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Results 451 - 500 of 1287
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Paul A C - - 2000
Despite the well-known advantages of breast-feeding to both mother and infant, malnutrition of breastfed infants does occur. We report two term neonates who presented in the 3rd week of life with severe wasting, hypernatraemic dehydration and pre-renal failure while being exclusively breastfed. Breast-milk sodium levels were markedly elevated on admission. ...
Ladzani R R Department of Human Nutrition, University of the North, Sovenga, Northern - - 2000
To evaluate the efficacy of a nutrition education intervention programme undertaken by trained local women (nutrition advisers) in rural villages in Northern Province. The programme was aimed at the caregivers of infants living in those villages. A cross-sectional survey design undertaken in 1989 and again in 1992. Female caregivers of ...
Hediger M L - - 2000
BACKGROUND: There is controversy over what growth references to use in evaluating breast-fed infants and concern about whether never-breast-fed infants are at risk of overweight in childhood. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether infants who are exclusively breast-fed for 4 mo differ in average size from ...
Sievers E - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Molybdenum concentrations in formulas exceed those in human milk by far. Infants with phenylketonuria require semisynthetic phenylalanine-restricted diets. Because these diets are presently supplemented with molybdenum, a study was conducted to determine whether retention and plasma concentration in the recipients are equivalent to those of healthy breast-fed infants. METHODS: ...
Fisher J O JO Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802, - - 2000
Current recommendations for infant feeding encourage breast-feeding through the first year. This research was conducted to evaluate associations among breast-feeding, maternal control of child feeding, and the dietary intake of toddlers during the second year of life. In particular, we sought to determine whether breast-feeding through the first year and ...
Spigset O - - 2000
The issue of prescription of analgesics during lactation is clinically important but also complex. Most of the information available is based on single dose or short term studies, and for many drugs only a single or a few case reports have been published. As great methodological problems exist in the ...
Dodd S - - 2000
For every antidepressant so far investigated in the breast milk of mothers prescribed these medications, findings indicate that some amount of drug will be excreted into the breast milk. Nursing infants will be exposed to some, usually a very low, amount of drug and drug metabolites. Levels of drug exposure ...
Corbett K S - - 2000
Unstructured interviews were conducted with 10 low-income black women to explore infant feeding style. Formula-feeding with early introduction of cereal in the bottle was the most common pattern used by mothers in the first 3 months. By 6 months, formula-fed infants had a complex diet of a variety of foods. ...
Kurugöl Z - - 2000
Chylous ascites is a rare disease in infancy. A two-month-old male infant was admitted to the Department of Pediatrics with chylous ascites. No cause was found throughout the investigation period. The baby recovered spontaneously through breast-feeding without any specific treatment and chylous ascites disappeared at the age of six months.
Misri S - - 2000
This article reviews the effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class of antidepressants in pregnant and lactating women for the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. An examination of the literature was conducted using Medline (1966 to present). Despite methodological concerns and the scarcity of data on this ...
Livingstone V H - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Hypernatremic dehydration in neonates is a potentially devastating condition. Recent reports have identified breast-feeding malnutrition as a key factor in its pathophysiology. METHODS: Using a theoretical framework for breast-feeding kinetics, a retrospective chart review of all neonates less than 28 days of age who were seen at either British ...
Bar-Oz B - - 2000
Progress in the diagnosis and management of seizure disorders and the availability of effective anticonvulsive medications has enabled increasing numbers of epileptic women of child-bearing age to raise families. Breast feeding, which these women may wish to choose, provides health, nutritional, immunological, developmental, social, economic and environmental benefits. The traditional ...
Villalpando S - - 2000
This study was designed to test whether breast-feeding protects infants reared in unfavorable environments from growth-stunting by averting acute infections. The body weight and length, feeding mode and morbidity of 170 healthy infants were assessed at 15-d intervals from birth to 6 mo. Birth weight and length were not different ...
Ravelli A C - - 2000
BACKGROUND: It is generally accepted that breast feeding has a beneficial effect on the health of infants and young children. Recently, a few studies have shown that the method of infant feeding is also associated with cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in adult life. AIMS: To examine the association ...
Dewailly E - - 2000
We investigated whether organochlorine exposure is associated with the incidence of infectious diseases in Inuit infants from Nunavik (Arctic Quebec, Canada). We compiled the number of infectious disease episodes during the first year of life for 98 breast-fed and 73 bottle-fed infants. Concentrations of organochlorines were measured in early breast ...
Tomkins A - - 2000
While being underweight or stunted is recognized as an important risk factor for increased prevalence and severity of infection and high mortality rates, there is increasing evidence for an independent role for micronutrient deficiency. Improving vitamin A status reduces mortality among older infants and young children and reduces pregnancy-related mortality; ...
Howard C - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of formula company-produced materials about infant feeding to breast-feeding promotion materials without formula advertising on breast-feeding initiation and duration. METHODS: Five hundred forty-seven pregnant women were randomized to receive either formula company (commercial; n = 277) or specially designed (research; n = 270) educational packs ...
