Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1287
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Matsuura N - - 2001
Dioxins (PCDD + PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) are potentially hazardous compounds and have structural similarity to thyroid hormones. Our research group on "Dioxins and PCB in Human Milk" was organized in 1997 and has been active for the past three years. We collected breast milk from 80 mothers living ...
Cervera P - - 2001
Sociodemographic and economic changes in Spain have played a role in the choice of infant feeding as more and more women enter the workforce. Nevertheless, the prevalence of breast-fed-only infants at 6 weeks remains fairly high, at 65.5% in 1999, although there is a sharp decline by 3 and 6 ...
de la Torre M J - - 2001
Human milk is the best way to nurture the human infant. By breast-feeding their babies, mothers provide them with the best opportunities to wholly develop their potential, while protecting the infants and themselves from a whole range of diseases in the near future and in the years to come. Even ...
Manganaro R - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To verify in exclusively breast-fed, term infants the incidence of hypernatremic dehydration and identify possible maternal and/or infant factors that interfere with successful breast-feeding. STUDY DESIGN: We prospectively included all healthy breast-fed neonates referred to our Neonatology Unit between October 1999 and March 2000. All neonates with a weight ...
Locascio M - - 2001
Bifidobacteria from breast-fed infants, formula-fed infants, or premature babies fed by parenteral methods were isolated and identified. The persistence of these microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract of mice, after oral administration, was studied to determine the optimal dose and frequency of translocation to the liver and spleen. The rate of ...
Bilgen H - - 2001
Newborns endure many heel pricks and other uncomfortable procedures during their first hospital stay. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of breast-feeding in reducing pain in newborns undergoing heel prick tests. One hundred thirty healthy term infants requiring a heel prick blood sampling for the Guthrie ...
Oddie S - - 2001
As part of a population based regional review of all neonatal readmissions, the incidence of dehydration with hypernatraemia in exclusively breast fed infants was estimated. All readmissions to hospital in the first month of life during 1998 from a population of 32 015 live births were reviewed. Eight of 907 ...
Epperson N - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacological treatment of postpartum depression is frequently complicated by the mother's desire to breast-feed. Although breast milk levels of several selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been reported to be relatively low, a critical question is whether SSRI exposure during nursing results in clinically significant blockade of serotonin (5-HT) ...
Rollins N C - - 2001
Exclusive breast feeding has been associated with a lower rate of mother-to-child HIV transmission than breast feeding plus other foods. To obtain further information on biologic outcomes of different feeding modes, we examined 272 infants of HIV-infected South African women at ages 1, 6, and 14 weeks. At each visit ...
O'Connor M E - - 2001
The majority of deaths associated with complex emergencies are attributed to infants and children under the age of five years. Most of these deaths are related to preventable diseases such as malnutrition, diarrhea, and malaria. Infant feeding emergencies have emerged as a major factor in complex emergencies. This paper reviews ...
Eckhardt C L - - 2001
This study examines the relationship between breast-feeding and growth from 0 to 6 and 6 to 20 mo among 185 children in a Mexican community. Infants from a previous 6-mo longitudinal study were followed up for additional anthropometric measurements at a mean age of 19.9 mo. Size at 6 mo ...
Turner L - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: This prospective study examined the effect of lactation instruction and palatal obturation in decreasing time to feed, increasing intake, and on growth in eight breast milk bottle-fed newborn infants with cleft lip, cleft palate, or both. DESIGN: An A, B1, C1, B2, and C2 reversal design was used with ...
Mahmud M A - - 2001
A total of 152 infants were followed from birth to 1 year of age in a rural community of Egypt to document Giardia lamblia infection and to determine the effect of breast-feeding on enteric infections by this protozoan. Asymptomatic Giardia infections persisted as long as 4 months, with a mean ...
Betrán A P - - 2001
To estimate the effect of exclusive breast feeding and partial breast feeding on infant mortality from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections in Latin America. Attributable fraction analysis of national data on infant mortality and breast feeding. Latin America and the Caribbean. Mortality from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections ...
Hendrick V - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The pharmacological treatment of depression in nursing women requires information on the magnitude of medication exposure to the infant that may occur through breast milk. AIMS: To examine serum concentrations of antidepressants in infants exposed to these medications through breast-feeding. METHOD: Maternal and infant serum concentrations of sertraline, paroxetine ...
Dupras T L - - 2001
Current knowledge of infant feeding and weaning practices during the Roman period in Egypt is limited to scanty documentary and iconographic evidence. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotope analysis provides another avenue to explore this question. A sample of 49 infant and juvenile human skeletal remains from the Kellis 2 cemetery ...
