Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1284
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Feig Denice S - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine if glyburide and glipizide are excreted into breast milk and if breast-feeding from women taking these drugs causes infant hypoglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied eight women who had received a single oral dose of 5 or 10 mg glyburide. Drug concentrations were measured in maternal ...
Berger-Achituv Sivan - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The rate of breast-feeding in Israel has increased over the last two decades but is still lower than rates in other developed countries that have taken an active role in promoting breast-feeding. OBJECTIVE: To determine breast-feeding patterns and the association between sociodemographic characteristics and breast-feeding in the Tel Aviv ...
Ilcol Ye┼čim Ozarda - - 2005
This study assessed the choline status in newborns, infants, children, breast-feeding women, breast milk, infant formula, breast-fed and formula-fed infants. The serum free choline level was 35.1+/-1.1 micromol/L at birth and decreased to 24.2+/-1.6, 18.1+/-0.8, 16.3+/-0.9, 14.3+/-0.8, 12.9+/-0.6 or 10.9+/-0.6 micromol/L at 22-28, 151-180, 331-365, 571-730, 731-1095 or 4016-4380 days ...
Shapiro Roger L - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The magnitude of infant antiretroviral (ARV) exposure from breast milk is unknown. METHODS: We measured concentrations of nevirapine, lamivudine, and zidovudine in serum and whole breast milk from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected women in Botswana receiving ARV treatment and serum from their uninfected, breast-feeding infants. RESULTS: Twenty ...
Shaamash Ayman H - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Mirena is a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) that provides highly effective and long-acting progestogen-only contraception. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the possible effects of using LNG-20 microg IUS on breast-feeding performance, infant growth and infant development during the first postpartum year as compared with the ...
Thorley Virginia - - 2005
Hypoplasia, or glandular insufficiency, of the breasts is an infrequent cause of breastfeeding failure or infant failure to thrive. Early evaluation of the breasts of early identification of infant indicators can enable mothers to breastfeed while providing appropriate supplementation to facilitate satisfactory hydration and growth. A case report is presented ...
Arcus-Arth Amy - - 2005
Breast milk consumption is the primary route of infant exposure to certain lipophilic toxicants that have accumulated over decades in maternal adipose tissue, as well as to less persistent toxicants from maternal exposure during lactation. Such infant exposures occur at a time of rapid growth and development when susceptibility to ...
Bajaj M - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the short term effect of oil supplementation of complementary food on total ad libitum consumption in breastfed infants. METHODS: Twenty infants between 6 to 10 months of age were studied in a tertiary hospital in New Delhi for 48 hours. They were given three semi-solid complementary feeds ...
Cripps Roselle L - - 2005
There is increasing concern about the rapidly rising incidence of obesity worldwide and its impact both on mortality, morbidity and the cost of healthcare. In the last 15 years, a large volume of research has linked low birth weight to many adult diseases in humans, such as Type II diabetes, ...
Dinsmoor Mara J - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To estimate 1) the risk of candidiasis (neonatal thrush or breast infections or both) in nursing mother-infant pairs and 2) whether receipt of intrapartum antibiotics increases this risk. METHODS: Demographic and obstetric data were obtained at delivery, and telephone follow-up was obtained at 1 week and 1 and 3 ...
Aidam Bridget A - - 2005
Exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) rates remain low despite numerous health benefits associated with this behavior. We conducted a randomized trial on the effect of lactation counseling on EBF, which controlled for the Hawthorne effect while also varying the timing of the intervention. Pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Tema were randomly ...
Duong Dat V - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: This study explored the determinants of breast-feeding practices within the first 6 months post-partum among women residing in rural Vietnam. METHODS: The study was conducted in Quang Xuong district, in the Thanh Hoa Province of Vietnam. In the first phase, 463 women were prospectively studied at weeks 1, 16 ...
Ahrné Siv - - 2005
Lactobacillus colonisation was examined in 112 Swedish infants. Faecal samples obtained at 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks and at 6, 12 and 18 months of age were cultivated quantitatively on Rogosa agar. Lactobacilli were speciated by PCR and typed to the strain level by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). ...
Friedman Noah J - - 2005
Breast-feeding is the preferred method of infant nutrition for numerous reasons. However, its role in the prevention of allergic disease remains controversial. Reasons for this controversy include methodological differences and flaws in the studies performed to date, the immunologic complexity of breast milk itself and, possibly, genetic differences among patients ...
Chao How-Ran - - 2005
Postnatal exposure to dioxins in breastfed infants occurs mainly during breast-feeding. The exposure to a substantial amount of endocrine disruptors in the early days of life may cause long-term health effects. Test subjects were healthy and primiparous mothers with a mean age of 28 (S.D. = 3.8) in 2001. The ...
Amir Lisa Helen - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To review the first 12 months of assessment and release of lingual frenulum (frenotomy) at a breast-feeding clinic in a tertiary maternity hospital (August 2002 to end of July 2003) and to report on the breast-feeding outcomes and parental satisfaction. METHODS: A structured telephone interview was conducted with the ...
