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Fanaro Silvia - - 2007
BACKGROUND: There are no evidence-based guidelines for weaning preterm infants, and the timing of weaning and the diet offered tend to reflect tradition and marketing rather than medical advice. PROCEDURES: In a survey of complementary feeding practices in preterm infants conducted at the University Hospital of Ferrara, Italy, we evaluated ...
Haider, Rukhsana
Objective: Assess the effect of peer counselling on early postpartum breast-feeding practices of urban mothers. Methodology: Forty localities of similar size in Dhaka were randomized as intervention or control areas. From each of the 20 intervention areas, local women who had breastfed their babies and were motivated to help other ...
Geddes Donna T - - 2007
Although it is well recognized that a thorough understanding of the anatomy of an organ is essential to enable assessment of any abnormalities in that organ, there has been little investigation of the anatomy of the normal lactating breast since Sir Astley Cooper performed detailed dissections of the anatomy of ...
Lee Ellie - - 2007
The way mothers feed their babies is, internationally, the subject of research, health policy initiatives, and popular discussion, which commonly affirm the mantra 'breast is best'. On one level, this mantra reflects scientific evidence about nutrition and maternal and infant health. From a socio-cultural perspective, the pro-breastfeeding message has, however, ...
Gore Claudia - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Exposure to specific bacterial bowel commensals may increase/reduce the risk of atopic diseases. OBJECTIVE: To compare fecal bacterial communities of young infants with/without eczema. METHODS: Nested case-control study. Infants age 3 to 6 months with eczema (cases, n = 37) and without (controls, n = 24) were matched for ...
Giugliani Elsa Regina Justo - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The use of non-breast milks seems to cause more harm to the child's health than the isolated introduction of water/herbal teas. AIMS: Study the factors associated with introduction of water/herbal teas or non-breast milks during the first month of life and determine the impact of this supplementation on breastfeeding ...
Noor Sayeda Z - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between infant feeding and maternal mental well-being among women of Bangladeshi and Pakistani ethnicity; and to explore the sources of advice, information and support available to women before and after childbirth. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of infant feeding and maternal well-being via structured interviews conducted ...
Bingham Peter M - - 2007
Human newborns use odor cues to orient to their source of nutrition. However, tube-fed, premature infants have restricted chemosensory experience. New methods of introducing breast milk odor to tube-fed premature infants will permit empiric tests of the effect of controlled exposure to nutrient odor. We therefore developed an infant olfactometer ...
Dewey Kathryn G - - 2007
Fe deficiency is a common nutritional disorder during infancy, particularly in low-income countries. The Fe status of a breast-fed infant is strongly influenced by the body Fe content at birth, which is determined by factors that operate before birth (maternal Fe status before and during pregnancy; infant gestational age and ...
Zanardo Vincenzo - - 2007
Breast-fed infants have higher bilirubin levels than formula-fed infants, possibly because of variations in the composition of the breast milk. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between cytokine levels in the colostrum of nursing mothers and neonatal jaundice (NJ). Breast milk samples were ...
Hanson Lars A - - 2007
The newborn receives, via the placenta, maternal IgG antibodies against the microbes present in its surroundings, but such antibodies have a pro-inflammatory action, initiating the complement system and phagocytes. Although the host defence mechanisms of the neonate that involve inflammatory reactivity are somewhat inefficient, this defence system can still have ...
Szajewska H - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: For breast-fed infants with rectal bleeding, maternal restriction of dietary protein such as cow's milk proteins is often recommended; however, poor response to dietary protein restriction is of concern. This pilot study was designed to assess the effectiveness of Lactobacillus GG (LGG) in breast-fed infants with rectal bleeding. PATIENTS ...
Snijders Bianca E P - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential effect of modification by maternal allergic status on the relationship between breast-feeding duration and infant atopic manifestations in the first 2 years of life. STUDY DESIGN: Data from 2705 infants of the KOALA Birth Cohort Study (The Netherlands) were analyzed. The data were collected by ...
Das S - - 2007
This retrospective observational study was designed to study the impact of a dedicated antenatal clinic service on obstetric and neonatal outcomes among teenage mothers in the maternity unit of a district general hospital in the UK. Outcomes were measured to investigate improvement in obstetric and neonatal outcomes before, and 12 ...
Chuang Chao-Hua - - 2007
In recent decades there has been a marked rise in both the labour market participation of women with infants and transcultural marriage in Taiwan. The objectives of this study were to explore the combined effect of employment status and transcultural marriage on the prevalence and factors relating to initiation and ...
Zukowsky Ksenia - - 2007
A secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial in which the control group received routine breast-feeding care, consisted of women planning to breast-feed their low-birth-weight (LBW) premature infants, was conducted. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine the nutrition of healthy premature LBW infants and its impact on ...
Emamghorashi F - - 2007
We evaluated the growth of 597 infants < 24 months attending health centres in Jahrom according to type of infant feeding. We also compared our growth curves with those of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). The infants were divided to 3 groups: exclusively breastfed, exclusively bottle-fed and both ...
