Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1288
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Morgan J B - - 2004
BACKGROUND: National and international recommendations for the age of introducing solid foods (weaning) are founded on insufficient evidence and little is known about the short and medium term consequences associated with early or late weaning. AIMS AND METHODS: Data from over 1600 infants from five prospective randomised trials conducted in ...
Eigenmann P A - - 2004
Numerous studies have addressed the potential of breast-feeding to protect for the development of allergic diseases, and in particular of atopic eczema dermatitis syndrome (AEDS). Although the majority of studies, as well as several meta-analyses, are strongly in favour of breast-feeding, there are some conflicting results and open issues. Furthermore, ...
Thea Donald M - - 2004
PURPOSE: We present the rationale and design of the Zambian Exclusive Breast-feeding Study (ZEBS), a randomized trial evaluating the efficacy of short-duration exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) as a strategy to reduce postnatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission while preserving the other health benefits of this important mode of infant feeding. METHODS: ...
Ezechukwu, CC; Department of ...
OBJECTIVE: To establish the serum copper levels in Nigerian children in the first six months of lactation. DESIGN: A cross sectional study. SETTING: Jos University Teaching Hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Serum copper levels were assessed in 120 healthy breast fed infants in the first six months of Lactation. Atomic absorption ...
Dorea José G - - 2004
Hg and Pb are of public health concern due to their toxic effects on vulnerable fetuses, persistence in pregnant and breast-feeding mothers, and widespread occurrence in the environment. To diminish maternal and infant exposure to Hg and Pb, it is necessary to establish guidelines based on an understanding of the ...
Crocetti Michael - - 2004
This study was a cross-sectional survey of primary female caregivers during their child's 4-month well-child visit. Our objectives were to document current caregiver awareness of infant feeding guidelines, and calculate the frequency of and reasons for early introduction of solid foods. Questionnaires were completed for 102 children. Forty-five respondents (44%) ...
Collins Carmel T CT Department of Nursing and Midwifery Research and Practice Development, Women's and Children's Hospital, 72 King William Road, North Adelaide, South Australia, 5006, Australia. - - 2004
To determine the effect of artificial teats (bottle and dummy) and cups on breast feeding in preterm infants. Randomised controlled trial. Two large tertiary hospitals, 54 peripheral hospitals. 319 preterm infants (born at 23-33 weeks' gestation) randomly assigned to one of four groups: cup/no dummy (n = 89), cup/dummy (n ...
Weissman Alicia M - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The available data on antidepressant levels in nursing infants were analyzed in order to calculate average infant drug levels and determine what factors influence plasma drug levels in breast-feeding infants of mothers treated with antidepressants. METHOD: Electronic searches of MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, Current Contents, Biological Abstracts, and PsycINFO from 1966 ...
Lande Britt - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To analyse factors associated with breast-feeding and use of sweetened drinks at 12 months, and to compare dietary habits among breast-fed and non-breast-fed infants. DESIGN: Data were collected by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire filled in by the parents. SETTING: National dietary survey in Norway. SUBJECTS: In total, 1932 12-month-old ...
Geraghty Sheela R - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Over 3% of infants born annually in the United States are from a multiple gestation pregnancy, yet there is little data published about the feeding practices of their mothers. The objectives of this study were to determine and compare the rates of breast milk feeding of mothers of multiples ...
Ogbeide Danny O - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Although bottle feeding is the main infant feeding mode in most societies, human milk is considered the most appropriate food for human infants. The aim of this study is to gather statistics regarding breast feeding prevalence, influencing factors for engaging in, and demographic characteristics of breast feeding in general ...
Rowe Samantha Y - - 2004
Among the population of the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) surveillance areas ("FoodNet sites") in 1996, children under 12 months of age had the highest incidence of sporadic salmonellosis. We conducted a case-control study in 5 FoodNet sites to identify risk factors for sporadic infant salmonellosis. A case patient ...
Reeve Jacquie R - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of experiential learning methodologies in primiparous women on their choice and maintenance of an infant feeding method. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective controlled study into experiential learning methods applied to patients with four months' follow up. Seventy-three primiparous women attending the antenatal clinic at the West ...
Mathew J L - - 2004
Antibiotic usage is fairly common among breastfeeding mothers and there is potential for transfer to infants through breast milk. While most medicines taken by lactating women cause no harm to their babies, at times it can result in serious consequences. This article reviews the principles governing transfer of maternal antibiotics ...
Onayade A A - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To compare the growth and illness pattern of infants who were exclusively breast fed for six months with those of infants commenced on complementary feeding before the age of six months and ascertain reasons for the early introduction of complementary feeding. DESIGN: A comparative prospective study. SETTING: Urban Comprehensive ...
Nguyen N D - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the growth and feeding practices in first-generation Vietnamese infants living in Australia. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: The study was conducted between 1999 and 2002 in Sydney. SUBJECTS: A total of 239 Vietnamese women were recruited randomly from antenatal clinics, and of these 210 were initially seen. During ...
