have not been studied yet. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen preterm ...
Nelson Karin B - - 2004
The few days before and after birth are a time of special risk for stroke in both mother and infant, probably related to activation of coagulation mechanisms in this critical period. Arterial ischaemic stroke around the time of birth is recognised in about one in 4000 full-term infants, and may ...
Vigneswaran Rasiah - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The association between cerebral palsy in very preterm infants and clinical, histopathologic and microbiological indicators of chorioamnionitis, including the identification of specific micro-organisms in the placenta, was evaluated in a case-cohort study. METHODS: Children with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy at five years of age were identified from amongst ...
Soul Janet S - - 2004
Rational intervention in infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) would be facilitated greatly by bedside measure of impaired cerebral perfusion, as there is substantial evidence that impaired perfusion and oxidative metabolism contribute to irreversible brain injury in hydrocephalus. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measures changes in the cerebral concentration of oxygenated and deoxygenated ...
Burja Silva - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The results of changes in perinatal health care in Maribor show a significant improvement in the past decade. Between 1995 and 1999, the survival chances of neonates with birth weight < 1000g also increased. With the appearance of new generations of extremely low-birth-weight infants, the risk of a higher ...
Meberg Alf - - 2004
AIMS: To register the prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP) and determine etiological factors for the condition. METHODS: Population based study with registration of CP-cases in children born during the 30-year period 1970-99. Cases with postneonatal etiology were excluded. RESULTS: 166 CP-cases were registered among 70 824 children, a prevalence of ...
Zuppa A A - - 2004
A prospective study was performed enrolling 11 newborns with neonatal lupus syndrome (NLS) and 22 control newborns to investigate cerebral ultrasound (US) anomalies and their relationship with clinical neurological signs and laboratory findings. Cerebral US detected a significantly higher incidence in the study group of both subependymal pseudocysts (SEPC) and ...
Pichler G - - 2004
AIM: Measurement of cerebral haemodynamics to detect impaired cerebral blood flow and impaired cerebral autoregulation might make prevention of brain lesions and especially periventricular leucencephalomalacia (PVL) achievable. METHODS: Changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV) and the cerebral haemoglobin oxygenation index (cHbD) following tilting up and down in 10 preterm infants ...
Lacey Joan L - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of a neurological assessment performed before discharge from the nursery to predict cerebral palsy at three years of age in preterm infants. Infants born < 31 weeks gestation between 1992 and 1996 were assessed using the Lacey Assessment of ...
Kissack Christopher M - - 2004
This study examined the relationships between cerebral fractional oxygen extraction (FOE), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), left ventricular output (LVO), blood gases, and other physiologic variables in 36 very-low-birth-weight preterm infants during the first 3 d after birth. There was a decrease in cerebral FOE (p = 0.008), and rises ...
Thorngren-Jerneck Kristina - - 2004
The astroglial protein S100 is an established biochemical marker for CNS injury in the adult. The aim was to investigate whether S100 in serum is a prognostic marker of cerebral injury in term newborn infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) after perinatal asphyxia. Serum S100 was measured on postnatal days ...
Maddali Madan Mohan - - 2003
We report 2 cases of infants in whom off-pump bidirectional Glenn shunts were performed. A technique of decompressing the superior vena cava by active manual aspiration has been described. The challenges of maintaning the hemodynamic status, and cerebral protection maneuvers in association with mild hypothermia and a high transcranial pressure ...
Heep A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) in premature infants presumably have many causes. It has been proposed that inflammatory processes in the fetomaternal unit play an important role in the pathogenesis of these lesions. OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation of postpartum serum interleukin 6 (IL6) concentration as a ...
Jayasinghe Dulip - - 2003
Perinatal distress in the preterm neonate, and the consequent loss of cerebrovascular autoregulation, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neonatal cerebral lesions. A component of this distress is thought to be hypotension. We examined the autoregulatory capacity of hypotensive and normotensive infants using the 133Xe technique to measure cerebral ...
Vohr Betty R - - 2003
This article reviews experience with longitudinal follow-up of high-risk infants in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Neonatal Research Network. In 1993, the Network initiated a research protocol to provide longitudinal follow-up of infants with birth weight less than 1001 g and infants with higher birth ...
van Gelder-Hasker M R - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and peri- and intraventricular hemorrhages can be detected in fetuses at risk for preterm birth and to establish the clinical significance of this finding. METHODS: Prenatal cerebral sonography was performed in 26 fetuses at risk for uteroplacental insufficiency on the day of inclusion ...
Bartley John - - 2003
Cerebral palsy is a group of brain diseases which produce chronic motor disability in children. The causes are quite varied and range from abnormalities of brain development to birth-related injuries to postnatal brain injuries. Due to the increased survival of very premature infants, the incidence of cerebral palsy may be ...
Surman Geraldine - - 2003
Using a population-based register, this study sought to ascertain changes in the rate and severity of cerebral palsy (CP) in a geographically defined area of the UK among infants weighing less than 1500 g and born between 1984 and 1995. There were 417414 live births in the area, which included ...
Amar Arun P - - 2003
OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Neonatal subgaleal hematomas (SGHs) are infrequent but underdiagnosed collections of blood beneath the galea, often caused by vacuum delivery. With massive bleeding into the subgaleal space, exsanguination and hypovolemic shock can cause death in 20 to 60% of newborn infants. We report the first two known patients ...
Craig Andrew - - 2003
The development of a rodent model in the perinatal rat or mouse that reproduces the principal features of human perinatal white matter injury (periventricular leukomalacia) has been hampered by uncertainty about the developmental window in the rodent that coincides temporally with cerebral white matter development in the premature infant. We ...
Fung G - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: Chorioamnionitis is a risk factor for preterm delivery. Intrauterine infection leads to the fetal inflammatory response which is characterised by elevated cytokine levels. Chorioamnionitis is reported to cause accelerated but abnormal lung maturation, resulting in decreased incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) but increased chronic lung disease (CLD), and ...
Haynes Robin L - - 2003
Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), the major substrate of cerebral palsy in survivors of prematurity, is defined as focal periventricular necrosis and diffuse gliosis in immature cerebral white matter. We propose that nitrosative and/or oxidative stress to premyelinating oligodendrocytes complicating cerebral ischemia in the sick premature infant is a key mechanism of ...
Yoon Bo Hyun - - 2003
Cerebral palsy is a serious motor disorder that appears in early life. The expectation that improved obstetrical and neonatal care would decrease the rate of this condition has not been realised. Recent evidence indicates that white matter brain lesions, often termed periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), are the most important identifiable risk ...
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