Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1287
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Sittlington Julie - - 2007
Northern Ireland (NI) has one of the lowest rates of breast-feeding initiation and duration in both the UK and the industrialized world. This study therefore aimed to explore the relationship between infant-feeding attitudes and feeding intention and outcome in expectant mothers within NI. Expectant mothers (n = 200) were recruited ...
Hilbig Annett - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To describe effects of age and time on the intake of energy and macronutrients in infants and young children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The energy and macronutrient intake of 720 DONALD study participants between 1989 and 2003 was evaluated by analysing 3027 three-day weighed dietary records (including test weighing of ...
Misri Shaila - - 2006
Treating psychiatric disorders with pharmacotherapy in the breast-feeding period presents a dilemma as such treatment carries the risk of infant exposure to medication through breast milk. However, failure to institute pharmacotherapy in postnatal women in need of such treatment exposes both mother and baby to detrimental effects of the illness. ...
Gueimonde Miguel - - 2006
The widespread use of antibiotics for medical and veterinary purposes has led to an increase of microbial resistance. The antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria has been studied extensively. However, antibiotics are not only selective for pathogens: they also affect all members of the gut microbiota. These microorganisms may constitute a ...
Kasonka Lackson - - 2006
Subclinical mastitis, defined as raised milk sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratio, is associated with poor infant growth and, among HIV-infected women, with increased milk HIV viral load. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study in Lusaka, Zambia, in order to investigate the relative importance of several potential causes of subclinical mastitis: maternal infection, ...
Ogbalu Ogugua K - - 2006
Twenty-eight rural women of the Niger Delta were infected with the human warble fly (Tumbu fly) larva, Cordylobia anthropophaga, and of the women examined, 22 (78.5%) were nursing-mothers. Among the percentage of women with cutaneous myiasis, 20 had multiple myiases in their breasts. Larvae were also extracted from the upper ...
Schluter Philip J - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To present current breast-feeding rates for Pacific infants resident in New Zealand. Reasons for the introduction of complementary liquid foods were also explored. DESIGN: A longitudinal study using hospital discharge summary records and maternal home interviews undertaken at 6 weeks, 12 and 24 months postpartum. Turnbull's non-parametric survival analysis ...
Lauer Jeremy A - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: We estimate attributable fractions, deaths and years of life lost among infants and children < or = 2 years of age due to suboptimal breast-feeding in developing countries. DESIGN: We compare actual practices to a minimum exposure pattern consisting of exclusive breast-feeding for infants < or = 6 months ...
Wright Charlotte M - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To investigate what factors relate most strongly to breast-feeding duration in order to successfully support breast-feeding mothers. DESIGN: Prospective birth cohort study using questionnaires, routinely collected weights and health check at age 13 months. SETTING: Gateshead, UK. SUBJECTS: Parents of 923 term infants born in a defined geographical area ...
Flidel-Rimon O - - 2006
Breast feeding offers major health advantages for all infants, whether born singleton or from multiple pregnancy. Adequate quantity and quality of milk production has been documented even for high multiples. Combined efforts of parents, close family, friends, and the medical team can help to make either full or partial breast ...
Nogueira Isabel C G - - 2006
This article reports a light and electron microscopy investigation of the effects of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Aphanizomenon ovalisporum ingestion on midgut and associated digestive diverticula of Daphnia magna. Additionally, survivorship and growth effects caused by feeding on cyanobacteria were assessed. Three cyanobacteria were used in the experiments: cylindrospermopsin (CYN)-producing C. ...
van Dommelen Paula - - 2007
The validity of the rule of thumb that infants may have a weight loss of 10% in the first days after birth is unknown. We assessed the validity of this and other rules to detect breast-fed infants with hypernatraemic dehydration. A reference chart for relative weight change was constructed by ...
Batal Malek - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Breast-feeding (BF) provides the ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants. The prevalence of BF in Lebanon shows mixed results. The present study was the first large-scale, extensive survey on BF parameters in Lebanon that aimed to explore demographic, socio-economic and other fundamental issues associated with ...
Mizuno Katsumi - - 2006
Our aim was to obtain a better understanding of the differences between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding, particularly with regard to how sucking performance changes from nonnutritive sucking (NNS) to nutritive sucking (NS). Twenty-two normal term infants were studied while breast-feeding at 4 and 5 d postpartum. Five of the 22 infants ...
Shrago Linda C - - 2006
PURPOSE: This study describes the bowel habits of neonates who were exclusively breastfed during the first 14 days following birth to determine whether bowel output (frequency and character) could be used as a proxy measure for adequate breast milk intake. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, descriptive study was conducted. During the ...
MacDonald A - - 2006
Breast feeding has proven benefits for many infants with inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) but, with the exception of phenylketonuria, there are few reports in other conditions. A questionnaire, completed by dietitians and clinicians from 27 IMD centres from 15 countries (caring for a total of over 8000 patients with IMDs ...
Caglar M K - - 2006
Data were prospectively obtained from exclusively breast-fed healthy term neonates at birth and from healthy mothers with no obstetric complication to determine risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants. Thirty-four neonates with a weight loss > or = 10% were diagnosed between April 2001 and ...
