Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 896
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Hyppönen Elina - - 2003
To investigate the influences on birth weight of maternal smoking during pregnancy across generations. Intergenerational cohort study. Members of the 1958 birth cohort and their offspring and mothers. England, Scotland, and Wales. Birth weight. Information on grandmothers' smoking during pregnancy was available for 9028 singleton offspring of 4302 female cohort ...
Windsor Richard - - 2003
Active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and infancy is the most serious and preventable cause of adverse maternal, fetal, and infant outcomes in the United States. The multiple risks of tobacco exposure to mothers and infants are definitive, and the clinical and economic benefits of cessation have ...
Derauf Chris - - 2003
Reliance on self-reported use of tobacco and intake of ethanol during pregnancy is associated with a high probability of error. Use of biological markers, or biomarkers, potentially offers a more valid method to assess exposure. Although cotinine is an established biomarker for tobacco use, there is no established biomarker for ...
Stocks Janet - - 2003
While the adverse effects of parental smoking on respiratory health during childhood are well recognized, its potential impact on early lung development is less clear. This review summarizes current evidence on the effect of parental smoking on lung function during infancy. It is difficult to separate the effects of pre- ...
Crone M R - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Passive smoking is harmful to young children. A protocol has been developed to allow health care workers to communicate with parents about preventing passive smoking. The main message was to refrain from smoking in the presence of the child. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness ...
Arnold-Reed Diane E - - 2003
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between prior exposure to naltrexone and increased risk of fatal heroin overdose using a review of toxicology reports for heroin-related fatalities between July 1997 to August 1999 for two groups: those treated with oral naltrexone and those who were not ...
Hopenhayn Claudia - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Arsenic exposures from drinking water increase the risk of various cancers and noncancer health endpoints. Limited evidence suggests that arsenic may have adverse human reproductive effects. We investigated the association between drinking water arsenic exposure and fetal growth, as manifest in birth weight. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort ...
Blackburn Clare - - 2003
To examine parents' reported knowledge and use of harm reduction strategies to protect their infants from exposure to tobacco smoke in the home, and the relation between reported use of strategies and urinary cotinine to creatinine ratios in the infants. Cross sectional survey. Coventry and Birmingham. Parents' reported knowledge and ...
Vrijheid M - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Reported rises in the prevalence of hypospadias and other abnormalities of the male reproductive system may be a result of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. AIMS: To analyse the relation between risk of hypospadias and maternal occupation, particularly with regard to exposure to potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). METHODS: ...
Buchi Karen F - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the current prevalence of prenatal exposure to methamphetamines and other drugs of abuse among infants born in Utah and compare the results with those of a maternal substance abuse prevalence study performed in 1991 in the same geographic area. METHODS: Thirteen well baby nurseries in calendar year ...
Greene Carol M - - 2003
Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), a clinical condition that has been recognized for over 30 years, remains a significant clinical issue, although our knowledge of abstinence, its treatment, and outcome continues to grow. The condition is now complicated by polydrug use (which is becoming more prevalent) as well as concomitant use ...
Shankaran Seetha - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To examine utilization of health-care resources among mothers and infants following cocaine use during pregnancy. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Four clinical sites. PATIENTS/METHODS: Medical and social services resource use was examined among 8514 mother-infant dyads, 1072 of whom used cocaine and 7442 who did not. Use was stratified ...
Johnson Rolley E - - 2003
It is estimated that 55-94% of infants born to opioid-dependent mothers in US will show signs of opioid withdrawal. Buprenorphine has been reported to produce little or no autonomic signs or symptoms of opioid withdrawal following abrupt termination in adults. To date, there have been 21 published reports representing approximately ...
Hong Yun-Chul - - 2003
The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether genetic polymorphisms in enzymes that metabolize exogenous chemicals modulate the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on birth weight. A survey was conducted from 2000 to 2001 among 266 pregnant women who were hospitalized for delivery and on their singleton ...
Cervino J M - - 2003
Sodium cyanide (NaCN) is widely used for the capture of reef fish throughout Southeast Asia and causes extensive fish mortality, but the effect of NaCN on reef corals remains debated. To document the impact of cyanide exposure on corals, the species Acropora millepora, Goniopora sp., Favites abdita, Trachyphyllia geoffrio, Plerogyra ...
Galland B C - - 2003
Aim: To determine any variation in the respiratory responses to hypoxia/hypercapnia of infants born small for gestational age (SGA) to smoking and to non-smoking mothers. METHODS: A total of 70 average for gestational age (AGA) infants (>36 weeks gestation, >2500 g, >25th centile for gestational age, and no maternal smoking), ...
Ventura Stephanie J - - 2003
This study compares patterns of tobacco use during pregnancy over time and across population subgroups and examines the impact of maternal smoking on the incidence of low birth weight (LBW). The study also evaluates the use of birth certificates to monitor prenatal smoking. The birth certificates of all states (except ...
