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Results 351 - 400 of 1287
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Grandjean Philippe - - 2003
Breast-feeding has been linked to slowed postnatal growth. Although the basis for this "weanling's dilemma" is unclear, environmental contaminants in human milk may be of relevance. We studied a Faroese birth cohort of 182 singleton children, born at term in 1994-95. Concentrations of mercury in cord blood and of polychlorinated ...
Obatolu Veronica A - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Breast milk alone is insufficient to support normal growth during the second half of infancy, so I investigated supplementary feeding for infants' successful transition to solid food. METHODS: The nutrition status of 30 infants from a low socioeconomic background weaned onto an extruded formulated complementary diet from maize and ...
Bergmann K E KE Robert Koch Institute, Epidemiology & Health Reporting, Health of Children & Adolescents, Berlin, Germany. - - 2003
The prevalence of adiposity in childhood is increasing. Is breast-feeding protective as suggested by cross-sectional studies? In a longitudinal birth cohort study, we tested whether breast-feeding for more than 2 months has preventive effects against overweight and adiposity at 6 y. Of 1314 children representing the catchment areas of six ...
Al-Saleh Iman - - 2003
Lead, cadmium, and mercury concentrations were determined in breast milk of Saudi lactating mothers from Riyadh and Al-Ehssa regions in Saudi Arabia who were not occupationally exposed. The mean levels for cadmium, lead, and mercury were 1.732 microg/L, 31.671 microg/L, and 3.100 microg/L, respectively. In contrast to mercury, mothers living ...
Fry Tam - - 2003
The Child Growth Foundation has published the first weight reference charts specifically designed for the breast-fed infant. Based on a sample of 120 long-term British breast-fed babies, the charts demonstrate the particular growth pattern of breast-fed babies. This differs from formula-fed infants in that breast-fed babies initially gain weight more ...
Chang Jui-Hsing - - 2003
Breast-feeding practices were studied in 251 mother-infants pairs at the well-baby clinic of a regional hospital in Taitung, Taiwan. A questionnaire was designed to elucidate factors influencing the initiation and duration of breast-feeding. Most of the mothers (81.7%) initiated breast-feeding after delivery, but only 20.7% continued nursing for at least ...
More Judy - - 2003
Paediatric dietitian Judy More discusses several recent directives and guidelines on infant feeding in the first year of life. These include recommendations that babies should be fed exclusively on breast milk for their first six months and that soy formulae should normally be avoided for babies under six months old. ...
Wooldridge Joanne - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how preterm infants make the transition from breast-feeding and bottle feeding to exclusive breast-feeding in the weeks following hospital discharge. This study examined the breastfeeding patterns of preterm infants born at 30 to 35 weeks' gestation over a 4-week period following hospitalization. METHOD: Daily feeding ...
Thompson Rosemary - - 2003
A National Breast Feeding Adviser from the Department of Health discusses current breast-feeding rates and the UK's new infant feeding policy which recommends exclusive breast feeding for the first six months of the infant's life. The author outlines the main reasons why many mothers give up breast feeding sooner than ...
Vancíková Z - - 2003
The development of levels of secretory immunoglobulins (SIgs) in newborns' saliva was examined under physiological conditions and after artificial colonization with nonpathogenic, probiotic bacterial strain E. coli O83. Higher levels of secretory immunoglobulin M (SIgM) and secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) were detected in the saliva of breast-fed children when compared ...
Hokama T - - 2003
The stimulating effect of human breast milk on the mucosal immunological development of recipient infant has been speculated. The objective of this study was to clarify the influence of breast feeding on the level of secretory IgA (sIgA) of infants. The level of sIgA in pharyngeal mucous among 79 healthy ...
González-Cossío Teresa - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To assess breast-feeding (BF) practices and determinants of exclusive BF (EBF) < 4 and < 6 months (mo) among women and infants < 23 mo in the NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: BF practices from the day and night before the interview were ascertained, and median duration estimated. Determinants of ...
