Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 896
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Bell John W - - 2002
This study analyzed 20,764 exposures involving insect repellants containing N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) that were reported to poison control centers from 1993 to 1997. Nearly 70% of the cases reported no symptoms related to the exposure. The occurrence of symptoms was related to the route of exposure, with the highest rates associated ...
Horne R S C - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether a history of maternal tobacco smoking affected the maturation of arousal responses and whether sleeping position and infant age alters these relations. DESIGN: Healthy term infants (13 born to mothers who did not smoke and 11 to mothers who smoked during pregnancy) were studied using daytime ...
Ostrea Enrique M J R - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to determine whether environmental pollutants, specifically lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As) and organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides can be detected in meconium. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, cohort study. Infants were randomly recruited from the nurseries of five hospitals in Manila, Philippines. Their stools (meconium) ...
Chapman M R - - 2002
The development of acquired resistance to cyathostome challenge after 1 season's exposure to a cyathostome-contaminated pasture was investigated using 17 parasite-naive ponies, which were 2-3 yr of age. These were divided into 3 groups: 1 to graze a cyathostome-contaminated pasture for 4 mo (exposed ponies), 1 to graze a "clean" ...
Johnson Arnise L - - 2002
The study objective was to evaluate the quality of parent-child interactions in preschool-aged children exposed prenatally to cocaine. African-American mothers and their full-term newborns (n = 343) were enrolled prospectively at birth and classified as either prenatally cocaine-exposed (n = 157) or non-cocaine-exposed (n = 186) on the basis of ...
Nordstrom-Klee Beth - - 2002
Reductions in birth weight and length have been independently attributed to prenatal exposure to alcohol, cigarettes and cocaine. While pregnant women often use multiple substances, studies have not consistently controlled for exposure to other agents or other important differences in maternal lifestyle associated with the use of these substances. Despite ...
Refuerzo Jerrie S - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine whether cocaine use increases neonatal morbidity in patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes. STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed records of pregnancies that were complicated with preterm premature rupture of membranes between 24 weeks to 34 weeks of gestation. Clinical characteristics and neonatal outcomes of ...
Dejmek Jan - - 2002
We studied the impact of maternal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on birth weight (BW), low birth weight (LBW), and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) according to self-reported maternal smoking habits in a sample of 6,866 singleton births. We obtained data about parental characteristics and maternal active smoking (AS) and ...
Shiffman Saul - - 2002
AIMS: To assess smoking cessation rates achieved with nicotine gum and patch in simulated over-the-counter (OTC) and actual prescription (Rx) settings. DESIGN: Separate open-label studies with gum and patch in OTC and Rx settings. PARTICIPANTS: There were multiple samples: OTC gum: 2981 smokers; OTC patch: 2367; Rx gum: 324; Rx ...
Behnke Marylou - - 2002
The theoretical framework for many of the early studies of prenatal cocaine exposure has been rooted in the basic concepts of teratology/developmental toxicology. Few have published longitudinal analyses of the complex interplay between the relative effects of prenatal cocaine exposure and perinatal and environmental factors on development. The purpose of ...
Singer Lynn T - - 2002
CONTEXT: Maternal use of cocaine during pregnancy remains a significant public health problem, particularly in urban areas of the United States and among women of low socioeconomic status. Few longitudinal studies have examined cocaine-exposed infants, however, and findings are contradictory because of methodologic limitations. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of ...
Adams E Kathleen - - 2002
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: Much of the work on estimating health care costs attributable to smoking has failed to capture the effects and related costs of smoking during pregnancy. The goal of this study is to use data on smoking behavior, birth outcomes and resource utilization to estimate neonatal costs attributable to ...
Savitz David A - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of cocaine exposure during pregnancy, using hair and urine assays and self-report, and the association with preterm birth. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted in a cohort of 2611 black and white women enrolled in prenatal care in central North Carolina. Cocaine exposure was ascertained ...
Singer Lynn T - - 2002
To assess teratogenic effects of cocaine exposure and maternal psychological distress on birth outcomes, we conducted a longitudinal prospective study of 415 infants (218 cocaine-exposed--CE, 197 nonexposed--NE). Drug exposure was determined through a combination of maternal self-report, urine, and meconium screens. Maternal psychological distress postpartum was evaluated through a standardized, ...
Blanck Heidi Michels - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Accidental contamination with polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) of the Michigan food supply in 1973 led to the exposure of more than 4000 individuals and to formation of the PBB cohort registry (1976-1979). At enrollment, measurements were taken of serum PBB and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), possible endocrine disrupting chemicals. METHODS: We ...
Ohmi Hiroki - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking during the third trimester reduces the birthweight of the full-term neonate. We assessed the relationship between the timing of exposure to maternal smoking, gestational period, weight and body length for both full-term and preterm neonates. METHODS: A retrospective study with a questionnaire was conducted in 1194 infants ...
