Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 928
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Tsuji M - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: Premature infants experience brain injury, ie, germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), in considerable part because of disturbances in cerebral blood flow (CBF). Because such infants are susceptible to major fluctuations in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), impaired cerebrovascular autoregulation would increase the likelihood for the changes ...
Robertson N J - - 2000
The biochemical characteristics of white matter damage (WMD) in preterm infants were assessed using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The authors hypothesized that preterm infants with WMD at term had a persisting cerebral lactic alkalosis and reduced N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/ creatine plus phosphocreatine (Cr), similar to that previously documented in term ...
Ajayi-Obe M - - 2000
Most growth in cortical connections and complexity occurs after 25 weeks. The cerebral cortex of extremely preterm infants when imaged at gestational age 38-42 weeks had less cortical surface area and was less complex than in normal infants born around term (p<0.0148 and p<0.0002, respectively), despite similar term-corrected cerebral tissue ...
Wu Y W - - 2000
CONTEXT: Chorioamnionitis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebral palsy, but most studies have not reported a significant association. Cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL) is believed to be a precursor of cerebral palsy in preterm infants. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether chorioamnionitis is associated with cerebral palsy or cPVL and to ...
Grether J K - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine magnesium sulfate tocolysis and cerebral palsy in infants born prematurely to women without preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective case-control study of infants with birth weights <1500 g and of infants with birth weights from 1500 to 1999 g who were born at ...
Sreenan C - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the long-term neurodevelopmental outcome of cranial computed tomography (CT)-documented cerebral infarction in term neonates to ascertain factors that would help to predict the risk of subsequent neurodevelopmental sequelae in early childhood. STUDY DESIGN: From 1983 to 1997, all surviving neonates from two level III neonatal intensive care ...
Resch B - - 2000
The aim of the study was to determine risk factors for the development of cystic periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) and to correlate ultrasound findings with neurodevelopmental outcome. By means of a retrospective case-control study (matched for gestational age, birth weight, sex, and year of birth) and a cohort analysis of all ...
Matsuda Y - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To identify prenatal events associated with cerebral palsy (CP) in infants born between 26 and 30 weeks of gestation. STUDY DESIGN: Case (n=22)-control (n=170) study was performed using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Significant association of intrauterine infection with increased risk of CP was found in a logistic regression ...
Boylan G B - - 2000
The sick newborn infant is vulnerable to brain injury and impaired cerebral autoregulation is thought to contribute to this. Coherent averaging is a method of measuring the dynamic cerebral autoregulatory response that is particularly suitable for neonates. We used this method in combination with a measure of the gradient of ...
Colver A F - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: To report epidemiological trends in cerebral palsy including analyses by severity. DESIGN: Descriptive longitudinal study in north-east England. Every child with suspected cerebral palsy was examined by a developmental paediatrician to confirm the diagnosis. Severity of impact of disability was derived from a parent completed questionnaire already developed and ...
Dani C - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the acute effects of low-dose caffeine and aminophylline on cerebral blood flow in preterm infants, using both near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and cerebral Doppler ultrasonography. METHODS: Preterm infants with a gestational age of <32 weeks and birth weight of <1,500 g were randomized to receive either caffeine or ...
Chow G - - 2000
A baby girl born by elective lower segment caesarean section was found to have left-sided focal seizures at 48 hours after birth. Her mother had previously had a neonatal death at 26 weeks' gestation and another child born at 32 weeks' gestation had a congenital right hemiplegia with a left ...
Wheater M - - 2000
Sixty-nine very-low-birthweight infants out of a population of 923 had cerebral palsy (CP) at an 18-month follow-up. Thirty-nine of these had cranial ultrasound abnormalities in the neonatal period and 30 had normal cranial ultrasounds. The distribution of subtypes of CP differed markedly between the two groups, with hemiplegia predominating in ...
O'Shea T M - - 2000
Research from the last two decades provides directions for efforts to prevent CP in VLBW infants. The pathogenesis of CP seems to involve factors operating both during pregnancy and in the neonatal period. The most important prenatal factor appears to be intrauterine infection. Perinatal infection and other risk factors, such ...
Hack M - - 2000
Advances in perinatal care have improved the chances for survival of extremely low birthweight (<800 grams) and gestational age (<26 weeks) infants. A review of the world literature reveals that among regional populations, survival at 23 weeks' gestation ranges from 2 to 35%, at 24 weeks' gestation 17 to 62% ...
Gunn A J - - 2000
The possibility that hypothermia has a therapeutic role during or after resuscitation from severe perinatal asphyxia has been a longstanding focus of research. Early studies using short periods of cooling had limited and contradictory results. We now know that resuscitation can be followed by a "latent" phase, characterized by transient ...
Smith J - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To examine trends in incidence of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in term infants over a twenty-one year period. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of medical records of all term infants admitted to a neonatal unit with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy during the years 1992-1996 (period C) and a comparison with data from the years ...
