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Biddle C - - 1994
Many breast-feeding women are exposed to anesthetic drugs. The question of breast feeding following an anesthetic is a highly relevant issue in part because it is desirable to allow breast feeding to resume quickly while minimizing the potential for drug-related infant morbidity. The physiology of breast milk production and the ...
Hossain M M - - 1994
Planning, implementation and evaluation of programmes to promote appropriate infant feeding practices require detailed, current information about these practices in the target populations. To estimate the prevalences and identify the correlates of overall breast-feeding and of exclusive breast-feeding in different age periods during infancy, a cohort of 152 apparently healthy ...
Yoneyama K - - 1994
Longitudinal data for weight and length from birth to the 20th month of age obtained from 318 healthy infants were analysed in relation to type of feeding during infancy (breast- or bottle-fed). Differences in the growth patterns of infants according to the type of feeding were confirmed, breast-fed infants tending ...
Michaelsen K F - - 1994
Two longitudinal studies of infant growth, performed from 1985 to 1988 in the Copenhagen area, have been combined to develop an up-to-date growth reference. Percentile curves were constructed and median growth velocities were calculated for monthly intervals, based on individually estimated growth curves. Compared with references based on data from ...
Blomquist H K - - 1994
In a prospective study, feeding routines of a maternity unit and the subsequent feeding patterns of 521 newborns were analysed. During the stay in the maternity unit, 69% of newborns were exclusively breast fed and 1% received only donor's milk from the milk bank and/or formula. Nine percent received their ...
Varendi H - - 1994
We studied the involvement of naturally occurring odours in guiding the baby to the nipple. One breast of each participating mother was washed immediately after delivery. The newborn infant was placed prone between the breasts. Of 30 infants, 22 spontaneously selected the unwashed breast. The washing procedure had no effect ...
Zetterström R - - 1994
Newborn infants are rapidly colonized by both aerobic and and anaerobic bacteria, initially with about 50% of each type. Several factors related both to the infant and its environment influence the composition of the intestinal microflora quantitatively as well as qualitatively. Major ecological disturbances are observed in newborn infants treated ...
Heinig M J - - 1994
Duration of postpartum amenorrhoea (PPA) was compared among women who breast-fed for > or = 6 months (breast-feeding group) or < or = 3 months (formula-feeding group) and was found to be significantly shorter among the latter. Associations between maternal factors and duration of PPA were examined. Within the formula-feeding ...
Matee M - - 1994
A cross-sectional survey on the prevalence of rampant caries in infants and a case-control study were executed to determine the prevalence of rampant caries and its etiology. A total of 2192 infants aged between 1 and 4.0 yr from nine regions of Tanzania comprised the sample of the prevalence survey. ...
Reese J - - 1994
Infants with neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia are at risk of severe intracranial haemorrhage. Placental transfer of maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG) directed against fetal platelet antigens is known to be the underlying mechanism. Since breast milk contains IgG it is theoretically possible that breast feeding of these infants could cause thrombocytopenia. The ...
Little R E - - 1994
This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that breast-fed infants of smokers are smaller in size at 1 year of age than breast-fed infants of nonsmokers. Three groups of infants were selected from all singletons born to women who were seen for prenatal care in their 6th month of ...
Srivastava S P - - 1994
The present study comprised 100 mothers of newborn babies with regard to their belief and practices about lactation. A vast majority (98.2%) of the mothers were breast feeding, 87.9% mothers used prelacteal feeds of one sort or the other. Only 0.5% breast fed their babies within 6 hours and nearly ...
Einterz E M - - 1994
Following the identification of differences in disease patterns among infants from households of different social groups (Moslem and non-Moslem) in northern Cameroon, 534 mothers and their children 0-23 months old were studied to determine early childhood feeding practices in the 2 groups. Several significant differences were revealed. Compared with non-Moslem ...
Bavdekar S B - - 1994
A study was conducted in two slum areas in a Bombay suburb covering a total population of 4879. One hundred and fifty-three mothers having children below two years were interviewed. Ninety six per cent infants below the age of 4 months received breast milk, though exclusive breastfeeding was practised only ...
Litman R S - - 1994
Recommendations for fasting intervals prior to anesthesia in pediatric patients have changed in recent years. There are few data concerning infants less than 1 yr of age fed clear liquids or breast milk before surgery. We performed a prospective, blinded study to determine residual gastric volumes and pH in this ...
Melnikow J - - 1994
The benefits of breast-feeding have been well documented in the literature: it reduces morbidity from many illnesses and is considered the ideal nutrition for the newborn infant. This paper reviews common breast-feeding problems that family physicians may be called upon to manage: maternal problems, infant problems, and problems related to ...
Pisacane A - - 1994
The association between breast feeding and acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) was studied in a case-control study in southern Italy. Two groups of children were studied: the first group comprised 73 infants, aged 0-6 months, whose diagnosis was pneumonia or bronchiolitis; the second group included 88 infants less than 12 ...