Schmidt K - - 2000
BACKGROUND: During treatment of postpartum depression with antidepressant drugs, the mothers often strongly wish to continue breast-feeding although the long-term safety of exposing infants to low doses of antidepressants has not been established. METHODS: Citalopram in breast milk and in the serum of a nursing mother and her infant was ...
Haschke F - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends exclusive breast-feeding during the first 4 to 6 months of life, but limited information is available regarding the growth performance of infants fed according to the recommendation. The present study used data from the Euro-Growth study to determine the growth of breast-fed European ...
Freeman V - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Little detailed information is available on feeding practices of infants in Europe. The Euro-Growth Study is a longitudinal, observational, multicenter study of milk feeding, the introduction of complementary solid foods, and vitamin and mineral supplementation. Current practice is compared with international feeding recommendations. METHOD: Healthy term infants (n = ...
Ahiadeke C - - 2000
Using Demographic and Health Survey datasets from Ghana and Nigeria, this study examined whether the protective effects of breast-feeding are greatest where the poorest sanitation conditions prevail. It was found that mixed-fed infants aged between 0 and 11 months tend to have a higher risk of diarrhoea than fully breast-fed ...
Lake A M - - 2000
Food-induced eosinophilic proctocolitis appears in the first 2 months of life with blood-tinged stools. Aside from occasional apparent pain on defecation and a few infants with moderate eczema, systemic features are absent. Indeed, aside from the diaper, the infant is generally described as well. Thus, in contrast to the infant ...
Tényi T - - 2000
Many women with mental illnesses would like to breast feed their infants. In light of the limited but rapidly growing data, it seems that in some cases the possible physiological and psychological benefits may outweigh putative risks. All antipsychotics are secreted into breast milk but the concentrations and effects vary. ...
Wold A E AE Department of Clinical Immunology, Göteborg University, - - 2000
Human breast milk contains an array of factors with anti-infectious potential, such as immunoglobulins (especially secretory IgA), oligosaccharides and glycoproteins with anti-adhesive capacity, and cytokines. Breast-feeding is associated with protection from the following infections or infection-related conditions: gastroenteritis, upper and lower respiratory tract infection, acute otitis media, urinary tract infection, ...
Kind C C Ostschweizer Kinderspital, St. Gallen, - - 2000
It has been shown that altering hospital policies in a way to avoid interference of routine prescriptions with initiation of breast feeding and to provide active encouragement to mothers and personnel can result in significant benefit for later breast feeding success. It is less clear, however, which of the elements ...
Wilson A L AL School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, - - 2000
The Surgeon General's Year 2000 health goals for the nation are presented and data from South Dakota and the United States that measure progress toward achieving them are discussed. The percentage of low-birth weight babies (LBW) in South Dakota is lower than observed nationally, but, similar to the national trend, ...
Ng P C - - 1999
Five cases of moderately severe hypernatraemic dehydration were identified within a 5-month period between two regional hospitals in Hong Kong. Unlike previous reported cases, these exclusively breast-fed infants presented with the unusual triad of fever, absence of overt signs of dehydration and within the first week of life. Three of ...
Hasselbalch H - - 1999
We have previously shown that breast-fed infants have a considerably larger thymus at 4 months than formula-fed infants. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether breast-feeding also influences the thymic size in late infancy. In a cohort of 50 infants, all being partially breast-fed when recruited at ...
Li Y - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The promotion of breast-feeding is one of the essential interventions for reduction of infant mortality and improving infant development worldwide. The aim of the present study was to examine the current status of infant feeding and the influences of suspected family sociodemographic characteristics and social support as well as ...
Agostoni C - - 1999
AIM: To compare the growth patterns of breast fed and formula fed Italian infants in the first 12 months of life using World Health Organisation (WHO) reference data. METHODS: The growth patterns of 73 breast fed infants (36 male, 37 female) and 65 formula fed infants (35 male, 30 female) ...
Kwavnick B S - - 1999
Infant feeding guidelines regarding the introduction of solid foods are generally not well known in Canada. The guidelines recommend that solid foods be introduced between four to six months of age, depending on the developmental readiness of the infant. In order to understand the underlying factors and patterns which contribute ...
Turner N - - 1999
AIM: Significant changes have occurred in the way postnatal care is funded in New Zealand since July 1996. This study investigated three aspects of postnatal care: the uptake of the six-week check, the six-week immunisation and breast feeding rates. METHOD: A prospective prevalence survey of 504 mothers of newborn babies ...
Anderson J W - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Although the results of many clinical studies suggest that breast-fed children score higher on tests of cognitive function than do formula-fed children, some investigators have suggested that these differences are related to confounding covariables such as socioeconomic status or maternal education. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to conduct a meta-analysis ...
Donma M M - - 1999
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the impact of various feeding patterns on the physical growth and mental development of infants, particularly during the first 6 months of life, and to compare growth patterns of Turkish infants with those of infants living in various countries. METHODS: One hundred and seventy-two healthy newborn infants ...
