Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 896
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Köhler E - - 2001
Urine specimens were collected from 75 pregnant women before childbirth and from their newborns within 48 postnatal hours. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to determine urinary nicotine and its metabolites, cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (OH-cotinine) to objectivise prenatal smoke exposure. Using the sum of nicotine metabolites as a ...
Rand G M - - 2001
An outdoor freshwater microcosm study was conducted in which pyridaben, an insecticide-miticide, was directly applied to water to determine its biological effects on phytoplankton and periphyton. Twenty-four microcosms (24 m3 each) were monitored for 11 months, then four treatments of pyridaben were applied two times at three concentrations (0.34, 3.4, ...
Pevalin D J - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: In this study we examine the factors that are associated with adverse birth outcomes using a representative national sample. In our analysis we take into account factors which are related to the mother's behaviour during pregnancy and also consider the socio-economic circumstances of the family. METHODS: A series of ...
Berger T - - 2001
The Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities developed the HTR-method for determination of absorbed dose and "averaged" linear energy transfer (LET) in mixed radiation fields. The method was applied with great success during several space missions (e.g. STS-60, STS-63, BION-10 and BION-11) and on space station MIR in the past 10 ...
Gaffney K F - - 2001
PURPOSE: To identify infant health outcomes that have been empirically associated with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in current international research literature. METHODS: Reports of infant ETS exposure, obtained using computerized searches of CINAHL and Medline databases, were reviewed. Studies of infant health outcomes published between 1995 and 2000 were ...
Ownby D R - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To learn whether cigarette smoking by persons other than parents significantly contributes to the passive environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure of infants. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort of infants prospectively followed up from birth to age 2 years with monthly questionnaires concerning smoking by different categories of adults coming into ...
Kaltenbach K - - 2000
Recent studies indicate a complex picture of the effects of maternal cocaine abuse with the majority of negative outcomes a result of dose response effects and cumulative risk factors. This paper reviews recent research within a historic perspective and provide an overview of current knowledge of perinatal outcomes, including neurobehavioral ...
Hahn M E - - 2000
Estimates are that as many as 44,000 humans are exposed to cocaine in utero per year. In this study we examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on one aspect of the mother-infant relationship in mice, infant ultrasonic calls. We mated C57BL/10J female mice with males of three different inbred ...
Carlin J B - - 2000
BACKGROUND: We report on inter-rater agreement in the assessment of newborn infants with respect to a range of minor physical features in a cohort study of the fetal effects of maternal anticonvulsant use during pregnancy. METHODS: Infants from three groups (exposed to anticonvulsants, seizure history but no medication exposure, and ...
Honein M A - - 2000
Although epidemiologic studies of some birth defects have suggested a gene-smoking interaction, the possibility of this interaction in clubfoot has not been examined. The authors analyzed risk factors among 346 infants with isolated clubfoot and 3,029 infants without defects from the Atlanta Birth Defects Case-Control Study. All infants were born ...
Hafström M - - 2000
Obstetric analgesia in the form of pethidine (meperidine) to mothers during delivery has adverse effects on some aspects of the behaviour of their newborn infants. The non-nutritive sucking (NNS) pattern of nine healthy full-term infants exposed to pethidine in utero was compared to that of a control group of infants. ...
Browne C A - - 2000
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is more prevalent in infants of smokers and may involve subtle alterations in autonomic control mechanisms. Autonomic function can be assessed using blood pressure responses to a passive head-up tilt and power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. This study aimed to determine if maternal ...
Matsubara F - - 2000
In order to examine the effect of maternal active and passive smoking on fetal growth, we carried out a population-based cohort study. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 15,207 women who notified their pregnancy from April, 1989 to March, 1991. A total of 7,411 mother-singleton infant pairs were analyzed in ...
Havlik D M - - 2000
This report describes a 10-month-old infant girl who died of cocaine poisoning. The infant was found apneic and in ventricular fibrillation after the parents summoned rescue personnel and claimed she had ingested rat poison. The parents later admitted that 2 hours before calling for assistance, the infant's 2-year-old brother was ...
Singer L T - - 2000
The present study investigated the neurobehavioral outcomes of fetal cocaine exposure. Attempts were made to control, by design or statistical analysis, for significant confounders. Timing and amount of drug exposures were considered, and biologic measures of exposure were quantified to classify exposure severity. One hundred sixty-one non-cocaine and 158 cocaine-exposed ...
Poole K A - - 2000
Maternal smoking is a major independent risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Respiratory control deficits have been implicated in SIDS. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that infants born to smoking mothers have reduced ventilatory responses to changes in inspired oxygen. Smoking and nonsmoking ...
Dollberg S - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether the absolute nucleated red blood cell (RBC) count is elevated in term, appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants born to women exposed to passive smoking in pregnancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We compared absolute nucleated RBC counts taken during the first 12 hours of life in 2 ...