Lakati Alice - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: In the fast growing city of Nairobi, women often combine the roles of mother and worker in trying to achieve better standards of living. The objective of this study was to document the effect of returning to work on breast-feeding by mothers in Kenya. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: ...
Sarwar T - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To investigate infant feeding practices followed by Pakistani mothers in Pakistan and in England. To establish if practices conform to current guidelines and to investigate reasons for adherence and nonadherence. METHODS: Ninety mothers of weaning age children were interviewed; 45 were in England and 45 in Pakistan. A questionnaire ...
Hall Robert T - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To develop a succinct and comprehensive breast-feeding assessment score (BAS) to accurately identify infants at risk for early cessation of breast-feeding before initial hospital discharge. STUDY DESIGN: Mothers who intended to breast-feed their infants were solicited from 9 suburban hospitals. Two detailed data forms covering 107 items were completed ...
Martin R M - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of breast feeding with height and body mass index in childhood and adulthood. DESIGN: Historical cohort study, based on long term follow up of the Carnegie (Boyd-Orr) survey of diet and health in pre-war Britain (1937-1939). SETTING: Sixteen urban and rural districts in Britain. SUBJECTS: ...
Sakamoto Mineshi - - 2002
Methylmercury (MeHg) can be transferred to infants through milk, in addition to passage through the placenta during intrauterine life. The higher MeHg accumulation and susceptibility to toxicity in the fetus than in the mother during the gestation period is well known. However, the contribution of Hg exposure through breast milk ...
Mastretta Emmanuele - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is one of the leading etiologic agents of nosocomial infections among children. The development of preventive measures is therefore important. The efficacy of GG in the treatment of rotavirus infection has been reported in literature, but there is only one recent study about its effectiveness in prevention of ...
Miyazawa Reiko - - 2002
BACKGROUND: To obtain precise information on the natural course of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER)-related symptoms in Japanese children, we surveyed the prevalence of regurgitation or vomiting and other GER-related symptoms and complications in infants visiting for healthy baby check-ups. METHODS: We interviewed the mothers of 921 infants who had visited for ...
Ohman Inger - - 2002
To study the pharmacokinetics of topiramate (TPM) during delivery, lactation, and in the neonate. TPM concentrations in plasma and breast milk were measured with fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) in five women with epilepsy treated with TPM during pregnancy and lactation. Blood samples were obtained at delivery from mothers, from the ...
Roy S K - - 2002
To explore the actual practices and perceptions of giving breastmilk and breastmilk substitutes (BMS), this cross-sectional study was conducted among 326 mothers of low (income/month < Tk 4,000, n = 163) and middle (income/month > Tk 4,000, n = 163) socioeconomic status (SES) with infants aged 6-12 months in Dhaka ...
Kersting Mathilde - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To assess breast-feeding promotion in maternity hospitals and breast-feeding prevalences during the first year of life in mother-infant pairs in Germany. DESIGN: Cross-sectional assessment of breast-feeding practices in a random sample of German maternity hospitals by use of a postal questionnaire. Follow-up of mother-infant pairs recruited in the participating ...
Görbe E - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of pacifier use and the introduction of formula milk on breast feeding. METHODS: The mothers of 356 healthy newborn infants who initiated breast feeding while in-patients were interviewed within 3 days of birth and later at 2 and 6 months postpartum. Information regarding previous birth, ...
Schoetzau Angela - - 2002
The aim of this study was to assess the preventive effect of exclusive breast-feeding and early solid food avoidance on atopic dermatitis (AD) in infancy. This study is part of a dietary clinical trial in a prospective cohort of healthy term newborns at risk of atopy. It was recommended to ...