Walker Marsha - - 2007
Meeting national breast-feeding objectives and mothers' personal breast-feeding goals depends on a number of factors, including the provision of current, consistent, and timely help with breast-feeding. Nurses are in a prime position to guide mothers during their hospital stay and provide community follow-up postdischarge. Mothers and infants need to acquire ...
Galpin Lauren - - 2007
The effect of different energy densities of complementary foods on breast milk consumption is not well understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that provision of fortified spread (FS), a micronutrient fortified, energy-dense (22 kJ/g), ready-to-use food, to Malawian infants would not decrease their breast milk intake more than ...
Hurst Nancy M - - 2007
Mother's own milk is considered best for preterm infants. Given the often protracted period between birth and breast-feeding for most preterm newborns, a number of challenges exist for mothers and neonatal intensive care unit nurses in establishing lactation, providing mother's own milk, and achieving breast-feeding. This article conceptualizes breast-feeding the ...
Were Fred N - - 2007
Extensive research in developed countries has established that very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are particularly vulnerable to the effects of early nutritional deficiencies. There is, however, little information from poor countries on the long-term effects of these deficiencies in such infants. Determine the association between neonatal feeding regimens and ...
Robinson Siân S MRC Epidemiology Resource Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK. - - 2007
It is not known what constitutes an optimal diet in infancy. There are relatively few studies of weaning practice in the UK, and there is a need for prospective data on the effects of infant diet and nutrition on health in later life. We describe the dietary patterns, defined using ...
Savilahti Erkki - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Several stressful environmental factors are associated with short-term breast-feeding. A high concentration of sodium in colostrum has predicted early failure. AIM OF THE STUDY: We studied the association of growth factors in colostrum and the length of breast-feeding (BF). METHODS: We measured concentrations of TGF-beta1 and -beta2; epidermal growth ...
Abdulraheem R - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To document the infant feeding practices of Maldivian mothers. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 251 Maldivian mothers recruited in 2004 from the 'well baby' or 'well child' clinics on the island of Male' and including 75 mothers from three other islands, Hura, Himmafushi and Thulusdhoo. RESULTS: The full breast-feeding ...
Losee Joseph E - - 2007
Nonsynostotic occipital plagiocephaly remains a diagnosis of concern in infancy. This study evaluates factors affecting the onset, treatment, and outcomes of nonsynostotic occipital plagiocephaly. A retrospective chart review and telephone survey were performed. A posterior occipital deformation severity score was used. Factors such as demographics, behavioral and helmet therapy, feeding ...
Slusher Tina - - 2007
Health experts worldwide recognize breastmilk as the superior infant food. Recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics and the World Health Organization (WHO) identify exclusive breastfeeding for the first half-year of life and continuation of breastfeeding into toddlerhood as offering maximum protection from illness, providing a substrate for immunological protection. ...
Efe Emine - - 2007
The purpose of the present study was to examine and compare the analgesic effects of breast feeding and sucrose solutions in reducing pain due to venipuncture in term neonates. 102 term infants requiring a venous blood sample for routine screening of phenylketonuria (n=26) and hyperbilirubinemia (n= 76) were included in ...
Griffiths Lucy J LJ MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, UCL Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK. - - 2007
To examine UK country and ethnic variations in infant feeding practices. Cohort study. Infants enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Study, born between September 2000 and January 2002. A total of 18 150 natural mothers (11 286 (8207 white) living in England) of singleton infants. Breast-feeding initiation, breast-feeding discontinuation and introduction ...
Gottschang Suzanne Zhang - - 2007
Urban Chinese women in the 1990s formulated their infant-feeding decisions in the context of a society undergoing radical transformation as the nation moved from a centrally planned socialist economy to a global, market-oriented one. Narratives of new mothers in Beijing in the 1990s provide insights into the multiple forces that ...
Eickmann Sophie Helena - - 2007
The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the association between breast feeding and mental and motor development at age 12 months, controlling for comprehensive measures of the child's socio-economic, maternal and environmental background, and nutritional status. A cohort of 205 infants born during May-August 2001 in a poor ...
Lawson Margaret - - 2007
Early dietary influences, even before birth, can have an effect on growth, which in turn has a profound influence on adult health. Formula-fed infants have a different growth pattern from that of breast-fed babies and a greater risk of developing obesity. However, infant formulas, when correctly prepared and handled, are ...
Obed J Y - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: In response to concern raised on the high rate of maternal mortality in developing countries, this cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the survival of infants born to mothers who died during the process of child birth. METHODOLOGY: The survey was conducted in Gwoza and Konduga Local Government Areas ...
Zimmer J Paul - - 2007
The carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin (LZ) are found throughout the central nervous system but reach their highest concentration within the macular region of the primate retina where they are commonly referred to as the macular pigments. Although LZ are a major integral feature of the central fovea, no information currently ...
Abdulkader H M - - 2007
Sucking may reduce the manifestations of pain in newborn infants. To examine the effect of suckling on the threshold for peripheral somatosensory responses. Subjects and methods: Graded Von Frey filaments were applied to the heel to initiate peripheral somatosensory responses (withdrawal reflex and gross body movements) in term infants. Dummy ...