Roy Alec - - 2003
Alterations in stress responsivity may be important in the vulnerability to become cocaine dependent. Thus, an index of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function was examined in abstinent cocaine-dependent patients. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of corticotropin releasing factor (CRH) were determined in 29 abstinent cocaine-dependent patients and 66 normal controls. The results ...
Rashid Mumtaz - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: A prospective study to investigate the effect of passive smoking on birth weight of infants born to women at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: The study group comprised of 868 singleton live births occurring during January to December 2001 ...
Afzal M Nasir - - 2003
We report a case of 2 months old female (born to a cocaine abuser mother) having respiratory dysfunction attributed to pneumonia. Autopsy, following a sudden, unexpected death, revealed a double aortic arch which was compressing the trachea and the esophagus. Health care professionals should conduct a detailed cardiac assessment on ...
Malchodi Carolyn S - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a peer counseling intervention for pregnant smokers. METHODS: One hundred forty-two pregnant, predominantly Hispanic women were assigned to a peer-led smoking cessation program or to usual care. RESULTS: Compared with usual care, peer counseling reduced smoking (-9.1 versus -4.5 cigarettes daily, P =.03), but did not affect ...
Lester Barry M - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To study absolute and interpeak latencies of the auditory brain response in infants exposed to cocaine and/or opiates in utero.Study design The sample included 477 exposed and 554 comparison infants matched for race, sex, and gestational age. Mothers were recruited at 4 urban university-based centers; most were black, receiving ...
Blizzard Leigh - - 2003
We sought to quantify the effect of good smoking hygiene on infant risk of respiratory tract infection in the first 12 months of life. A cohort of 4486 infants in Tasmania, Australia, was followed from birth to 12 months of age for hospitalization with respiratory infection. Case ascertainment was 98.2%. ...
Chang Ho-Yuan - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: (1) To assess whether urinary N,N-dimethylformamide (U-DMF) is suitable as a biomarker when co-exposure to methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) exists, and to evaluate whether it is suitable as an exposure biomarker of DMF. (2) To examine whether the co-exposure to MEK affects the characteristics of U-NMF and U-DMF. (3) ...
Smith Lynne - - 2003
To determine fetal growth and the incidence of withdrawal symptoms in term infants exposed to methamphetamine in utero, we retrospectively identified neonates whose mothers used methamphetamine during pregnancy and matched them to unexposed newborns. Exclusion criteria included multiple and preterm gestations. Although there were no differences in infant growth parameters ...
Klein Laura Cousino - - 2003
Maternal cigarette smoking is a risk factor for adolescent smoking. One possible explanation for increased smoking by human adolescents after maternal nicotine exposure is that exposure increases nicotine preference. However, it is difficult to separate the biological and social causes of smoking behavior in humans. This experiment examined the relationship ...
Perera Frederica P - - 2003
Inner-city, minority populations are high-risk groups for adverse birth outcomes and also are more likely to be exposed to environmental contaminants, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and pesticides. In a sample of 263 nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women, we evaluated the effects on birth outcomes of ...
Gaffney Kathleen F - - 2003
A necessary prerequisite for reducing infant morbidity associated with passive smoking is effective measurement of this health risk factor. The purpose of this review was to evaluate questionnaires currently used in research to measure infant environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. Systematic searches were conducted using MEDLINE and CINAHL databases to ...
Berkowitz Gertrud S - - 2003
Evidence is growing that indoor pesticide exposure is of considerable magnitude in the United States and that pesticide concentrations may be especially high in urban areas. Of particular concern is exposure of pregnant women because animal data suggest that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and early life may impair neurodevelopment ...
Beeghly Marjorie - - 2003
The objective of this longitudinal prospective cohort study was to determine whether level of prenatal cocaine exposure, or the interaction between level of prenatal cocaine exposure and contextual risk variables, was associated with a higher rate of infant-caregiver insecure attachment and disorganized attachment, or with alterations in infant crying or ...
Newport D Jeffrey - - 2003
The literature on antidepressant use during pregnancy and lactation is replete with review articles and clinical decision algorithms. Remarkably, a limited number of such articles include the methodological advances that have served to define the extent of fetal and neonatal exposure to antidepressants. For this review, MEDLINE search for original ...
Zotti Marianne E - - 2003
In this study we examined trends within Mississippi in prenatal smoking and in the effects of such smoking on birthweight, preterm delivery, and infant mortality. The study was a retrospective cohort analysis of 120,429 singleton births in 1995-1997. We found that even though prenatal smoking is decreasing overall, it is ...
Johnson K - - 2003
Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is suffered by infants withdrawing from substances on which they have become physically dependent after in utero exposure. They may require prolonged treatment and spend weeks or even months in hospital. A wide range of drugs have been used to treat NAS. The efficacy of few, ...
Heynick Louis N - - 2003
Experimental studies that sought teratologic effects or developmental abnormalities from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RFEMF) in the range 3 kHz-300 GHz are critically reviewed for their possible consequences on human health. Those studies were conducted on beetles, birds, rodents, and nonhuman primates. Collectively, those experimental studies indicate that teratologic ...