Tessema T - - 1994
A retrospective case control study was made to determine the risk factors for development of diarrhoea in a neonatal ward of Ethio-Swedish Children's Hospital over a period of 12 months. A total of 803 neonates' record was screened for the presence of diarrhoea during their hospital stay. There were 79 ...
Michaelsen K F - - 1994
Duration of breast feeding was studied in 249 randomly chosen, healthy, term infants of Danish origin of which 80.7% participated. Breast feeding was initiated by 99.5% of the mothers. At 3, 6 and 9 months, 71%, 52% and 33%, respectively, were still breast feeding. Only 1 infant (0.5%) was exclusively ...
Rajan L - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: to assess the impact of obstetric procedures and analgesia/anaesthesia during delivery on breast feeding at six weeks post-delivery. METHOD: secondary analysis of data from a UK study of pain relief in labour using a postal questionnaire sent to a subset of respondents at six weeks post-delivery. PARTICIPANTS: 10% (1149) ...
Humenick S S - - 1994
For 14 days following birth, 114 breastfeeding mothers rated their level of breast engorgement twice daily, using a six-point engorgement scale. Individual engorgement ratings were plotted by intensity over time to provide a visual display of each subject's breast engorgement experience. Four distinct patterns of breast engorgement emerged; mothers experienced ...
Palloni A - - 1994
Using data from Mexico's Demographic and Health Survey, the authors examine the effects of breast-feeding and the pace of childbearing on early childhood mortality in a sample of 2,665 children born between 1982 and 1986. From a family planning perspective, they seek to assess the impact that changes in childbearing ...
Madani K A - - 1994
The study aimed to investigate some aspects of breast feeding, namely-lactation amenorrhea, the average interval between pregnancies, and the extent of knowledge that an average Saudi woman has about breast feeding. This was a cross sectional study in which a pretested questionnaire was used to collect the information. The study ...
Pollock J I - - 1994
Information on infant feeding and child development was obtained from the 1970 British Births Survey and subsequent follow-ups at five and 10 years of age. A clinically advantaged subsample of infants who were either exclusively bottle-fed or exclusively breast-fed for at least three months were selected in order to minimise ...
Marchand L - - 1994
BACKGROUND: Using qualitative methods, this case study of an inner-city family practice explores how a group of eight minority women and their families decided whether to breast-feed or bottle-feed their infants and how the office and hospital settings affected this decision-making process. METHODS: The methods included depth interviews, a focus ...
Crowell M K - - 1994
The Infant Breast-feeding Assessment Tool (IBFAT) was used to assess the time of effective breast feeding in 48 healthy term infants born to mothers having their first or second baby. Infants of mothers who received an analgesia (butorphanol or nalbuphine) in labor (n = 26) were compared with infants whose ...
Shahidullah M - - 1994
This study investigates the effect of both total and unsupplemented breast-feeding in conjunction with birth interval on early childhood mortality, using longitudinal data from Matlab, Bangladesh. A discrete hazard model approach shows that it is not the duration of total breast-feeding but the duration of unsupplemented breast-feeding which increases child ...
Fitzsimmons S P - - 1994
We sought to determine (1) the ontogeny of secretory IgA subclasses in saliva of breast- and formula-fed infants and (2) the influence of breast-feeding on the maturation of secretory salivary IgA subclasses. Secretory IgA and subclasses 1 and 2 concentrations were determined in saliva from 40 healthy, term infants from ...
Zuckerman M M MRC Mineral Metabolism Research Unit, Baragwanath Hospital, - - 1994
Disturbed mineral and bone metabolism has been reported to occur frequently in very-low-birth-weight infants fed breast-milk during the first 3 months of life. This study was designed to assess the prevalence of disturbed mineral homeostasis in a breast-milk-fed very-low-birth-weight population at Baragwanath Hospital and to determine whether the addition of ...
DaVanzo J - - 1994
Data from the First and Second Malaysian Family Life Surveys in 1976 and 1988, respectively, are analyzed to examine long-term trends in breastfeeding in Peninsular Malaysia, educational and ethnic differences therein, and the quality of retrospective data on infant feeding. The steady decrease between the mid-1950's and mid-1970's in breastfeeding ...
Novotny R - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To determine factors influencing infant feeding method choices among women who received services from the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) during pregnancy in Hawaii. DESIGN: A retrospective survey mailed to all resident mothers who had live births in Hawaii between January 1, 1989, and ...
Waldenström U - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: to study the effect of birth centre care on the duration of breast feeding, breast feeding complications, and women's experiences of breast feeding. DESIGN: randomised controlled trial. SETTING: in-hospital birth centre at South Hospital, Stockholm, and standard obstetric care in the Greater Stockholm area. SUBJECTS: 1230 women with expected ...