Efe Emine - - 2007
The objective of this study was to examine the pain-relieving effect of breast-feeding during immunization injections in healthy neonates. Sixty-six healthy infants returning to a clinic for their second-, third-, or fourth-month immunization with intramuscular diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis were randomized to be breast-fed before, during, and after the injection ...
Schack-Nielsen Lene - - 2007
There is an intense interest in the effects of breast-feeding on the offspring and in understanding the mechanisms behind these effects. More than 50 papers are published monthly on topics such as the influence of breast-feeding on aspects of growth, immune-related effects, mental development, and noncommunicable diseases. Most breast-feeding data ...
Xu Fenglian - - 2007
AIMS: To document infant feeding methods in the first six months of life in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China, 2003-2004. Some problems with breast-feeding in the area are explained. METHODS: A longitudinal study of infant feeding practices was undertaken. A total of 1219 mothers who delivered babies ...
Marriott Bernadette M - - 2007
This study describes infant feeding practices in developing countries, specifically complementary liquids and foods in the first year of life. Data were compiled from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted from 1999 to 2003. We analyzed data from those countries with available data, including results for child-level 24-h and 7-d food ...
Viguera Adele C - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Current practice guidelines discourage use of lithium during breast-feeding, despite limited data. This study aimed to quantify lithium exposure in nursing infants. METHOD: In 10 mother-infant pairs, the authors obtained assays of lithium in maternal serum, breast milk, and infant serum and indices of infant renal and thyroid function. ...
Martín Itziar - - 2007
The premature newborn of a mother who reported drinking mate during pregnancy presented with increased jitteriness and irritability, high-pitched cry, hypertonia in the limbs, and brisk tendon reflexes consistent with neonatal withdrawal syndrome. High concentrations of caffeine and theobromine were detected in various maternal and neonatal biological matrices (placenta, cord ...
Ahmed A. Al-Shoshan
Infant feeding practices were observed and weaning habits were examined for 1791 Saudi mothers whom been admitted for delivery at maternity hospitals in Riyadh. Pre-lactic feeding was practiced by 10.5% of mothers, 74.4% of mothers performed exclusive Breast feeding, 42% of them initiate it within the first hour of delivery. ...
Walker Angela - - 2007
The Healthy Start scheme replaced the Welfare Food Scheme throughout the UK in late 2006. It provides pregnant women and young children from low-income backgrounds with vouchers for fresh fruit and vegetables, as well as milk and infant formula and free vitamins. Pregnant women aged under 18 are eligible for ...
Ferguson Melissa - - 2007
Numerous studies report positive effects of breast-feeding on infant development. Such effects are apparent early in development as well as in later years. Recently, elements in breast milk, polyunsaturatred fatty acids (PUFAs), have been identified as having great potential for increasing nutritional benefits. PUFAs are long-chain fatty acids containing two ...
Xu Fenglian - - 2007
The aim of this study was to document the introduction rates of complementary foods to infants in the Han, Uygur and other ethnic groups living in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, PR China. A longitudinal study of infant feeding practices was undertaken using a random sample that included all of ...
Harrod-Wild Kate - - 2007
The 2005 Infant Feeding Survey showed that in the U.K., despite promotion of breast-feeding by Government and professionals and an improving initiation rate, there is a sharp fall in the numbers of mothers exclusively breastfeeding during the early weeks and months after the birth. Early discharge from hospital, before breast-feeding ...
Henderson G - - 2007
Preterm infants are usually growth restricted at hospital discharge. Feeding preterm infants after hospital discharge with nutrient-fortified breast milk (rather than unfortified breast milk) may facilitate more rapid catch-up growth and improve neurodevelopmental outcomes. To determine the effect of feeding with multicomponent fortified human breast milk versus unfortified breast milk ...
Ben-Nun L - - 2006
Although breast milk provides the best nutrition for the infant, breast-feeding has been decreasing with the growth in use of prepared milk formulas. This paper evaluates the available biblical literature dealing with breast-feeding. The research is unique in character, as it combines contemporary medical knowledge with presentation of cases taken ...
Kulo─člu Zarife - - 2006
Inflammatory bowel disease is uncommon in infants. We present the clinical, endoscopic and pathologic findings for two exclusively breast-fed infants with a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. We emphasize that although inflammatory bowel disease is rare in infants, chronic bloody diarrhea must be a sufficiently alarming symptom to consider a ...
Kumar Dinesh - - 2006
Whether socio-demographic factors are associated with initiation of breast-feeding in urban slums of Chandigarh. (1) To study the prevailing breast-feeding practices adopted by mothers, (2) To study the socio-demographic factors associated with initiation of breast-feeding. Cross-sectional. Mothers of infants willing to participate in the study in the selected area. A ...
Haisma Hinke H Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Departamento de Medicina Social, Pelotas, RS, Brazil. - - 2006
Energy intake recommendations for infants are based on data from industrialized countries. FAO/WHO/UNU expressed the need for studies on total energy expenditure (TEE) and basal metabolic rate from developing countries covering current and changing lifestyles. For this observational study, 65 infants of differing socioeconomic status (SES) (n = 32 middle ...
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