Hallbauer U U Department of Paediatrics, Pelonomi Hospital, - - 2002
To assess feeding methods chosen by mothers of babies who spent time in a neonatal unit. Factors influencing this decision were investigated. Descriptive study. Mothers were interviewed on the day they took their babies home. Basic demographic data on mother and baby were collected from the hospital records. The neonatal ...
Diwakar K K - - 2002
AIM: To evaluate the plasma glucose levels in normal, term infants who were appropriate size for gestational age (AGA) and exclusively breast fed, and to assess the influence of parity of the mother, mode of delivery, and time of feed on the glucose levels. METHOD: A total of 200 healthy, ...
Kaur Sukhjot - - 2002
Acrodermatitis enteropathica which is a manifestation of zinc deficiency, is rarely seen in breast-fed infants. A child with typical acral rash, zinc deficiency and low breast milk zinc levels is described. The importance of awareness of this entity in breast-fed infants along with differential diagnosis is being emphasized.
López-Alarcón Mardya - - 2002
An attenuated severity of infections is among the well-documented benefits of breast-feeding. The degree to which this attenuated severity extends to the amelioration of anorexia is understood incompletely, and possible underlying mechanisms have received limited evaluation. This study was designed to test whether breast-feeding attenuates reductions in energy intake associated ...
Flidel-Rimon O - - 2002
Human breast milk is the best nutrition for human infants. Its advantages over the milk of other species, such as cows, include both a reduced risk for infections, allergies and chronic diseases, together with the full nutritional requirements for growth and development. Breast-feeding is as important for multiples as for ...
Lorber Matthew - - 2002
We used a one-compartment, first-order pharmacokinetic model to predict the infant body burden of dioxin-like compounds that results from breast-feeding. Validation testing of the model showed a good match between predictions and measurements of dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) in breast-fed infants, and the exercise highlighted the importance of the assumption ...
Barton Sharon Jackson - - 2002
ISSUES AND PURPOSE: To determine the effects of feeding decisions on infant growth in the first 6 months of life. DESIGN AND METHODS: Growth measurements were collected twice during the first 6 months of infancy as part of a larger investigation of infant feeding practices (N = 52). RESULTS: Infants ...
Gourley Glenn R - - 2002
Despite the many advantages of breast-feeding, there is ample documentation of the strong association between breast-feeding and an increase in the risk of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. Breast-fed infants have higher bilirubin levels than formula-fed infants. Suggested mechanisms for these findings include poor fluid and caloric intake, inhibition of hepatic excretion of ...
Chopra Mickey M School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, - - 2002
To conduct a rapid assessment of the impact of the Khayelitsha Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT) programme on infant care practices among programme participants and the local population. Cross-sectional survey and qualitative in-depth interviews. SETTING. Khayelitsha, a large formal and informal settlement of about 300,000 people on the outskirts of ...
Opitz John M - - 2002
The half-century of lipophobia in the United States may be abating with some return of sanity on the discussion of health and dietary fat [Taubes, 2001]. The youngest victims of this collective, decades long madness are those infants deprived for one reason or another of breast milk. They are unable ...
Bassol S - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of levonorgestrel transferred through breast milk on thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in full breast-fed infants. METHODS: Forty healthy postpartum women and their male newborns were recruited for the study. Women were randomly allocated to ...
Rice Susan - - 2002
This retrospective study examined duration of breast-feeding and concurrent contraceptive use among 5,648 Peruvian women. Data were gathered during 1986-1992 as part of the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). The women gave birth to 7,951 infants, 95% of whom were breastfed; 44% of the mothers used contraception while breastfeeding. Consistent ...
Bajanowski T - - 2002
The concentrations of the most common dioxin and dibenzofuran congeners were measured in different tissues (e.g. liver, kidneys, subcutaneous fatty tissue and spleen) from 27 infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly. The cases could be subdivided into 2 groups consisting of 15 infants who died in 1991/1992 and in 12 ...