Merlob Paul - - 2004
The aims of the present study were to examine the weight gain in infants breast fed by mothers taking paroxetine and to assess the clinical implementation of the recommendations of the teratology service in our centre. A prospective cohort study design was used. The study group included 27 mothers who ...
Shimizu T - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Previous reports of the postprandial regulation of leptin are controversial, and there have been few studies on the effects of breast-feeding on postprandial regulation in newborn infants. We examined the response of plasma leptin to breast- and formula-feeding in newborn infants. METHODS: We measured the plasma leptin levels using ...
Lepage Marie-Claire - - 2004
Study objectives were to describe the introduction of foods and beverages and the use of vitamin and/or mineral supplements among infants aged six months, and to identify factors associated with following Québec recommendations on introducing foods and beverages. Study subjects were primiparous women interviewed by phone when their infants were ...
Al-Bdour Abdel-Nabi A - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To define the appearance of the uterus and the uterine cavity, as revealed by ultrasound in normal women following a vaginal delivery. METHODS: This prospective, longitudinal study took place at the Prince Hashem and Prince Ali Military Hospitals, Amman, Jordan from December 2002 to March 2003. Fifty-four women were ...
Johansson Katarina - - 2004
Early discharge normally means that mother and infant are discharged from the hospital between six hours and three days after delivery. Early discharge with home-visits after normal delivery was introduced at Uppsala University Hospital in 1990. Seventeen percent of the women who gave birth in 2003 in Uppsala used the ...
Horne R S C - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is no consistent evidence that breast feeding reduces the risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Arousal from sleep is believed to be an important survival mechanism that may be impaired in victims of SIDS. Previously it has been shown that arousability is impaired by the major ...
Maayan-Metzger A - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics of full term and preterm neonates with isolated rectal bleeding (IRB), and to follow the outcome of these low risk patients. DESIGN: A retrospective case-control study consisting of 147 cases (83 full term and near term infants and 64 preterm infants) and 147 controls in ...
Arvola Taina - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: Infants may be sensitized to dietary antigens even during exclusive breast-feeding. Because food antigen traces in breast milk may have harmful effects on gut barrier function in infants with atopy, the authors sought to evaluate whether or not it is beneficial to shift such infants from breast milk to ...
Fox Mary Kay - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To describe the food consumption patterns of US infants and toddlers, 4 to 24 months of age. DESIGN: Descriptive analysis of data collected in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers study based on telephone interviews and 24-hour dietary recalls. SUBJECTS: A national random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers ...
Kiarie James N - - 2004
To determine feeding practices and nutritional status of infants born to HIV-1-infected women. Feeding plans and practices were evaluated by questionnaires and focus group discussions. Infants were weighed at 1 and 6 weeks and tested for HIV-1 at 6 weeks. Of 128 women seen after delivery, 111 completed the study. ...
Ilett Kenneth F - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the transfer of risperidone and its active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone into breast milk, estimate the amount the infant receives, measure infant plasma concentrations, and clinically assess the safety of breast feeding during maternal risperidone administration. case summaries: The transfer of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone into milk was studied in ...
Hart Sybil - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Following studies conducted during the immediate newborn stage, we investigated whether one-week-olds' neurobehavioral functioning was differentiated by feeding method. We also examined whether feeding-method effects differed among infants of adolescent mothers. METHOD: Participants were infants (N = 83) of breast-feeding (N = 41) and formula-feeding (N = 42) mothers. ...
Dubois Lise - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe the source and the scope of social inequalities in infant feeding practices. It examines the extent to which different recommendations are followed in different social groups and highlights the main factors influencing the total adherence to three recommendations at the population ...
Haisma H - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the extent to which breast milk is replaced by intake of other liquids or foods, and to estimate energy intake of infants defined as exclusively (EBF), predominantly (PBF) and partially breast-fed (PartBF). DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Community-based study in urban Pelotas, Southern Brazil. SUBJECTS: A total of 70 ...
Schönberger Hubert J A M - - 2003
BACKGROUND: When analyzing the effect of environmental exposure reduction measures on asthma in high-risk children, one must know how far asthmatic families already have applied such measures, because this would affect the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions aimed at reducing environmental exposure. OBJECTIVE: To describe the room for improvement by ...
Metaj Mirela - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Although the time to an infant's first stool is used as a marker for a normal GI tract, there have been no studies to date which have evaluated the contribution of the first 24 hours' feeding type to time to first meconium stool, directly comparing breast feeding vs formula ...
Jørgensen Marianne Hørby - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants. METHODS: Healthy term infants were followed up during infancy with a monthly ...
Phadke Mridula A - - 2003
Access to safe breast-feeding alternatives for HIV-infected mothers and their infants in many settings is limited. We compared the rates of early postpartum hospitalization of infants born to HIV-infected mothers using different infant-feeding practices in a large government hospital in Pune, India. From March 1, 2000 to November 30, 2001, ...