Victora C G - - 1999
Acute respiratory infections are the leading cause of childhood death in developing countries. Current efforts at mortality control focus on case management and immunization, but other preventive strategies may have a broader and more sustainable effect. This review, commissioned by the World Health Organization, examines the relations between pneumonia and ...
Senanayake M P - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of exclusive breast feeding and the reasons for water supplementation, and investigate whether water is necessary in the humid climate of Colombo. SETTING: Well baby clinic in De Soysa Maternity Hospital for Women, Colombo. SUBJECTS: 200 breast fed infants born in a baby friendly hospital ...
Grönlund M M - - 1999
To evaluate the development of intestinal flora in young infants, and especially to estimate the influence of mode of delivery and type of feeding on the establishment of intestinal microflora, faecal flora was studied indirectly by measuring prospectively the faecal bacterial enzyme activities (beta-glucosidase, beta-glucuronidase and urease) in 29 full-term, ...
Baxter-Jones A D - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To identify environmental influences on infant growth using data from a birth cohort established in 1921. DESIGN: A longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Aberdeen 1921-22. SUBJECTS: Five hundred and sixteen individuals (263 boys and 253 girls) born in Aberdeen during 1921. Health visitor assessments ranged from two to 40 (47% ...
Heymann S J - - 1999
The rate of HIV transmission via breast-feeding ranges from 14% to 26%, depending on the timing of maternal infection. In settings where infant mortality rates from infectious diseases and malnutrition are low and relatively safe alternatives to breast-feeding are available, HIV-infected mothers should be advised not to breast-feed. Where breast-feeding ...
Babovic-Vuksanovic D - - 1999
Buccal smear analysis is a noninvasive, fast, and relatively inexpensive diagnostic method. It is used commonly where rapid gender identification is necessary or, more recently, for detection of aneusomy, microdeletion syndromes, and a variety of polymerase chain reaction-based molecular genetic tests. Previously we have shown that maternal cells can contaminate ...
Frey O R - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To report adverse effects in a newborn infant whose mother had been treated with doxepin during pregnancy and while breast-feeding. CASE SUMMARY: The nine-day-old white boy was admitted because of poor sucking and swallowing, with muscle hypotonia and vomiting. He was drowsy and had lost 150 g. At the ...
Kannan S - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To compare infant feeding practices of Anglo-American (AA) (n = 25) and Asian-Indian American (AIA) mothers (n = 25) residing in the southeastern United States. METHODS: Feeding practices (breast-feeding, formula-feeding, introduction of solid foods) were assessed at infant ages one, three, six, nine and twelve months for a total ...
Hokama T - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Haemophilus influenzae is the major cause of otitis media and lower respiratory tract infection in childhood. In the presence of human milk, which contains numerous host defense factors, Haemophilus influenzae may be inhibited in attaching to and colonizing pharyngeal cells. We investigated the incidence of H. influenzae in the ...
César J A - - 1999
To determine whether breast feeding protects infants against pneumonia and whether the protection varies with age. Nested case-control study. Pelotas, southern Brazil. Cases were 152 infants aged 28-364 days who had been admitted to hospital for pneumonia. Controls were 2391 cases in a population based case-control study. Odds ratio of ...
Roe B - - 1999
Theory suggests that the decision to return to employment after childbirth and the decision to breast-feed may be jointly determined. We estimate models of simultaneous equations for two different aspects of the relationship between maternal employment and breast-feeding using 1993-1994 data from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Infant Feeding ...
Sweet D G - - 1999
Early infant feeding after birth is being promoted, although it is unclear whether this has any effect on carbohydrate metabolism. We planned to measure the capillary glucose at one hour (1 h) of age in a group of infants from non-diabetic pregnancies using the HemoCue B-Glucose system to see if ...
Hawkes J S - - 1999
Breast milk contains many immunologically active components that influence the development of the immune system of the breast-fed infant. The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in specific lymphocyte subsets between breast-fed and formula-fed 6-mo-old infants. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 79 breast-fed (< 120 mL ...
Dewey K G - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The optimal age at which to introduce complementary foods is a topic of considerable debate. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate this issue in a nutritionally vulnerable population in Honduras. DESIGN: Mothers of low-birth-weight (1500-2500 g) term (ie, small-for-gestational-age) infants were recruited in the hospital and assisted with ...
Bronner Y L - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To compare infant feeding practices among low-income, urban, African-American women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) with current recommendations for infant feeding. DESIGN: Longitudinal follow-up of women and their infants who participated in a WIC-based breast-feeding promotion project. Women enrolled prenatally at ...
Chapman D J - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To identify infant feeding, socioeconomic, demographic, and delivery-related factors that affect women's self-reported timing of the onset of lactation. DESIGN: Longitudinal survey of women from day 1 postpartum until self-reported onset of lactation. Subjects were interviewed in person on day 1 postpartum, then surveyed daily by telephone regarding infant ...
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