- - 2002
(1) Report of severe adverse effects in infants from drugs passing into breast milk are rare. (2) Two reports of neurological disorders in infants due to doxepin, a tricyclic antidepressant, necessitating hospitalisation, serve as a reminder that this risk exists. (3) Epidemiological data are almost non existent. A prospective follow-up ...
Etiler Nilay - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are one of the major problems of childhood in developing countries. The objective of the study was to obtain the incidence of ARI and its risk factors in Antalya, Turkey. METHODS: We carried out a prospective cohort study on 204 infants who were born between ...
Sievers Erika - - 2002
AIM: Since clinical indications may necessitate the feeding of supplements to newborn infants, the effects of different supplemental feedings on the recipient infants were studied. METHODS: Two groups of healthy, term newborn infants (n = 64 in each group) were investigated. The mothers breast-fed their infants, and by indication the ...
Newport D Jeffrey - - 2002
The first 3 postpartum months represent a high-risk period for psychiatric illnesses. This article reviews the prevalence and diagnostic criteria for postpartum illnesses, including the "maternal blues," postpartum depression, and postpartum psychosis. Pharmacologic treatment of these disorders is often complicated by a patient's desire to breast-feed, yet there are no ...
Liamputtong Pranee - - 2002
I discuss infant feeding beliefs and practices among Hmong women in Melbourne, focusing particularly on changed patterns that have occurred since their settlement in Australia. Traditionally, Hmong women breastfeed their newborn infants. Most women can breastfeed successfully in their homeland. However, since their settlement in a new country, some women ...
Rautava Samuli - - 2002
The prevalence of atopic diseases is increasing throughout the Western world, and means of primary prevention are needed to reverse this trend. The role of breast-feeding, the best source of infant nutrition, in protection against atopic disease remains elusive. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of 62 mother-infant pairs, it is ...
Abiona T C - - 2002
Several studies to determine the growth pattern of exclusively breast fed infants have provided varying conclusions as to the sufficiency of breast milk alone to support adequate growth for the first six months of life. Disagreement exists concerning the optimal timing of introduction of complementary foods to exclusively breast fed ...
Aghaji Margaret N - - 2002
A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 235 infant-mother pairs in five Baby Friendly pairs in five Baby Friendly Hospitals in Enugu-Nigeria in 1998. The aims were to study their breast-feeding practices and associated factors. The exclusive breast-feeding rate was 33.3% while the predominant breast-feeding rate was 50.2%. Factors associated ...
Rahman Mahmudur - - 2002
The duration of lactational amenorrhoea, and infant feeding patterns and behaviour, were investigated in a sample of 97 mother-infant pairs living in a poor urban area of Dhaka, Bangladesh. A seven-hour time allocation method was used to determine the number of breast-feeding bouts and their duration. The seven-hour observation period ...
Mizuno Katsumi - - 2002
This study in 10 term infants investigated the effects of different fluids on the coordination between swallowing and breathing during bottle feedings. Sucking pressure, swallowing, breathing and O(2) saturation were examined in each infant during bottle feedings with breast milk, formula and distilled water. When receiving breast milk, the infants ...
Sievers Erika - - 2002
AIM: The intention of this study performed in healthy breast- and formula-fed infants was to characterize physiological feeding patterns as a basis for counseling parents to feed their infants on demand. METHODS: Ingested milk volumes of 10 breast-fed and 14 formula-fed infants were measured during five 72-hour investigation periods during ...
Gaillard P - - 2001
Complete avoidance of breast-feeding is the surest way to avoid mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV through breast-feeding, but replacement feeding exposes infants, especially those born in developing countries, to the risk of other infectious diseases with consequent increase in morbidity and mortality. One study has suggested that exclusive breast-feeding during ...
Boo N Y - - 2001
The objective of this study was to compare the rates of bacterial contamination of expressed breast milk (EBM) obtained by manual expression and breast pumps in mothers of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants (<1501 g). This was a randomized, controlled study carried out on 28 mothers of such babies and ...
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