Becquet Renaud - - 2006
In high HIV prevalence resource-constrained settings, exclusive breastfeeding with early cessation is one of the conceivable interventions aimed at the prevention of HIV through breast milk. Nevertheless, this intervention has potential adverse effects, such as the inappropriateness of complementary feeding to take over breast milk. The purpose of our study ...
Wallace Helen - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Tongue tie is a congenital oral abnormality characterised by an abnormally short lingual frenulum. The majority of current medical and surgical opinion is that tongue tie rarely, if ever, causes feeding difficulties and therefore, should not be divided. With increased popularity of breast feeding in the last decade there ...
Kalanda B F - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare growth, morbidity incidence and risk factors for undernutrition between infants receiving complementary feeding early, before 3 months of age, with those receiving complementary foods after 3 months in a poor rural Malawian community. METHODS: A cohort of babies was enrolled at ...
Leung Hon-Wing - - 2006
Elimination half-life estimates for several polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/F) were calculated by modeling the blood and breast milk concentrations in two breast-fed human infants as reported by Abraham et al. (1996, 1998). Our analysis differs from that of other investigators in that we analyzed individual dioxin and furan congeners while the ...
Kaneko Akiyo - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Benefits of breast-feeding are not only limited to nutrition and sanitation in developing countries but also extend to cost-saving health care and alleviation of anxiety related to childrearing in developed countries. This study aims to elucidate factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding in Japan and use this information to achieve ...
Wall Alison - - 2006
Despite concerted efforts to encourage breast-feeding, one-third of women in the UK choose to formula feed from the onset, and 75% mothers are using formula by four months. Yet these mothers are often denied information on an appropriate formula to use, how to prepare formula correctly or how to sterilise ...
Buckley Kathleen M - - 2006
Upon hospital discharge it is not unusual for mothers of preterm infants to continue to meet all or most of their infants' nutritional needs through bottle feedings of expressed breast milk (EBM) because of infants' physiological immaturity and maternal concerns with an inadequacy of milk supply. Although for some mothers ...
Mullié C - - 2006
Twenty-one healthy bottle-fed infants were screened monthly (1-4 months) for bifidobacteria in their stools. Bifidobacteria were detected by culture and isolates specified by PCR. Alternatively, direct PCR in undiluted fecal suspensions was carried out for detection of bifidobacteria under the cultural detection level. All infants harbored cultivable bifidobacteria throughout the ...
Eberhard-Gran Malin - - 2006
Many new mothers who need antidepressant or mood-stabilising drug treatment may wish to breastfeed their infants, but are hesitant to do so because of possible harmful effects of the medication on the infant. This article reviews current data on drug excretion into breast milk and the effects on the breast-fed ...
Shamim Samina - - 2006
BACKGROUND: There is documented evidence of increased risk of infant mortality in formula fed infants versus breast fed babies. The hazards of bottle use for infant feeding, especially in underprivileged communities, are also well known. As the issue of bottle use is directly related to childhood survival and mortality, there ...
Gray Peter H - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the extent to which neonatal analgesia was used in Australia for minor invasive procedures as an indicator of evidence-based practice in neonatology. METHODS: A cross-sectional telephone survey of hospitals in all Australian states and territories with more than 200 deliveries per year was carried out. Questions were ...
Harrod-Wild Kate - - 2006
The author, an experienced paediatric dietitian, describes what it was like breast-feeding and weaning her first baby and how she has modified her previous professional views of infant feeding in the light of her own experience. As a result, she makes some pragmatic recommendations for helping new mothers. She urges ...
Kuperberg Karen - - 2006
PURPOSE: Little information is available on the growth and feeding patterns of First Nations children. Our goal was to assess the anthropometric status, feeding practices, and dietary intake of children born in 1994 or 1995 (n=102) and living in Walpole Island First Nation. METHODS: Information on demographic characteristics and infant ...
Ryan C Anthony - - 2006
Here we describe a premature male infant who was accidentally given 10 mL of expressed breast milk intravenously over a 3.5-hour period. Having survived this event with supportive care, this boy was attending regular school with no obvious neurologic or learning difficulties at 6 years of age. In 1998, after ...
Taneepanichskul Surasak - - 2006
The study objectives were to compare the effects of an etonogestrel-releasing implant (Implanon) and a nonmedicated intrauterine device (IUD) on parameters of lactation in breast-feeding women and on the growth of their breast-fed infants over a 3-year period. Healthy lactating women (28-56 days postpartum) chose either the implant (n=42) or ...
Farrow C - - 2006
This paper explores whether breast-feeding, mediated by lower maternal use of controlling strategies, predicts more positive mealtime interactions between mothers and their 1 year old infants. Eighty-seven women completed questionnaires regarding breast-feeding, assessing their control over child feeding and mealtime negativity at 1 year of infant age. Seventy-four of these ...