Ertem I O - - 2001
This longitudinal observational study aimed to determine the rates of initiation, duration and correlates of breast-feeding by mothers living in a socioeconomically advantaged urban environment in Turkey. Healthy, term infants born at Ankara University Faculty of Medicine Hospital who would be brought to the well-child clinic regularly for at least ...
Spencer J P - - 2001
Prescribing medications for a breast-feeding mother requires weighing the benefits of medication use for the mother against the risk of not breast-feeding the infant or the potential risk of exposing the infant to medications. A drug that is safe for use during pregnancy may not be safe for the nursing ...
Moffat T - - 2001
The primary objective of this report is to use data from a study of infant growth and weaning practices in Kathmandu, Nepal, to investigate universal recommendations about exclusive breast-feeding up to 6 months postpartum. A secondary objective is to demonstrate the complexity of the biocultural nature of infant feeding practices. ...
Rahman S - - 2001
Good evidence-based research exists for the management of gastroenteritis. However, we encountered local anecdotal evidence of wide variations in the management of gastroenteritis. In order to assess the prevailing practice in gastroenteritis management in primary care, in the Tees Health region, an anonymous questionnaire study involving general practitioners (GPs) and ...
van Amerongen R H - - 2001
Breast milk is acknowledged as the best source of nutrition for neonates. We present the case of a full-term newborn who was fed solely breast milk and developed severe dehydration and hypernatremia. The patient developed cerebral edema, transverse sinus thrombosis, and died. The literature on the uncommon entity of breast-feeding ...
Ricco R G - - 2001
The growth of two groups of infants were evaluated, one of them exclusively breast-fed (105 infants) and the other exclusively bottle-fed (61 infants), and compared with one another and with international standards (NCHS). All infants were evaluated by anthropometry at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 months of age. ...
Huffman S L - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: to review the literature on the relationship between breast-feeding practices in the first month of life and neonatal mortality. METHODS: Medline and Cochrane databases were searched using the keywords breastfeeding, and neonatal mortality, supplemented with additional searches using the keywords developing countries, colostrum, infant feeding and infant mortality, hypoglaecemia, ...
Mennella J A - - 2001
Flavors from the mother's diet during pregnancy are transmitted to amniotic fluid and swallowed by the fetus. Consequently, the types of food eaten by women during pregnancy and, hence, the flavor principles of their culture may be experienced by the infants before their first exposure to solid foods. Some of ...
Sanchez-Echaniz J - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To assess clinical and epidemiologic data of 7 infants diagnosed with acquired methemoglobinemia at the pediatric emergency department between 1993 and 1998. All cases were attributed to the consumption of mixed vegetables. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed to collect anamnestic data; history of food ingestion; and results of physical ...
Black M M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The American Academy of Pediatrics, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), and the World Health Organization recommend that infants receive only breast milk or formula for the first 4 to 6 months of life, followed by the introduction of complementary foods. Despite these recommendations, ...
Lanigan J A - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate existing data from published studies investigating outcomes (growth, nutritional status and morbidity) in relation to the age of introduction of complementary foods to the healthy full-term infant. To assess the methodological quality of current scientific evidence on which infant feeding recommendations are based. SEARCH STRATEGY: A database ...
Munoz-Flores-Thiagarajan K D - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Cyclosporine is known to be excreted in breast milk, but levels in infants are not known. Post-transplant breast-feeding has been contraindicated in mothers treated with calcineurin inhibitors such as cyclosporine. CASE: A 35-year-old woman exclusively breast-fed her infant during the first 10.5 months of life while she was being ...
Shirima R - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To investigate and compare feeding practices among infants of less than 7 months of age in a rural and an urban area in Tanzania. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, questionnaire-based interview of mothers and focus group discussions with extension workers and community leaders. SETTING: Eleven villages in a rural district and 10 ...
Varendi H - - 2001
In previous studies, newborn infants placed on their mother's chest grasped a nipple and sucked without assistance. Furthermore, neonates sucked preferentially from an untreated breast rather than the alternative breast that had been washed to eliminate its natural odour. This study investigated the influence of breast odours per se on ...
Haiek L N - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Women are often advised that lactation accelerates loss of the excess weight gained during pregnancy, but the evidence underlying this advice is sparse and conflicting. To help fill this gap, we assessed differences in the rate of postpartum weight loss in the first 9 months postpartum according to method ...
Coles C L - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent bacterial cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. Bacteria carried in the nasopharynx of healthy children reflect the prevalent strains circulating in the community. METHODS: We recruited 464 newborns from a rural area in South India with endemic vitamin A deficiency. Nasopharyngeal ...
Northstone K - - 2001
AIM: The study aimed to document the dietary patterns of infants and determine the development of feeding difficulties as perceived by the mother according to the age at which lumpy solids were introduced into the diet. STUDY DESIGN: Information was collected from a geographically representative population of 9360 mothers of ...