Schroeder D R - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To describe smoking abstinence and fetal effects of pregnant smokers who received 8 weeks of nicotine patch therapy. METHODS: One-sample study of 21 pregnant women smoking > or = 15 cigarettes/day during their third trimester of pregnancy despite physician advice to stop. Nicotine patch therapy (22 mg/24 h) was ...
Wang Xiaobin - - 2002
CONTEXT: Little is known about genetic susceptibility to cigarette smoke in relation to adverse pregnancy outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the association between maternal cigarette smoking and infant birth weight differs by polymorphisms of 2 maternal metabolic genes: CYP1A1 and GSTT1. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Case-control study conducted in 1998-2000 ...
Pulley Keri R - - 2002
The American Academy of Pediatrics recently removed nicotine from the category of drugs contraindicated during breastfeeding. Little evidence demonstrates that infants exposed to nicotine through breastfeeding experience increased health risks beyond the airborne risks associated with passive smoking. The purpose of this longitudinal, five-week, quasi-experimental pilot study was to determine ...
Tislarić Dubravka - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of smoking and number of previous births on maternal serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein and free beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (free beta-hCG). METHODS: The study included 3,252 completed unaffected singleton pregnancies that proceeded beyond 37 weeks' gestation and resulted with a birth of healthy child. ...
Hall Graham L - - 2002
Tidal fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)) changes were investigated in healthy, unsedated infants with or without prenatal tobacco exposure. Tidal flow (V), FE(NO), and CO(2) were measured in 20 healthy, unsedated infants [age: 25-58 days, length: 56.5 +/- 2.5 (SE) cm]. NO output (VNO) was calculated (VNO = FE(NO) x ...
Bandstra E S - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to estimate the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on fetal growth and gestational age after controlling for exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana and other covariates; to evaluate whether prenatal cocaine exposure has a disproportionate adverse effect on head circumference compared with overall ...
Morrow C E - - 2001
This study investigated infant neurobehavioral functioning during the newborn period in 334 full-term, African American neonates (187 cocaine exposed, 147 non-cocaine exposed) enrolled prospectively at birth, with documentation of drug exposure status through maternal interview and urine and meconium toxicology assays. Infants were assessed using the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment ...
Mehta S K - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Infants born to cocaine-using mothers have a 3- to 8-fold increase in sudden infant death syndrome. Its underlying cause, in part, may be attributed to abnormal autonomic function. We proposed to study heart rate variability, reflecting autonomic control of the heart, in cocaine-exposed infants. METHODS: From 1997 to 2000, ...
Denson K W - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: Many studies have associated environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure with an increased risk for various diseases in infants and children, and although superficially the evidence is compelling, on closer scrutiny socioeconomic factors, especially diet, could have a greater contributory effect. An analysis of this evidence was made. RESULTS: Studies ...
Hand I L - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of intrauterine cocaine exposure on very low birth weight infants with respect to their surfactant requirement and need for ventilatory support. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on infants with birth weight between 750 and 1500 g admitted to the neonatal intensive ...
Eyler F D - - 2001
The literature on prenatal cocaine exposure is unclear whether immediate postpartum effects on the infant are transient, related to either acute toxicity of cocaine, or to a withdrawal effect as cocaine is metabolized, or whether they might persist. This prospective, longitudinal study was designed to test the hypotheses that newborns ...
Singer L T - - 2001
Fetal cocaine exposure may have differentially adverse effects on developmental outcomes of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. As part of a longitudinal study, 31 cocaine-positive very low birthweight infants, and age, race and socioeconomic status matched VLBW controls enrolled at birth were followed. Neonatal maternal-child interactions, concurrent maternal psychological characteristics ...
van Rooij I A - - 2001
The importance of maternal smoking in the pathogenesis of oral facial clefts is not clear. Susceptibility to cigarette smoke depends on biotransformation of the toxic compounds by mother and embryo. In a population-based case-control study, we investigated the effects of maternal smoking during the first pregnancy trimester and the interaction ...
Godfrey K - - 2001
Evidence is accumulating that intrauterine growth and development may influence an individual's risk of osteoporosis in later adult life. To examine maternal and paternal influences on intrauterine skeletal growth, we used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure the neonatal bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) of 145 infants ...
Goldstein A B - - 2001
Several studies have demonstrated that normal infants exhibit bronchoconstriction after inhalation of nonspecific agonists and that the induced airway narrowing can be reversed by the inhalation of a beta-agonist. However, there are very limited data on baseline airway tone and the airway response to a beta-agonist in this subject population. ...
Henderson A J - - 2001
In longitudinal cohort studies, the relationships between prenatal and postnatal tobacco smoke exposure and infant wheezing illnesses were compared in two geographically defined populations in Avon, UK and Brno and Znojmo in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic. Pregnant females living in defined regions and with expected dates ...
Tough S C - - 2001
This study examined the impact of infant and maternal factors on preterm delivery and low birthweight (LBW) in Alberta between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 1996. Data on 113,994 births were collected from vital statistics registration birth data. Logistic regression models for preterm and LBW delivery suggested the key ...
