Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 919
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Bevan R - - 1998
Responses of segments of basilar and middle cerebral arteries of eight human infants to activation of perivascular nerves and to vasoactive drugs were studied using a resistance artery myograph. The infants ages ranged from 23 wk of gestation to 34 postnatal days. Neurogenic vasoconstriction occurred in all segments and at ...
Hüppi P S - - 1998
Alterations of the architecture of cerebral white matter in the developing human brain can affect cortical development and result in functional disabilities. A line scan diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence with diffusion tensor analysis was applied to measure the apparent diffusion coefficient, to calculate relative anisotropy, and to delineate ...
Gray P H - - 1998
AIM: To determine the outcome of preterm infants born to mothers with hypertension during pregnancy, and preterm controls. METHODS: 107 infants of 24-32 weeks gestation, born to hypertensive mothers, and 107 controls matched for gestational age, sex, and multiple pregnancy, born to normotensive mothers, were prospectively enrolled over 2 years. ...
Hanrahan J D - - 1998
In this prospective study proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) was used to test the hypothesis that lactate can be detected later than 1 mo after birth in the brains of infants who display severe neurodevelopmental impairment 1 y after transient perinatal hypoxia-ischemia. Data were obtained from three groups of ...
Kinney H C - - 1998
Periventricular leukomalacia in the premature infant is a lesion of cerebral white matter with its greatest period of risk when white matter is immature, that is, when oligodendrocyte precursors are proliferating and differentiating, and before myelin sheaths are actively synthesized. Although the pathogenesis of perinatal cerebral white matter damage involves ...
- - 1998
BACKGROUND: Furosemide and acetazolamide are widely used in the treatment of posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD) in the hope of avoiding the need for surgical management, but this approach has not been evaluated in a controlled trial. This multicentre randomised controlled trial tested the hypothesis that these drugs would reduce the ...
Tyszczuk L - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Preterm infants are often presumed to have a pressure passive cerebral circulation implying that a low mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) results in reduced cerebral perfusion. The aim of this study was to determine whether cerebral blood flow (CBF) was compromised in preterm infants whose MABP fell below 30 ...
Roland E H - - 1998
A common pattern of hypoxic-ischemic cerebral injury in the term newborn involves predominantly cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter. We describe 20 term newborns with moderate or severe acute hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy who exhibit a different pattern of abnormalities on computed tomography, with evidence of decreased tissue attenuation predominantly in thalami ...
de Vries L S - - 1998
During a 7-year-period, 1625 infants of 34 weeks gestation or less were enrolled in a prospective ultrasound (US) study. One hundred and eleven (6.8%) infants developed a large intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) with or without unilateral parenchymal involvement (PI). Fifty-six of these 111 infants survived (50.4%) and in 23 (41%) of ...
Pharoah P O - - 1998
AIMS: To report on the epidemiology of cerebral palsy in England and Scotland, to provide information on the prevalence of cerebral palsy and the severity of the disability or any co-morbidity. METHODS: Cerebral palsy registers were compiled from multiple sources of ascertainment covering all of Scotland and the counties of ...
Kavcic A - - 1998
Changes in the prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP) in a population of Slovenian children born between 1981 and 1990 were determined. A population-based birth-cohort study was undertaken. Seven hundred and sixty-eight children with CP (aged 5 to 14 years) were identified from the National Cerebral Palsy Register in 1995. Spastic ...
Ilves P - - 1998
Cerebral blood flow velocity was assessed by pulsed-Doppler ultrasonography in 39 asphyxiated and 35 healthy term newborn infants during the first days of life. Asphyxiated infants, investigated at the age of 12 +/- 2 h, with moderate stage hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) (n = 7) had decreased (15.6 +/- 3.9 cm/s) ...
Domizio S - - 1998
Three full term newborns with focal ischemic injury of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) were observed. Diagnosis was suspected by cerebral ultrasonography (US) in the first year of life and then was confirmed by CT-scan and/or MRI. All children had a history of pre-perinatal risk factors of fetal impairment. Neuropsychological ...
Fujimoto S - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Clarification of the present status of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) in Japan. METHODS: Questionnaires were mailed to the leading neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and rehabilitation centers for children. RESULTS: The incidence of PVL in the group of surviving preterm infants of gestational ages less than 33 weeks was 4.8-4.9% ...
Lorenz J M - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: To summarize the literature on mortality rates and prevalences of major neurodevelopmental disabilities and to examine trends of these outcomes over time in extremely premature neonates. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE was used to search the English literature for studies published since 1970 reporting on both mortality and disability in infants ...
Baud O - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the specificity and the sensitivity of electroencephalography's positive rolandic sharp waves (PRSW) for the diagnosis of cystic and noncystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on a population of 765 premature infants alive after 5 days who were ...
Spinillo A - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between preeclampsia and cerebral palsy among preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort study of 345 singleton preterm (24 to 33 weeks gestation) infants delivered at an institution where no mothers received magnesium sulphate. We investigated the relationship of preeclampsia to the development of infant cerebral ...