Bertini Giovanna - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: Duration of breast feeding and factors possibly affecting duration were studied in a population of 2174 newborn infants, with gestational age of >37 weeks, who were born in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the University of Florence Hospital between November 15, 1997, and November 14, 1998. PATIENTS ...
Espy Kimberly Andrews - - 2003
The majority of epidemiological studies of breast feeding have been conducted in healthy, fullterm infant samples. Little is known about the incidence and correlates of breast milk feeding in preterm infants, particularly in those born outside of metropolitan areas. Therefore, hospital medical charts of 151 consecutively admitted preterm infants (</=34 ...
Hilderbrand K K Infectious Diseases and HIV/AIDS Epidemiology Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape - - 2003
Since the first cases of HIV transmission through breast-feeding were documented, a fierce debate has raged on appropriate guidelines for infant feeding in resource-poor settings. A major problem is determining when it is safe and feasible to formula-feed, as breast-milk protects against other diseases. A cross-sectional survey of 113 women ...
Soukaloun Douangdao - - 2003
A case-control study was conducted to investigate the dietary and socio-economic factors associated with beriberi in infants attending three public hospitals in Vientiane, Lao PDR. Forty-three breast-feeding infants with a median (range) age of 3 (1-9) months were admitted with beriberi. This was defined as the presence of signs of ...
Bland R M - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Both the pattern and duration of breast feeding are important determinants of health outcomes. In vertical HIV transmission research, reliable documentation of early breast feeding practices is important in order to correctly attribute postnatal transmission to feeding pattern. AIMS: To validate methods of collecting data on the duration of ...
Gardiner Sharon J - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: This study characterized infant drug doses and breast-milk-to-plasma area-under-the-curve ratios for olanzapine and determined plasma concentrations and effects of this drug on breast-feeding infants. METHOD: Seven mother-infant nursing pairs were studied. Olanzapine was measured in plasma and milk with high-performance liquid chromatography over a dose interval (for six patients) ...
Edwards Christine A - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Bacterial colonization of the infant gut may have important influences on the development of gastrointestinal, respiratory, and allergic disease. Early diet is a major determinant of the gut microflora. It is very difficult to carry out studies in human infants that can investigate the interaction of diet, flora, and ...
Marquis Grace S - - 2003
An overlap of breast-feeding and late pregnancy is associated with decreased intake of human milk and reduced infant growth. We evaluated the association of an overlap with macronutrient and immunological components of milk, infant urinary IgA, and infant and maternal morbidity. On d 2 and 1 mo postpartum, staff measured ...
Fewtrell M S - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The optimal age for the introduction of solid foods (weaning) in infants is poorly researched yet may have implications for both short and longer term health. Many parents do not comply with current guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To determine and compare the age at weaning in term appropriate size for gestational ...
Moretti Myla E - - 2003
Although many female patients of childbearing age who are receiving cyclosporine have successful pregnancies, these women may be advised not to breast-feed. During recent years, cases of uneventful pregnancies and subsequent successful breast-feeding have been reported in the literature. The infant's blood cyclosporine concentration was usually very low. Based on ...
Foote K D - - 2003
The WHO 2001 global recommendation is a one size fits all approach to weaning, an approach which may not take sufficient account of the special needs of some infants and fails to allow for the different problems encountered in the industrialised nations compared with economically developing countries. For the healthy ...
Gurung Kamal - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between lower respiratory tract infection and feeding pattern in infancy. SETTING: Hospital based descriptive. METHODS: Two hundred and five infants presenting with lower respiratory infection (LRTI) admitted in the ward were studied over a period of one year. Criteria for the clinical diagnosis of LRTI ...
Hanson Lars A - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Breast-feeding provides many advantages to the offspring, but presently there is an ongoing debate whether or not it prevents allergy any better than certain formulas. This report reviews the mechanisms involved and discusses how breast-feeding may protect against allergy. DATA SOURCES: The review builds on an internet-based literature search ...
French Amy E - - 2003
To report the first case of tacrolimus measurement in human milk following maternal dosing in a woman who breast-fed while taking the medication. A 32-year-old white woman who had taken tacrolimus 0.1 mg/kg/d throughout pregnancy contacted the Motherisk Program at 35 weeks' gestation inquiring about the safety of breast-feeding during ...
Zöllner Maria Stella Amorim da Costa - - 2003
This study aimed to determine the occurrence of Candida spp. in the oral cavity of predominantly breastfed infants and in their mothers' mouths and breasts, as well as in the oral cavity of bottlefed infants and in non-lactating women. One hundred and sixty nine women and eighty-five milk-fed infants took ...
Shoji Hiromichi - - 2003
During the perinatal period, oxidative stress is intimately involved in pathologic processes of serious diseases. Although breast milk contains many antioxidants, it is not clear whether breast milk can act as an antioxidant in infants in vivo. We compared the oxidative stress levels in total of 41 healthy 1-mo-old infants ...
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