Andres R L - - 2000
The use of tobacco products by pregnant women is associated with placenta previa, abruptio placentae, premature rupture of the membranes, preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction and sudden infant death syndrome. Approximately 15-20% of women smoke during pregnancy. It has been suggested that smoking is responsible for 15% of all preterm ...
Windham G C - - 2000
We examined the association of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke with birth weight and gestational age in a large, prospective study. We also compared these endpoints between infants of active maternal smokers and those of non-smoking, non-ETS exposed women. Pregnant women were interviewed by telephone during the first trimester, and ...
Källén K - - 2000
The Swedish health registries were used to investigate a possible effect of maternal smoking on the incidence of multiple malformations. Among 1413811 infants born in 1983-96 and with known smoking exposure in early pregnancy, 26619 with isolated malformations and 1409 with two or more malformations were selected. After controlling for ...
Dempsey D A - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Maternal cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and other factors confound studies of in utero cocaine exposure. Our goal was to determine whether in utero cocaine exposure is associated with an abnormal neurologic examination in infants, while controlling for concomitant cigarette smoke exposure and other confounding variables. DESIGN: Healthy newborns with ...
Wide K - - 2000
PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of maternal antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment on pregnancy duration, birth weight, body length, head circumference, and intrauterine growth in infants exposed in utero to antiepileptic drugs in Sweden between 1973-1997, with 963 singleton infants. METHODS: Data collected from (a) 1973-1981 (record linkage between a hospital ...
Källén K - - 2000
Using the Swedish Medical Birth Registry, information on 1,362,169 infants born during 1983-1996 was analyzed in order to investigate the relation between maternal smoking during pregnancy and infant head circumference at birth. Infants of smoking mothers were at an increased risk to have head circumference <32 cm, and the adjusted ...
Beratis N G - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether maternal smoking during pregnancy causes retinal abnormalities in the newborn. STUDY DESIGN: One hundred sixty-two neonates of smoking mothers and 162 matched neonates of nonsmoking mothers (112 appropriate for gestational age [AGA], 30 small for gestational age [SGA], 20 large for gestational age [LGA] in each ...
Young S - - 2000
In a prospective, longitudinal, population-based cohort study of familial and environmental influences on the development of wheezing respiratory illness in early childhood, we identified infant length, weight, gender, and exposure to maternal cigarette smoking as significant determinants of lung function during the first year of life. A cohort of 237 ...
Malhotra P - - 2000
The paper presents the application of the microenvironment approach for collection of time budget data to assess exposure of people to indoor air pollution. The aim of the study was to objectively test the hypothesis that exposure to pollutants from combustion of low-grade cooking fuels is a significant risk factor ...
Matt G E - - 2000
The reliability and validity of mother's reports of their infants' exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) were examined in an ethnically diverse sample of low-income, low-education families (N = 141 mothers). At baseline and posttest, smoking mothers reported about their infants' SHS exposure at different locations and by different sources during ...
Thyssen Van Beveren Toosje - - 2000
Studies on the long-term developmental effects of in utero cocaine exposure are few and the small number of studies published do not consider the postnatal environment. The present investigation was conducted to quantify the role that postnatal environment played compared to prenatal exposure. Four groups of 25 infants, each assessed ...
Hall R T - - 2000
The rate of prematurity in the United States has increased over the past 15 years despite a reduction in overall infant mortality and birth weight-specific mortality. The major factors contributing to premature birth exist before pregnancy and therefore will require intervention strategies in the pediatric patient. The high-risk factors include ...
Potter S M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Studies with animals have shown that in utero exposure to cocaine interferes with fetal brain development by disrupting the processes of neuronal proliferation, differentiation, and migration, often leading to subsequent neurobehavioral deficits. However, studies with humans have produced inconsistent findings. Although neurobehavioral abnormalities have been observed among cocaine-exposed infants ...
Kyei-Aboagye K - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To compare birth outcomes in incarcerated women with a recent history of drug use to those of nonincarcerated women in a methadone maintenance program. STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively analyzed pregnancy outcome in 149 women who delivered at full term between 1993 and 1996. Thirty-one patients incarcerated during pregnancy (group ...
Novotny W E - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Exposure to indoor fungus growth and tobacco smoke has been epidemiologically linked to unexplained pulmonary hemorrhage in infants. OBJECTIVE: To describe the 40-day-old male infant who had been exposed to fungi for a discrete 2-week period followed by acute exposure to environmental tobacco smoke prior to development of a ...
Lindley A A - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on infant body proportion. METHODS: The ponderal index, defined as birthweight divided by crown-heel length cubed, was examined in 207,607 infants from the Swedish Medical Birth Register for 1991 and 1992. RESULTS: Infant ponderal index was used as the ...
Tolcos M - - 2000
Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with a significantly increased risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). This study investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to carbon monoxide (CO), a major component of cigarette smoke, on the neuroglial and neurochemical development of the medulla in the fetal guinea pig. ...