Johnson R E - - 2001
This open-label prospective study examined maternal and neonatal safety and efficacy outcome measures during and following prenatal buprenorphine exposure. Three opioid-dependent pregnant women received 8 or 12 mg sublingual buprenorphine tablets daily for 15-16 weeks prior to delivery. Results showed that buprenorphine in combination with comprehensive prenatal care was safe ...
England L J - - 2001
This study was undertaken to determine the relation between self-reported number of cigarettes smoked per day and urine cotinine concentration during pregnancy and to examine the relations between these two measures of tobacco exposure and birth weight. Data were obtained from the Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy project, conducted between 1987 ...
Singer L T - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether there is an association of level of fetal cocaine exposure to developmental precursors of speech-language skills at 1 year of age, after controlling for confounding factors. DESIGN: In a prospective, longitudinal, quasi-experimental, matched cohort design, 3 cocaine exposure groups were defined by maternal self-report and infant ...
Behnke M - - 2001
CONTEXT: The association between prenatal cocaine exposure and congenital anomalies is not definitive. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prenatal cocaine exposure results in an increased number or identifiable pattern of abnormalities. DESIGN: A prospective, longitudinal cohort enrolled between 1991 and 1993. SETTING: Rural public health population delivering at a regional tertiary ...
Källén B - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate delivery outcome in women who used drugs for migraine during pregnancy with special reference to sumatriptan. BACKGROUND: The safety of the use of drugs for migraine during pregnancy is not established. Design and METHODS: Using the Swedish Medical Birth Registry which contains information on drug use reported ...
Daly J B - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine: the prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among infants aged 0-12 months in two child health care settings; the accuracy of parent report indicators of exposure; and the factors associated with exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. METHOD: Samples of consecutive parents of infants 12 months of ...
Dumortier P - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: The high incidence of malignant mesothelioma in some villages of Cappadocia (Turkey) is due to environmental exposure to erionite fibres. The aim was to evaluate the fibre burden in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from inhabitants of an erionite village and compare it with Turkish subjects with or without environmental ...
Efroymson R A - - 2001
An ecological risk assessment framework for low-altitude aircraft overflights was developed, with special emphasis on military applications. The problem formulation and exposure analysis phases are presented in this article; an analysis of effects and risk characterization is presented in a companion article. The intent of this article is threefold: (1) ...
Gardella C - - 2001
Despite a steady decline in average blood lead levels in the U.S. population, approximately 0.5% of women of childbearing age may have blood levels exceeding 10 microg/dl. Strong correlations between maternal and umbilical cord blood lead levels demonstrate that lead is transferred from the mother to the fetus. High lead ...
Askin D F - - 2001
In North America, an increasing number of babies are prenatally exposed to cocaine, yet the implications of cocaine use during pregnancy are not fully understood. The effects of cocaine are exerted primarily by its influence on aminergic receptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Developmental, physiological, and behavioral problems ...
D'Apolito K - - 2001
The problem of licit and illicit drug use during pregnancy continues to be a major perinatal health issue in this country. It is estimated that 200,000 infants are born each year to women who used illegal drugs while they are pregnant. Much information is available regarding the physiologic and neurobehavioral ...
Nordeng H - - 2001
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a new group of antidepressants used in mild to moderate cases of depression. In studies evaluating the safety of SSRIs during pregnancy, no increase in major anomalies has been reported. This might have led to increasing off-label prescription of SSRIs to pregnant women. Neonatal ...
Smith L M - - 2001
PURPOSE: Prenatal cocaine exposure has been linked with subependymal hemorrhage and the formation of cysts that are detectable on cranial sonography in neonates born at term. We sought to determine if prenatal cocaine exposure increases the incidence of subependymal cysts in preterm infants. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records ...
Miller D P - - 2001
Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been linked to high costs. This study estimates the magnitude of excess costs attributable to smoking during pregnancy for mothers and infants. The model estimates smoking-attributable costs for 11 infant and maternal conditions. From a claims database of 7784 mothers and 7901 infants who had ...
Gennaro S - - 2001
Infants exposed to secondhand smoke, especially preterm infants with a very low birth weight (VLBW), have an increased risk for developing health problems. Smoking has been associated with numerous health problems in mothers and may reduce immune functioning as well. The purposes of this study were to examine smoking in ...
Lester B M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe drug use by pregnant women participating in the 4-site Maternal Lifestyle Study of in utero cocaine and/or opiate exposure. METHODS: Meconium specimens of 8527 newborns were analyzed by immunoassay with GC/MS confirmation for metabolites of cocaine, opiates, cannabinoids, amphetamines, and phencyclidine. ...
Ambalavanan N - - 2001
RATIONALE: Cigarette smoke exposure in the perinatal period increases the risk of various prenatal and postnatal complications, including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). We investigated the cellular effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in the developing vasculature. METHODS: Vascular smooth muscle cells ...
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