Osamura T - - 1998
Total body bone mineral density was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 52 children who were very low birth weight (VLBW) infants without cerebral palsy and mental retardation (postconceptional age, from 10 mo to 6 y and 6 mo). VLBW infants in this study seemed to show compensatory acceleration ...
O'Shea T M - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether the increasing survival of very low birth weight infants during the 1980s and 1990s has increased the risk of cerebral palsy among survivors. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 2076 consecutively born infants, with birth weights of 500 to 1500 g and no major anomaly, born ...
Hirtz D G - - 1998
This article reviews clinical and experimental evidence as to whether magnesium sulfate, administered soon before premature birth, can reduce the high rate of cerebral palsy in tiny infants. Three observational studies have reported an association of magnesium sulfate with lower rate of cerebral palsy, whether treatment was for maternal preeclampsia ...
Ouzounian J G - - 1998
Our objective was to investigate the association between permanent Erb's palsy and the presence of historic obstetrical risk factors. Cases of documented permanent Erb's palsy from our national registry of children with Erb's palsy were extracted and analyzed for the purpose of this descriptive study. Maternal and neonatal records were ...
Emsley H C - - 1998
AIMS: To assess whether changes in survival over time in infants of 23 to 25 weeks of gestational age were accompanied by changes in the incidence of disability in childhood during an 11 year period. METHODS: Obstetric and neonatal variables having the strongest association with both survival to discharge from ...
Mires G J - - 1998
In a prospective study of 217 infants who were delivered before 37 weeks' gestation and in whom serial cranial ultrasound scans were performed to identify cerebral pathology, multivariate analysis, including a wide range of peripartum and neonatal variables, demonstrated that metabolic acidosis present at delivery and persisting during the early ...
Liu H Y - - 1998
We present a term, 2950 gm female neonate who was delivered by vacuum extraction and subsequently developed convulsions 23 hours after birth. Acute subduralhematoma was rapidly diagnosed by computed tomographic brain scan and successfully removed. The patient had a smooth postoperative recovery but cerebral infarction was found during follow up ...
O'Shea T M - - 1998
The purpose of this study was to analyze associations between prenatal factors and cerebral palsy in a geographically based cohort of very low birth weight infants. Cases (n = 80) and controls had birth weights of 500-1,500 g and were born in 1978-1989, to a resident of one of 17 ...
Butterworth R F - - 1998
Congenital ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency is the most common inborn error of urea cycle enzymes in humans. A large percentage of survivors of neonatal OTC deficiency suffer severe developmental disorders, including seizures, mental retardation and cerebral palsy. Neuropathological studies reveal ventricular enlargement, cerebral atrophy and delayed myelination, as well as ...
de Vries L S - - 1998
AIM: To assess the prevalence of an antenatal onset of haemorrhagic and/or ischaemic lesions in preterm infants; to identify possibly related obstetric risk factors. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was made of 1332 infants born at less than 34 completed weeks, using cranial ultrasound, for the presence of antenatal brain ...
O'Shea T M - - 1998
Very low-birthweight infants constitute more than one-quarter of all new cases of cerebral palsy. We performed a case-control study of associations between antenatal maternal infection and cerebral palsy in very low-birthweight infants. Cases and controls were selected from a cohort of 1238 consecutive infants who: (1) had birthweights between 500 ...
O'Shea T M - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Because the survival rate has increased for extremely low birth weight neonates, many have raised the concern that the rate of developmental disability among survivors will also increase. To address this concern, we analyzed changes over time in survival and major neurosensory impairment in a sample of extremely low ...
Roth S C - - 1997
Cerebral oxidative metabolism was studied using phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy during the first week of life and neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed at 4 years in 62 infants who had clinical and/or biochemical evidence consistent with birth asphyxia (critically impaired intrapartum gas exchange). Twenty-one died and the neurodevelopmental status of the ...
Piecuch R E - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To assess the neurodevelopmental outcome of infants born at 24-26 weeks' gestation. METHODS: One hundred thirty-eight nonanomalous infants were born at our hospital after pregnancies of 24-26 weeks' gestation between 1990 and 1994. Ninety-four infants survived to discharge and 86 were followed in a nursery follow-up program for outcome. ...
Blankenberg F G - - 1997
PURPOSE: To evaluate regional cerebral blood flow with power and pulsed wave Doppler ultrasound (US) in extremely low-birth-weight neonates with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH), or both. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The lenticulostriate arteries of 17 preterm neonates (birth weight < or = 1,100 g) were assessed daily with ...
Spinillo A - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk for cerebral palsy in preterm infants in relation to the presence of meconium in the amniotic fluid (AF). METHODS: A cohort study was conducted of 404 consecutive preterm infants delivered between 24 and 33 weeks' gestation at a single institution. Sociodemographic and clinical data were ...