Iwamoto L M - - 2000
Recently, meta-hydroxybenzoylecgonine (m-OH BE) was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy during quantitative analysis for cocaine. Identification of m-OH BE in addition to the routinely identified benzoylecgonine by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy confirmatory assays may increase detection of cocaine-exposed infants and decrease false negative results. However, it is not known whether m-OH ...
Shah N R - - 2000
We have attempted to quantify the most up-to-date estimate of the association between cigarette smoking by the mother and preterm delivery. Studies were selected for inclusion in this review if they were prospective, reported data stratified across at least two levels of maternal smoking, and defined preterm delivery on the ...
Kilbride H - - 2000
Gestational cocaine use is associated with serious pregnancy complications having fetal and neonatal implications. However, many cocaine-abusing women deliver uneventfully at term. The purpose of this study was to assess the neurodevelopmental outcome for term or near-term infants after prenatal cocaine exposure and to determine whether that outcome would be ...
Eriksson P - - 2000
An environmental mischance commonly occuring in nature is the combination of neonatal exposure and later adult exposure to various toxic substances. During neonatal life, offspring can be affected by toxic agents either by transfer via mother's milk or by direct exposure. In many mammalian species the perinatal period is characterized ...
Franco P - - 2000
To determine the influence of maternal smoking on autonomic nervous system in healthy infants, 36 infants were recorded polygraphically for one night. Their mothers were defined, according to their smoking frequency during pregnancy, as "nonsmokers" (no cigarettes smoked during pregnancy) or "smokers" (10 or more cigarettes per day). The infants ...
Clements H - - 2000
Any differences in detailed paediatric assessment at 9 months of age in infants exposed to echo planar MRI in utero from 20 weeks gestation to term were investigated by performing a case controlled prospective observational study of 20 infants. They had all had serial echo planar MRI in the antenatal ...
Lester B M - - 2000
The problem of cocaine use by pregnant women and the effects on the developing child has become major focus of research, treatment and public policy in the United States. The purpose of this article is to summarize our knowledge base in this area including methodological issues, discuss the drug exposed ...
Sowan N A - - 2000
It is well-documented that infants born to smoking mothers weigh less at birth than infants born to nonsmoking mothers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of prenatal smoking on the development of later infant obesity. Evidence suggests prenatally smoke-exposed infants catch up in weight by age ...
Scher M S - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the neurophysiologic effects of prenatal cocaine/crack use. The aim of this study, designed to overcome methodologic limitations of previous research, was to investigate the effects of prenatal cocaine use on electroencephalographic (EEG) sleep patterns, a marker of central nervous system development. METHODS: In a longitudinal ...
Keller R W RW - - 2000
Cocaine abuse is a significant problem not only in the general population but also among pregnant women. Since cocaine readily crosses the placenta and is metabolized slowly in fetuses, they can be exposed to significant levels of cocaine for long periods. In humans the most common consequences of cocaine abuse ...
Schuler M E - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of frequency of prenatal maternal cocaine use on infant neurobehavioral outcome beyond the immediate postpartum period, controlling for other substance use. METHODS: At 2 weeks postpartum, the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS) was administered to infants (N = 55) and their mothers were asked ...
Søvik S - - 1999
AIMS: To assess the effect of prenatal cigarette smoke exposure on the postnatal resetting of oxygen sensitivity in term infants. METHODS: 15 healthy term infants of smoking mothers (median 10 cigarettes/day) and 16 controls were studied during quiet sleep 1, 3, and 10 days and 10 weeks postnatally. Strain-gauge respiratory ...
Eades S J - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To describe sleeping position, room and bed-sharing, tobacco smoke exposure and infant feeding for a sample of Australian Aboriginal infants from a metropolitan area. METHODS: Interviews with Aboriginal mothers who resided in the Perth metropolitan area and had given birth during a continuous 15-month study period. The interviews took ...
McMurtrie C - - 1999
In the 1980s, there was virtually no drug treatment for pregnant women in New York City, especially women who used crack cocaine. The purpose of the Parent and Child Enrichment (PACE) demonstration project was to assess the effectiveness of the one-stop shopping model of drug treatment for this population. Among ...
Held J R - - 1999
A meta-analysis was performed of the research published from 1985 to 1998 examining the effect of in utero exposure to cocaine on infant neurobehavioral outcome. The initial search for articles to include in the meta-analysis identified 18 studies with potentially meta-analytic variables. Of the studies originally retrieved, 13 failed to ...
Golub A L - - 1999
This paper identifies three inner-city cohorts differing by birth year and preferred drugs that routinely passed through Manhattan's criminal justice system from 1987 through 1997: The Heroin Injection Generation born 1945-54, the Cocaine/Crack Generation born 1955-69, and the Blunts (marijuana plus tobacco) Generation born since 1970. The future prospects for ...
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