El-Bastawissi Amira Y - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association of pre-term delivery (PTD), low birth weight (LBW), and fetal death with breast density by age at mammogram and years since birth. METHODS: Subjects were women aged < or =55 years who had a screening mammogram between 1 June 1996 and 1 August 1997 in ...
Hogan Monica - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether, in infants with a tongue-tie and a feeding problem, the current medical treatment (referral to a lactation consultant) or immediate division works best and enables the infants to feed normally. METHODS: Between March and July 2002, all the babies in the district of Southampton with tongue-ties ...
Johannessen Svein I - - 2005
PURPOSE: To study the pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam (LEV) at birth, during lactation, and in the nursed infant. METHODS: Eight consecutive breast-feeding women with epilepsy treated with LEV twice daily and their infants were studied. RESULTS: The mean umbilical cord serum/maternal serum ratio was 1.14 (range, 0.97-1.45) (n = 4). The ...
Leung Gabriel M - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The evidence on whether breast-feeding reduces health services use in nonwhite infants is scant. We examined the effects of breast-feeding on health services utilization in Hong Kong Chinese infants. METHODS: We followed a population-based cohort of 8327 infants born in 1997 for 18 months. The main outcome measures were ...
Coutsoudis Anna - - 2005
Breast-feeding is a route of HIV transmission from an HIV infected mother to her infant. However, breast-feeding is an important pillar of child survival and part of a mother's womanhood. This paper highlights the dilemma created by the risks and the benefits of breast-feeding and will discuss the implementation in ...
Aichhorn W - - 2005
We present the case of a breast-feeding woman with acute psychotic symptoms after delivery, which were treated with the antipsychotic agent risperidone. Serum levels of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone could be detected in both the mother and her infant. Drug-levels in breast milk were ten-fold lower compared to maternal serum. The ...
Shamim Samina - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To assess the current weaning practices in infants (children under one year of age) in a low socioeconomic peri-urban area in Karachi. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: 'Well Baby Clinic" in Jinnah Medical College Hospital situated in Korangi Industrial area of Karachi from October 2003 to ...
Sakata Shinji - - 2005
Fecal microbiota of 31 breast-fed, 26 mix-fed, and 11 bottle-fed infants were analyzed by using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and culture method. We first determined the total and cultivated bacterial counts in infant fecal microbiota. Only approximately 30% of bacteria present in fecal microbiota were cultivable while the ...
Cattaneo Adriano - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To describe the current situation regarding protection, promotion and support of breast-feeding in Europe, as a first step towards the development of a blueprint for action. DESIGN AND SETTING: A questionnaire was completed by 29 key informants and 128 other informants in the EU, including member states, accession and ...
Motta Mario - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of hydroxychloroquine treatment during pregnancy and lactation on babies of mothers affected by rheumatic diseases. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 40 infants born from mothers affected by rheumatic diseases and treated with hydroxychloroquine during pregnancy were enrolled in a prospective observational study. Main ...
Elwood P C - - 2005
STUDY OBJECTIVE: There is evidence suggesting that artificial feeding is associated with a reduction in cognitive function in infants and children, in contrast with breast feeding, but the available evidence suffers from confounding by social and educational factors. An opportunity arose in the Caerphilly cohort study to examine relations between ...
Willows Noreen D - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to document the prevalence of maternal anxiety about food supply in Cree women who had 9-month-old infants, and to understand maternal and infant characteristics associated with anxiety. STUDY DESIGN: The design was descriptive and combined both cross-sectional and retrospective analyses. METHODS: The study took place in ...
Koletzko Berthold - - 2005
Effective strategies for primary prevention are urgently needed to combat the rapidly increasing prevalence of childhood obesity. Evidence accumulates that early nutrition programmes later obesity risk. Breast feeding reduces the odds ratio for obesity at school age, adjusted for biological and sociodemographic confounding variables, by some 20-25%. We propose that ...
Dewey Kathryn G - - 2005
Several studies have documented that length gain often lags behind weight gain during infancy and early childhood, suggesting that linear growth is partly regulated by initial body mass or fatness. To investigate this hypothesis, we analysed data from four longitudinal studies on growth of infants in the first 12 months: ...
Tonooka Toshiki - - 2005
To determine the composition of Clostridium in the feces of infants approximately 30 days old, we have developed a detection and quantification method of Clostridium paraputrificum, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tertium, and Clostridium difficile by species-specific primers. C. perfringens and C. difficile were detected in four fecal samples from 22 infants ...
Gara C P - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine the socio-economic and cultural factors influencing the choice of infant feeding methods in urban Zimbabwe women in the context of HIV transmission. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective survey. SETTING: Clinics in Harare and Chitungwiza, Zimbabwe. SUBJECTS: A total of 200 women attending eight baby clinics, with babies aged ...
Ricke Lori A - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine whether breast-fed infants with tongue-tie have decreased rates of breast-feeding at 1 week and 1 month of age, (2) to determine the prevalence of tongue-tie, and (3) to test the usefulness of the Assessment Tool for Lingual Frenulum Function (ATLFF) ...