Topp M - - 1997
To investigate changes in cerebral palsy birth prevalence and perinatal mortality rate by different gestational age groups, 1979-86, cerebral palsy cases in eastern Denmark were identified from the Danish Cerebral Palsy Register, and information on birth and mortality rates was sought in the Danish Medical Birth Register. From 1979-82 to ...
de Klerk O L - - 1997
Neonatal seizures in the neonatal period are symptoms of numerous underlying disorders of the neonate. We present a case in which neonatal seizures due to cerebral infarction led to a diagnosis in the mother. Neonatal convulsions caused by cerebral artery thrombosis is relatively rare in the neonatal period and is ...
Topp M - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are at 8 times higher risk than term infants for pre- and perinatal brain damage, resulting in cerebral palsy. In this paper we have analysed the influence of prenatal and birth-related risk factors on cerebral palsy in preterm infants. METHODS: In a register-based study, 175 preterm singleton ...
Stigson L - - 1997
Magnesium is a natural calcium channel blocker inhibiting vasoconstriction in numerous vascular beds. Magnesium sulphate given prior to birth to pre-eclamptic mothers and mothers in preterm labour has in retrospect been found to be associated with a decreased incidence of both intraventricular haemorrhage and cerebral palsy. Little is known about ...
Suvanand S - - 1997
Cerebral palsy is a major cause of crippling in children, but it's etiology is poorly understood. This case control study was done to assess some of the identified risk factors for cerebral palsy, 125 cerebral palsy cases selected from hospital clinic and 125 age and sex matched neighbourhood controls, all ...
Harte G J - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of intravenous midazolam on haemodynamic variables and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) and to determine the pharmacokinetics using a population approach in very low birthweight (VLBW) ventilated infants. METHODOLOGY: Physiological variables were measured at predetermined times in 10 infants with birthweight < or = 1500 ...
Coley B D - - 1997
Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a common finding during neurosonography of preterm infants. Secondary thinning of the corpus callosum is seen following PVL, typically from loss of hemispheric white matter tracts. We report a case of direct involvement of the corpus callosum with PVL, its pathogenesis, and its potential as a ...
Yoon B H - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Ultrasonographically detectable neonatal brain white matter lesions are the most important identifiable risk factor for cerebral palsy. Inflammatory cytokines released during the course of intrauterine infections have been implicated in the genesis of brain white matter lesions and subsequent cerebral palsy. This study was undertaken to determine whether fetuses ...
Bennett F C - - 1997
Despite improvements in survival rates for low birthweight (LBW) infants, the prevalence among survivors of major neurodevelopmental impairment seems relatively stable. Cerebral palsy, the most common major impairment, can usually be ruled out by 18 months corrected age. Minor impairments such as learning disabilities cannot be ruled out until much ...
Cioni G - - 1997
The correlation between MRI findings and sensorimotor development was investigated in a group of 48 infants with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP). The ages at MRI examination and cognitive assessment were fairly homogeneous (mean 15 months and 17 months, respectively). The following MRI parameters were scored: size of lateral ventricles, ...
Groenendaal F - - 1997
The present study tested the hypothesis that proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) predicted neurodevelopmental outcome in infants with cystic leukomalacia (CL). Nineteen infants with CL (grade 2, N = 7; grade 3, N = 7; grade 4, N = 5), graded according to the authors' classification, were examined at corrected ...
Vohr B R - - 1997
Advances in perinatal and neonatal management have resulted in a significant increase in the survival of fragile extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants > 1,000 g at birth. The evaluation and reporting of the outcome of these infants aids in assessing the efficacy of interventions, provides data to aid in ...
Allan W C - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: To determine if cerebral palsy (CP) rates were lower in the active treatment group compared with the control group, as improved survival rates of very low-birth-weight infants are postulated to be the cause of the increased incidence of CP in preterm infants, to evaluate relationships between multiple prenatal, perinatal, ...
Spinillo A - - 1997
To evaluate the simultaneous effects of antenatal and delivery risk factors on neonatal death and cerebral palsy in preterm infants, we conducted a cohort study of 363 singleton pregnancies delivered between 24 and 33 weeks gestation. Neurodevelopmental outcome of the infants was evaluated at 2 years of corrected age. Risk ...
Davis D W - - 1997
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a nonprogressive disorder of motor function. Although it has been recognized for more than a century, much remains unknown regarding its etiology. It has been estimated that 17 to 60 percent of the cases of CP have no known perinatal or neonatal complications. Undocumented antenatal events ...
de Vries L S - - 1997
Twenty-three infants with an infarct in the territory of the middle cerebral artery are reported. The diagnosis was made using cranial ultrasound in all, confirmed on postmortem in two cases and on MRI, performed during the neonatal period or in infancy, in 18 of the 20 survivors. Involvement of the ...
Patel J - - 1997
Perinatal asphyxia at term remains a significant cause of infant death and neurodevelopmental impairment, probably causing 20% of all cases of cerebral palsy. This review examines indicators that can help determine the prognosis after suspected asphyxia in term infants, including obstetric information, clinical examination, and diagnostic methods based on neurophysiology, ...
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