Cubero J - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: The hormone melatonin regulates the sleep and this pineal hormone is synthesized in the organism from the amino acid tryptophan. It is known that breast-fed babies have better sleep patterns and a better entrained sleep/wake cycle than bottle-fed babies (adapted formula). OBJECTIVE: To compare the circadian rhythm of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin ...
Reilly John J - - 2005
The WHO recommends exclusive breast-feeding for the first 6 months of life. At present, <2 % of mothers who breast-feed in the UK do so exclusively for 6 months. We propose the testable hypothesis that this is because many mothers do not provide sufficient breast milk to feed a 6-month-old ...
Williams Jocelyn S - - 2005
The weaning process was investigated at two Maya sites dominated by Postclassic remains: Marco Gonzalez (100 BC-AD 1350) and San Pedro (1400-AD 1650), Belize. Bone collagen and bioapatite were analyzed from 67 individuals (n < or = 6 years = 15, n > 6 years = 52). Five isotopic measures ...
Beilin Yaakov - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The influence of labor epidural fentanyl on the neonate is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine whether epidural fentanyl has an impact on breast-feeding. METHODS: Women who previously breast-fed a child and who requested labor epidural analgesia were randomly assigned in a double-blinded manner to one ...
Quigley M A - - 2006
To assess the effect of several measures of infant feeding on diarrhoeal disease, and whether these effects vary according to markers of social deprivation. Case-control study of diarrhoeal disease cases presenting to 34 general practices in England. Controls were stratified on age group, area deprivation index for the practice, and ...
Phillips Raylene M - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: First, to compare analgesic effects of breast-feeding versus pacifier use in newborn infants undergoing blood collection via heel sticks. Second, to compare analgesic effects of pacifier use with maternal holding versus nonmaternal holding. DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Normal newborn nursery at academic teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Full-term ...
Daniels Melissa C - - 2005
The importance of breast-feeding (BF) for cognitive development has been researched widely over the past several decades. Although scholars agree that children who breast-feed are generally more intelligent, it is uncertain whether this advantage is due to BF effects or to other accompanying healthy characteristics of women who breast-feed. This ...
Lovelady Cheryl A - - 2005
Several investigators have reported a relationship between maternal obesity and low rates of initiation and duration of breast-feeding. Recent research findings suggest that poor infant feeding behavior and reduced hormonal responses in the early postpartum period result in delayed lactogenesis and early cessation of breast-feeding among overweight/obese women.
Charpak N - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Breast-milk fortifiers recommended for premature infants are seldom available in developing countries. We describe the characteristics of growth in preterm infants under ambulatory Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) who eventually required supplemental formula because of failure to thrive with exclusive breast feeding. We evaluated the relationship between growth indices at ...
Björnberg Karolin Ask - - 2005
It is well established that methylmercury (MeHg) and mercury vapor pass the placenta, but little is known about infant exposure via breast milk. We measured MeHg and inorganic mercury (I-Hg) in blood of Swedish mothers (n = 20) and their infants, as well as total mercury (T-Hg) in breast milk ...
Charnley Gail - - 2006
Studies of children indicate that exposure of the general population to low levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) does not result in any clinical evidence of disease, although accidental exposure to high levels either before or after birth have led to a number of developmental deficits. Breast-fed infants have ...
Tarcan Aylin - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine what proportion of newborns admitted with idiopathic non-hemolytic hyperbilirubinemia exhibit severe weight loss and hypernatremia. METHODS: The prospective study involved 115 infants >48 h old who were admitted with jaundice between July 2002 and July 2003, and had unconjugated bilirubin levels ...
Alvarado Beatriz Eugenia - - 2005
We conducted a longitudinal study among an Afro-Colombian population to investigate the influence of feeding practices and child morbidity on linear and ponderal growth during infancy. We enrolled 133 children at 5-7 mo and followed them until 18 mo. Repeated anthropometric measures were taken every 2-3 mo, with monthly interviews ...
Lauritzen Lotte - - 2005
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the brain during the 1st and 2nd years of life. The objective of this study was to see if an increased content of DHA in breast-milk via maternal fish oil (FO)-supplementation affects mental development in term infants. one hundred twenty-two Danish mothers with a habitual ...
Becquet Renaud - - 2005
The Ditrame Plus project conducted in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, is aimed at the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in combining perinatal antiretroviral interventions with a systematic proposal of alternatives to prolonged breast-feeding: formula feeding from birth, or exclusive breast-feeding for 3 months then early cessation of breast-feeding. We surveyed ...
Hopkins Mark J - - 2005
Real-time PCR and northern hybridisations were used to quantify bacterial populations in the large gut of infants. PCR primers for rapid, sensitive, high throughput detection of bifidobacteria, bacteroides, sulphate-reducing bacteria and Enterococcus faecalis, based on analysis of 16S rRNA genes were used. Bacterial populations were analysed in faeces from 40 ...
Pomeroy Kay M - - 2005
Administration of a radiopharmaceutical may result in a radiation dose to an infant due to ingestion of the radiopharmaceutical secreted in the breast milk. Following a maternal administration of Co labelled to vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) as part of a Schilling test an estimate of the absorbed dose to a breast ...
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