Liu J - - 2000
BACKGROUND: A population-based study on prevalence of cerebral palsy in multiple births has not been carried out in China. The purpose of this paper was to determine the prevalence of cerebral palsy in multiple births and to explore the influence of multiple pregnancy on cerebral palsy after controlling for birthweight. ...
Nelson K B - - 2000
The balance of current evidence indicates that intrauterine exposure to infection and inflammation contributes to the risk of cerebral palsy. The mechanisms involved are not well understood and may differ in very immature versus term infants. Term infants exposed to maternal infection are predisposed to delivery room depression and neonatal ...
Baumeister F A - - 2000
We report on a preterm infant with deep cerebral venous thrombosis, a rare condition in this age group. This premature infant had a gestational age of 33 weeks and normal development until day 18, when he presented with tonic seizures and a tense fontanelle. Ultrasound and computed tomography revealed bilateral ...
Vredeveld J W - - 2000
An EMG and nerve-conduction-study protocol has been developed and used in all patients with brachial plexus lesions since 1985. The findings of EMG and nerve-conduction studies in obstetric brachial palsy (OBP) mostly suggest a falsely optimistic prognosis. To analyse this, all subjects were selected with complete avulsion of both roots ...
Doyle L W - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine the changes in the rates of survival, cranial ultrasound abnormalities and cerebral palsy in very low birthweight (VLBW) (birthweight 500-1499 g) infants between the early 1980s and the early 1990s. METHODOLOGY: A cohort study of consecutive VLBW live births in one tertiary perinatal hospital during two distinct ...
Pike A A - - 2000
To explore the role of posterior tibial somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) and flash visual evoked potentials (VEP) in the early prediction of functional brain injury, 93 infants of less than 32 weeks gestation at birth were studied. Neuromotor outcome was defined by clinical examination at the age of 2 years. ...
Zafeiriou D I - - 2000
For most primitive reflexes, retention of the reflex beyond the period when it should no longer be elicited suggests a pathologic process within the central nervous system. However, for certain primitive reflexes, such as the plantar grasp reflex, a negative response within the first months of life is suggestive of ...
Nelson K B - - 1999
Risk factors for cerebral palsy in term or near-term children include intrauterine exposure to infection or inflammation and disorders of coagulation. Interruption of the oxygen supply during birth contributes approximately 6% of spastic cerebral palsy. Low Apgar score, need for resuscitation, and seizures are nonspecific indicators of neonatal illness that ...
Thornton J S - - 1999
Using a 4-echo spin-echo sequence, cerebral T2 was measured in specific anatomic regions in eleven healthy newborn infants, whose gestational plus postnatal ages (GPAs) lay between 37 and 42 weeks. For a region in the pons, T2 was 141+/-9 ms (mean +/- standard deviation), and no significant dependence upon GPA ...
Govaert P - - 1999
AIMS: To describe two variants of infarction within the temporal lobe, associated with local matrix bleeding and mild to moderate intraventricular haemorrhage. METHODS: The files of 10 neonates, extracted from a sonographic study of 560 very low birthweight infants conducted between 1993 and 1997, were retrospectively examined. RESULTS: Seven lesions ...
Hadders-Algra M - - 1999
The development of postural adjustments during reaching movements was longitudinally studied in seven infants with cerebral palsy (CP) between 4 and 18 months of age. Five infants developed spastic hemiplegia, one spastic tetraplegia, and one spastic tetraplegia with athetosis. Each assessment consisted of a simultaneous recording of video data and ...
Mosca F - - 1999
Cerebral vasoreactivity to CO(2), calculated by linear regression of total cerebral hemoglobin, measured by near infrared spectroscopy, and corresponding PaCO(2), in infants <32 weeks' gestation, was found to be unaffected by the administration of ibuprofen, which was given on the first postnatal day as prophylaxis against patent ductus arteriosus.
Inder T E - - 1999
Periventricular white matter injury, that is, periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), the dominant form of brain injury in the premature infant, is the major neuropathological substrate associated with the motor and cognitive deficits observed later in such infants. The nature of the relationship of this lesion to the subsequent cognitive deficits is ...
Abreu-Villaça Y Y - - 1999
The temporal sequence of events related to the effects of prenatal gamma irradiation on the development of the corpus callosum and cerebral cortex was studied in Swiss mice. Pregnant females on gestational day 16 were exposed to a 60Co source receiving total doses of 2 or 3 Gy. The offspring ...
Rantonen T - - 1999
Magnesium sulphate and ritodrine are commonly used drugs in the prevention of preterm delivery. However, the effects of these treatments on the newborn are controversial. It has previously been suggested that antenatal tocolytic magnesium sulphate decreases the incidence of cerebral palsy, but increases paediatric mortality. On the other hand, antenatal ...
Krebs L - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between breech delivery and cerebral palsy, considering the influence of intrauterine growth, low Apgar score at birth, and mode of delivery. DESIGN: Register-based, case-control study. POPULATION: A cohort of infants with cerebral palsy born between 1979 and 1986 in East Denmark, identified by linkage of ...
Meek J H - - 1999
AIM: To measure changes in cerebral haemodynamics during the first 24 hours of life following perinatal asphyxia, and relate them to outcome. METHODS: Cerebral blood volume (CBV), its response (CBVR) to changes in arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2)), and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) ...