Yaseen Hakam - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical presentation of dehydration related to failure of lactation in exclusively breast-fed term infants. METHOD: A prospective study was performed between January 2000 and June 2003 in Al Qassimi Hospital in the Emirate of Sharjah. Enrollment criteria included term neonates whose birth weight of > 2000 ...
Berridge K - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To investigate feeding practices in infants under the age of 4 months in Liverpool, England with particular reference to the cost of infant feeding. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey consisting of self-completion questionnaires and interviews. SETTING: Subjects' homes within Central and South Liverpool Primary Care Trust areas. SUBJECTS: One hundred ...
Geraghty Sheela R - - 2004
Mothers of multiples who choose to feed their infants breast milk are faced with a seemingly overwhelming set of circumstances. Since mothers of multiples could potentially feed their infants differing proportions of breast milk, current methods of obtaining breastfeeding data for mothers of singletons may not adequately describe the breastfeeding ...
Laitinen Kirsi - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to ascertain factors that might be protective of the appearance of gross blood in the stools of breast-fed infants. METHODS: Logistic regression models were formed to search for variables possibly explaining the condition. In addition to the analyzed breast milk factors, mother's allergic ...
Kannan Srimathi - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To compare the colostrum and prelacteal feeding practices of Anglo American mothers and Asian Indian mothers living in the United States and India. DESIGN: Data were collected by interviews in the mother's home. SETTING: Southeastern United States and India. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 75 mother-infant pairs (n=25 per ethnic group). ...
Yokoyama Yoshie - - 2004
This study was performed to determine the rates of breast-feeding and/or bottle-feeding in mothers of twins, triplets and higher order multiple births compared to those in mothers of singletons, and identify factors associated with decision as to breast-feed or bottle-feed. The subjects were 1,529 mothers of twins aged 6 months-6 ...
Savino F - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Leptin is a hormone present in breast milk, which regulates food intake and energy metabolism. AIM: To investigate whether leptin levels are different in breast-fed (BF) or formula-fed (FF) infants in the first months of life. METHODS: We evaluated serum leptin by radio-immunoassay and anthropometric parameters in 51 infants ...
Manandhar K - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To study the mean, standard deviation and centiles for anthropometry and haemoglobin in healthy term infants followed up to 12 months of age. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTINGS: Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital (KMCTH) in Kathmandu. SUBJECT: Consecutive healthy term newborns Method: 100 consecutive healthy term newborns were enrolled at ...
Wang M - - 2004
The fecal microbiota of two healthy Swedish infants was monitored over time by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the T-RFLP profiles revealed that the fecal flora in both infants was quite stable during breast-feeding and a major change ...
Gómez-Sanchiz Manuela - - 2004
This study was designed to analyze the relationship between breast-feeding and mental development at 24 months of age, independently of the influence of other factors. A total of 238 babies born between October 1995 and February 1998 were enrolled in an observational prospective cohort study. Cognitive development was assessed using ...
Ettinger Adrienne S - - 2004
Nursing infants may be exposed to lead from breast milk, but relatively few data exist with which to evaluate and quantify this relationship. This route of exposure constitutes a potential infant hazard from mothers with current ongoing exposure to lead as well as from mothers who have been exposed previously ...
Nainar S M Hashim - - 2004
Diet counseling is an integral part of anticipatory guidance during the infant oral health visit. Similar to dietary instructions for children of all ages, the primary emphasis is on sugar intake frequency. There are, however, other infant-specific dietary issues that must also be addressed during the infant oral health visit. ...
Casiday R E - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To describe the first-week feeding patterns for breast- vs bottle-fed babies, and their association with sustained breast-feeding and infant weight gain at 6 weeks. DESIGN: A longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Feeding diaries were completed by mothers in an urban UK community shortly after birth; follow-up weight and feeding data ...
Sibeko L N - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: There is a paucity of data on the micronutrient status of low-income, lactating South African women and their infants under 6 months of age. The aim of this study was to elucidate the level of anaemia and vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in peri-urban breast-feeding women and their young infants. ...
Lackmann G-M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) are ubiquitous compounds with carcinogenic and teratogenic properties. They are chemically very stable and lipophilic and, therefore, accumulate in our food-chain. They are prenatally transmitted from mother to foetus, and mother's milk due to its high lipid content is an elimination ...
Morgan J B - - 2004
BACKGROUND: National and international recommendations for the age of introducing solid foods (weaning) are founded on insufficient evidence and little is known about the short and medium term consequences associated with early or late weaning. AIMS AND METHODS: Data from over 1600 infants from five prospective randomised trials conducted in ...
Eigenmann P A - - 2004
Numerous studies have addressed the potential of breast-feeding to protect for the development of allergic diseases, and in particular of atopic eczema dermatitis syndrome (AEDS). Although the majority of studies, as well as several meta-analyses, are strongly in favour of breast-feeding, there are some conflicting results and open issues. Furthermore, ...
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