Greve L C - - 1994
Guidelines introduced in 1979 for breast-feeding infants with phenylketonuria included a formula containing low amounts of phenylalanine (PHE) as part of the dietary prescription. Although the guidelines were revised in 1988, new PHE-free products were not included. In addition, the guidelines recommend infant weight checks before and after feeding to ...
Segura-Millán S - - 1994
Survival analysis and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with the onset of perceived insufficient milk among 165 healthy mothers who planned to breast-feed and gave birth by vaginal delivery, without complications, to a healthy term infant in either a nursery (n = 58) or a rooming-in-hospital where ...
Retallack S J - - 1994
The results are presented of a survey of infant weaning practices carried out in shopping complexes in the Adelaide metropolitan area. The types of foods and fluids currently being consumed by the sample of 258 healthy infants was documented, and a comparison made between the feeding practices of breast and ...
McCann M F - - 1994
Infant feeding is a multidimensional activity that can be described and analysed in many different ways. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently issued recommended indicators for assessing infant feeding practices. This paper presents these indicators and demonstrates their applications using the 1989 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data for ...
Sullivan S A - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of dietary experience and milk feeding regimen on acceptance of their first vegetable by 4- to 6-month-old infants. DESIGN: Longitudinal study, of 26-days duration, observing infants aged 4 to 6 months at the start of the study. Random assignment to treatments, within-subject control. SETTING: General ...
Patton S - - 1994
Evidence is growing that high-molecular-weight glycoproteins (mucins) of human milk bind to certain pathogenic microorganisms and thus could interfere with their colonization of the infant gut. This investigation sought to determine whether one of the two principal milk mucins, MUC-1 (also known as PAS-0 and episialin), persists into the feces. ...
Long K Z - - 1994
Ninety-eight women-infant pairs were followed for up to 50 weeks in the northern part of Guadalajara, Mexico, from August 1986 to July 1987 as part of a community-based, prospective study of the relation between infant feeding patterns and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli producing heat-labile toxin (LT-ETEC) diarrheal disease. Strictly formula-fed children ...
Farzaneh I J - - 1994
Unrecognized breast feeding malnutrition may rapidly lead to life-threatening or neurologically devastating consequences. With the increased interest in lactation, it is important that physicians, dietitians and nurses provide counseling to parents regarding the benefits and difficulties of breast feeding. Appropriate education, assessment of the infant's vigor and maternal milk supply ...
Lipsky S - - 1994
This report describes the breastfeeding and weaning practices of rural women in two Mexican towns and the cultural beliefs upon which these practices are based. Interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect information. Women thought breastfeeding preferable to bottle-feeding. Eighty percent initiated breastfeeding and 69% gave colostrum. Breastfeeding ...
Byczkowski J Z - - 1994
The transfer of toxic chemicals to breast milk represents an important, although not widely recognized, chemical exposure route for the infant. For an increasing number of nursing mothers who resume their professional activities after giving birth, the obvious benefits of breast-feeding must be evaluated versus the risk of the lactational ...
Gray S J - - 1994
Variation in the duration and pattern of breast-feeding contributes significantly to inter-population differences in fertility. In this paper, measures of suckling frequency and intensity are used to compare the effects of breast-feeding practices on the duration of lactational amenorrhoea, and on the length of the birth interval in three prospective ...
Temboury M C - - 1994
The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of breast-feeding on the intellectual development of the infant, controlling for possible confounding factors. A prospective study of cohorts was carried out in a group of 229 healthy infants, studied from birth to 2 years of age. The infants were ...
Bennet R - - 1994
We performed faecal cultures from 71 Addis Ababa infants. Salmonella spp. were found in 12 of 61 hospitalised infants. None had diarrhoea. Colonisation was most common (8/21) during the second week of life. There was no correlation to mode of delivery, breast feeding, type of ward or antibiotic treatment in ...
Lindskog U - - 1994
In connection with the introduction of piped surface water delivered by community taps in a rural area of Malawi, 46 infants were studied prospectively during a 10-month period to monitor infant care and health. Compared with the reference population, newborn infants generally weighed less and were shorter. Breastfeeding was universal ...
Vestermark V - - 1994
The duration of postpartum amenorrhoea was studied in a Danish sample of 361 women. The median duration of amenorrhoea was 17 weeks. The 25th and 75th percentiles were 10 and 30 weeks, respectively. A significant correlation was found between the duration of postpartum amenorrhoea and of breast-feeding. However, lactation for ...
Abou Nazel M W - - 1994
Mother's depression during pregnancy and postpartum is a risk factor that can adversely affect mother's relationship with her infant. As breast feeding is an important situation for early mother-child interaction the effect of mother's depression on her breast feeding attitude and practice was decided to be studied prospectively. In this ...
Menahem S - - 1994
Conservation-withdrawal is considered a biological non-pathological process subserving survival in circumstances which pose an extreme threat to an infant, child or adult. Although initially described in an infant, is reported frequency in that age group seems sparse. Four infants are described, three of whom presented with weight loss. Despite their ...
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