Caddell J L - - 1999
The survival rate of very preterm, low birth weight infants (weighing less than 1500 g) is 85 per cent in the USA and is ever increasing, while 42 to 75 per cent of extremely premature infants (weighing 751-1000 g) survive. Of great concern is the lack of consistent decrease in ...
Lau C T - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between cerebral palsy and the birth process. DATA SOURCES: Medline and non-Medline literature search and personal experience. STUDY SELECTION: Articles that commented on the routinely used markers of foetal distress, such as abnormal foetal heart rate, meconium-stained liquor, and foetal acidosis. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were ...
Zafeiriou D I - - 1999
To clarify the plantar reflex profile at 1 year of life in different categories of neurodevelopmental abnormalities, plantar responses were examined prospectively in 204 high-risk infants, of whom 58 developed cerebral palsy, 22 had developmental retardation without motor disturbance, and 124 were normal at a follow-up examination at 3 years ...
Kim J N - - 1999
Prematurity, intrauterine infection and perinatal brain injury have been reported to be significant risk factors of cerebral palsy (CP). We examined the perinatal predictors of cerebral palsy and delayed development (DD) in 184 high risk infants. Thirty-five infants were diagnosed as cerebral palsy and delayed development at 12 months corrected ...
O'Shea T M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Ventilator-dependent preterm infants are often treated with a prolonged tapering course of dexamethasone to decrease the risk and severity of chronic lung disease. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of this therapy on developmental outcome at 1 year of age. METHODS: Study participants were 118 ...
Bass W T - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical usefulness of recently published ultrasonographic criteria for the differential diagnosis of periventricular hemorrhagic venous infarction (PHVI) versus periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), and its relevance to neurodevelopmental outcome. STUDY DESIGN: From 1992 to 1995, we evaluated 998 very low birth weight infants of which 111 developed cerebral ...
Nagdyman N - - 1999
We determined the influence of head position on lateral ventricular cerebral volume in low-birth-weight infants by three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound (US). Thirty-nine neonates were examined prospectively in a controlled and blinded study. We used a freehand 3-D US system to acquire data sets after head positioning for 3 h on left ...
Leviton A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Infants with hypothyroxinemia of prematurity (HOP) are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental dysfunction. Infants born near the end of the middle trimester are also at increased risk for an echolucency (EL) in the cerebral white matter, which reflects white matter damage and is the cranial ultrasound abnormality that best ...
Salokorpi T - - 1999
This study aimed to evaluate the role of hypocarbia as a risk factor for mortality and for cerebral palsy in extremely low birthweight infants. The records for 215 extremely low birthweight children were analysed, grouping the infants into those who died (n = 72), those who had a confirmed diagnosis ...
Deguchi K - - 1999
Eighty-five infants ranging from 22 to 41 weeks gestation were diagnosed as having periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) using traditional neuropathologic methods. The lesions were also studied by immunocytochemistry for beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP), a glycoprotein that has been observed in PVL. Using this technique, the distribution of white matter tissue necrosis ...
Witt O - - 1999
A 12-month-old infant presented with cerebral seizures and neurological deficits. MRI scan of the brain and angiography showed massive cerebral venous sinus thrombosis complicated by a dural arteriovenous fistula. Subsequent clotting analysis revealed a protein S deficiency. Screening for inherited coagulation inhibitor deficiency is recommended in children with unexplained or ...
Cooke R W - - 1999
AIM: To evaluate the effects of changing perinatal practice on outcome in terms of cranial ultrasound appearances and subsequent cerebral palsy rates in survivors. METHODS: A tertiary neonatal centre based prospective cohort study was undertaken of very low birthweight infants, in three 4 year periods: 1982-5, 1986-9, 1990-3. Rates of ...
Burguet A A Réanimation Infantile Polyvalente, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Besançon, - - 1999
To delineate the perinatal risk factors of neurodevelopmental disabilities in very preterm birth applying logistic regression analysis. This prospective, geographically defined collaborative study was carried out in the Franche-Comté region of France. From October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1992, perinatal and follow-up data were collected on 203 consecutive live-born ...
Achenef M - - 1999
An investigation was carried out at Debre Berhan, Ethiopia, between 1996 and 1997, into the epidemiology of coenurosis in Menz and Horro breeds of sheep. A total of 37 heads from clinically sick and 183 heads from apparently healthy sheep were examined post mortem for the presence of the cystic ...
Hanrahan J D - - 1999
The aim of the study was to test the hypotheses that elevated cerebral lactate, detected by proton spectroscopy performed within 18 hours of suspected birth asphyxia, is associated with adverse outcome, and that increased lactate can be used to predict adverse outcome. Thirty-one term infants suspected of having had birth ...
Baenziger O - - 1999
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) studies have provided some insight into pathophysiological mechanisms of cerebral damage in newborn children; their value in predicting brain damage, however, remains elusive. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the role of CBF measurements in predicting developmental outcome in preterm neonates at 18 months. ...
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