Noland Julia S - - 2003
Executive functioning in cocaine/polydrug (marijuana, alcohol, tobacco) exposed infants was assessed in a single session, occurring between 9.5 and 12.5 months of age. In an A-not-B task, infants searched, after performance-adjusted delays, for an object hidden in a new location. Overall, the cocaine-exposed (CE) infants did not differ from non-CE ...
Schuetze Pamela - - 2003
The development of motor asymmetries was assessed in 20 infants who were prenatally exposed to cocaine and 23 comparison infants. Asymmetries in stepping, grasping, and head orientation were assessed at 1 month of age. As expected based on the findings of previous research with high-risk infants, infants who were prenatally ...
Zadrozna Monika - - 2003
This study examined morphochemical differences between 49 full term human placentas collected from healthy non-smoking women living in the high polluted region, i.e. the Copper Mining Territory (CMT) and the 38 control placentas (C) obtained from little polluted eastern Carpathian regions. The placentas were studied by histochemical, immunohistochemical and morphometric ...
Cambell Shelly - - 2003
Illegal drug use throughout the nation is a problem of epidemic proportion. Of particular concern is drug use among pregnant women. In most cases, these women have little hope of achieving a better life for themselves or their children. Illegal drugs, cocaine in particular, can have devastating effects on the ...
Elliot John G - - 2003
The harmful effects of in utero cigarette smoke exposure include increased asthma symptoms and reduced lung function during the neonatal period, increased airway responsiveness to inhaled stimuli, and an increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome. Altered lung function may result from altered airway/lung structure. Airway dimensions, alveolar attachment points, ...
Mehta Sudhir Ken - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects autonomic control of the heart. After intrauterine cocaine exposure, asymptomatic newborn infants within 72 hours of life have decreased HRV. It is unknown whether these alterations are transient (acute effect) or persist in older infants and possibly reflect a teratogenic effect of cocaine. METHODS: ...
Frank Deborah A - - 2002
The objectives of this study were 1) to assess whether there is an independent association between the level of prenatal cocaine exposure and infants' developmental test scores after control of potential confounding variables; and 2) if such an association exists, to determine which biological and social variables, individually and in ...
Kelmanson I A - - 2002
The study aimed to assess potential relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and behavioural characteristics in 2 - 4-month-old infants. It covered period from 1999 to 2000 and comprised 250 randomly selected, apparently healthy singleton born infants from community setting (129 boys, 121 girls). The mothers were asked to complete ...
Bada Henrietta S - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effects of cocaine exposure on intrauterine growth and to investigate at what point in gestation growth deviation would be manifested. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of data from a multicenter project, the Maternal Lifestyle Study, designed to determine infant outcomes of in utero cocaine or ...
Mehta Sudhir Ken - - 2002
BACKGROUND: During the first 48 hours of life, newborn infants exposed to cocaine in utero have left ventricular diastolic segmental abnormalities. It is unknown whether these abnormalities are transient because of short-term effects or persist in older infants, possibly reflecting a teratogenic effect of cocaine. METHODS: This study prospectively evaluated ...
Habek Dubravko - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate perinatal outcome in newborns of mothers who are smokers. METHODS: The study included 87 pregnant women with a single pregnancy in the cephalic position, 64 of them nonsmokers (group 1), 13 who smoked 5-20 cigarettes per day (group 2) and 10 ...
Costei Adriana Moldovan - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Paroxetine hydrochloride is commonly used for maternal depression, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The drug readily crosses the human placenta. Although it does not appear to increase teratogenic risk, there have been case reports of neonatal withdrawal. Symptoms were described soon after birth and lasted up to 1 month. ...
Stepans Mary Beth Flanders - - 2002
The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how Neuman's systems model can be applied to nursing practice and research through the examination of the problem of infant exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. By operationalizing Neuman's framework, it was possible to develop a research-based theory investigating the interaction between the ...
Secker-Walker Roger H - - 2002
During pregnancy, a reduction of 50% or more of a biochemical measure of smoking, among continuing smokers, has been proposed by Windsor and colleagues as a new behavioral indicator of harm reduction because it was accompanied by greater infant birth weight compared with that of infants of smokers with lesser ...
Mehta Sudhir Ken - - 2002
BACKGROUND: In adults, heart rate variability triangular index (HRVi) is a highly reproducible measure of heart rate variability (HRV), which makes it more suitable for use in longitudinal studies. Although normative data have been published for newborns, studies in infants with pathological conditions are lacking. METHODS: From 1997 to 2000, ...
Berlanga María del Rocio Mdel - - 2002
The influence of maternal smoking the nutrient content of breastmilk and impact on infant longitudinal growth rate is unknown. From birth, 23 smoking (S), (7.1 +/- 4.4 cigarettes/day) and 23 non-smoking (NS) mother-infant pairs were followed. The breastmilk volume by deuterium dilution, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe) in ...
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