Itoh S - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Controversy has existed for many years over whether infant feeding methods are related to serum bilirubin concentrations during the first few days of life. Differences in initial jaundice patterns according to the feeding method until 72 h after birth have not been elucidated hitherto. The difference may become clear ...
Killersreiter B - - 2001
This investigation was carried out to comparatively assess the duration of breast milk feeding and to analyze risk factors for early cessation of breast milk feeding in term and very preterm infants. A cohort study was performed in 89 consecutive very low birthweight (VLBW) infants (<1500 g) who survived for ...
Holman D J - - 2001
Human breast milk is primarily colostrum immediately following birth. Colostrum gradually changes to mature milk over the next several days. The role of colostrum in fighting infections and promoting growth and development of the newborn is widely acknowledged. This role is mediated by differences across cultures in the acceptability of ...
Morrow A L - - 2001
Despite known health benefits, exclusive breast-feeding for at least 4 months is uncommon in many countries. In Mexico, most mothers initiate breast-feeding but few breast-feed exclusively. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the effectiveness of home visits by lay peer counselors to increase exclusive breast-feeding among mothers in a periurban ...
LaKind J S - - 2001
The presence of environmental chemicals in breast milk has gained increased attention from regulatory agencies and groups advocating women's and children's health. As the published literature on chemicals in breast milk has grown, there remains a paucity of data on parameters related to infant exposure via breast-feeding, particularly those with ...
Dittmann K - - 2000
Weaning age of the children of the early medieval population at Wenigumstadt (Ldkr. Aschaffenburg, southern Germany, 500-700 AD) was estimated by stable nitrogen isotope analysis of bone collagen. The onset of weaning was by one year of age, when solid vegetal food subsequently replaced breast milk. In total, the change ...
Hop L T - - 2000
The objective of this longitudinal study was to investigate the association between the premature initiation of complementary feeding and physical growth of children. Four cohorts of newborn children were included, consisting of 90 infants born in 1981, 90 in 1982, 60 infants in 1983 and 60 in 1984. The weights ...
Filteau S M - - 2000
Breast-feeding policy tends to be an emotive issue. International agencies recommend exclusive breast-feeding for 4-6 months followed by continued partial breast-feeding into the second year of life in order to promote infant and child health and minimize the damage caused by the malnutrition-infection cycle. To what extent are these recommendations ...
Valdés V - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) for family planning among mothers who are separated from their infants by work. The study population, 170 urban middle class women who planned to return to work before 120 days postpartum, were interviewed monthly ...
Twomey A - - 2000
Because nutrition during infancy not only determines growth but also impacts on future adult health, it is essential that healthy eating habits be promoted from a very young age. This study examines current feeding practices among Irish infants in the first year of life. Although 51% of Irish mothers commenced ...
Koletzko B - - 2000
We report dietary fat intake data in groups of infants and children in Germany. A group of 148 healthy infants was followed prospectively from birth through the first year of life. After birth, 78.9% of infants were breast-fed; 50% were breast-fed at 3 mo and 9. 8% were breast-fed at ...
Yapp P - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether adverse effects in a premature neonate could be attributed to nefazodone exposure via breast milk. CASE SUMMARY: The breast-fed white infant (female, 2.1 kg, 36 weeks corrected gestational age) of a 35-year-old woman (60 kg) taking nefazodone 300 mg/d was admitted to the hospital because she ...
Benhamou P H - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this multicenter case-control study was to search for causes and risk factors related to the severe upper digestive tract lesions often seen in neonates. METHODS: Case patients were full-term neonates with endoscopically confirmed severe bleeding or ulcerative lesions of the esophagus and/or stomach. Matched control subjects ...
Drane D L - - 2000
This paper presents a critical evaluation of 24 studies on the association between type of infant feeding and cognitive development published over the past 20 years. Validity and generalisability of study findings were assessed according to three methodological standards: clearly defined outcome, specification of partial vs. exclusive breast feeding and ...
Dougherty D - - 2000
Breast milk is a body fluid capable of transmitting blood-borne pathogens when ingested. High-risk infants are frequently fed mother's expressed breast milk and may be at risk if they receive the wrong mother's milk. A multidisciplinary team at this 42-bed Level III regional NICU developed a quality assurance program and ...
Georgeson J C - - 2000
Breast feeding is an important mode of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Interventions to decrease the number of infants becoming infected are particularly required for women in less developed countries where breast feeding is essential for infant survival. This review discusses the physiology and immunology of breast feeding and how maternal ...
Atladottir H - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To investigate infants' energy intake and growth in a population with a high frequency of breast-feeding and high birth weight. DESIGN: The infants' consumption was recorded once a month from 1 to 12 months of age. At the ages of 2, 4, 6, 9 and 12 months all ingested ...
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