Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 896
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Light Kathleen C - - 2004
In animals, oxytocin enhances maternal behavior and lowers blood pressure (BP) and negative affect, while parturitional cocaine disrupts oxytocin activity and increases maternal neglect and aggression. Thus, we compared oxytocin, BP, maternal behavior, and affect in mothers of infants who used cocaine (cocaine, n = 10) or did not (no ...
Tepper Robert S - - 2005
Parental tobacco smoking is associated with lower airway function and an increased incidence of wheezy respiratory illnesses in infants. We evaluated in 76 healthy infants whether exposure to parental tobacco smoking was associated with airway hyperreactivity, which could contribute to lower airway function and the increased wheezy illnesses. Airway function ...
- - 2004
Cigarette smoking during pregnancy adversely affects the health of both mother and child. The risk for adverse maternal conditions (e.g., premature rupture of membranes, abruptio placentae, and placenta previa) and poor pregnancy outcomes (e.g., neonatal mortality and stillbirth, preterm delivery, and sudden infant death syndrome) is increased by maternal smoking. ...
Gewolb Ira H - - 2004
To delineate quantitatively differences in suck-swallow-respiration coordination during feeding in term infants exposed to drugs in utero, 16 control infants (10 females, six males; mean birthweight 3209g, standard error of the mean [SEM] 103g) and 15 drug-exposed infants (seven females, eight males; seven cocaine, eight opiates; neonatal abstinence [Finnegan] scores ...
Choo Robin E - - 2004
Maternal tobacco consumption during pregnancy has been associated with lower birth weight infants, preterm births, intrauterine growth retardation, smaller head circumference and increase in morbidity, yet few studies have examined the role tobacco has on the opiate neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). This study examined the effect of prenatal tobacco exposure ...
Pourcyrous Massroor - - 2004
Maternal cocaine abuse may increase the incidence of perinatal asphyxia. In nonexposed asphyxiated neonates, decreased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cAMP concentrations are associated with poor neurological outcome. On the other hand, cocaine increases central nervous system (CNS) cAMP. Therefore, we hypothesized that in utero cocaine exposure may increase brain cAMP and ...
Vogt Isaksen Christina - - 2004
Pregnant women who smoke are at greater risk of delivering a growth-restricted infant than nonsmoking mothers. We wanted to see if apoptosis could be involved in the mechanisms behind smoke-induced growth restriction, and our aim was to compare apoptosis in the placenta of smoking mothers giving birth to growth-restricted infants ...
Blackburn C M - - 2005
This study examines mothers' and fathers' smoking patterns in different kinds of smoking households, and assesses their relative contribution to infants' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. It uses data from a cross-sectional survey of 314 smoking households (infants: mean age 10 weeks) in Coventry and Birmingham, England, examining reported tobacco ...
Hajnal Beatrice Latal - - 2004
The aim of this study was to assess the association between cocaine or cigarette smoke exposure in utero and visual outcome. A total of 153 healthy infants (89 males, 64 females; gestational age range 34 to 42 weeks) were prospectively enrolled in a masked, race-matched study. Quantitative analyses of urine ...
Shankaran Seetha - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of patterns of drug use during term pregnancy on infant growth parameters at birth. METHODS: Histories of cocaine, opiate, alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use during the 3-month period before pregnancy and the 3 trimesters of pregnancy were recorded at the infants' 1-month visit. Patterns of ...
Gonnelli S - - 2004
Quantitative ultrasound (QUS), although widely used in adults has, so far, been scarcely employed in newborn infants and children. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of the use of QUS in newborn children and the factors influencing QUS parameters. In 140 consecutive healthy full-term newborn babies (76 male and ...
Rose Rebecca M - - 2004
Many anthropogenic pollutants are present in aquatic systems for extended periods of time. Populations in the field may be exposed to toxicants for several generations, which may affect their sensitivity to toxicants. Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia mass cultures were maintained for four generations in various concentrations of 3,4-dichoroaniline (0, 2.5, 5, ...
Kranz Brenda D - - 2004
Understanding the routes of lead exposure in a very young infant is an essential precursor to identifying effective strategies for minimizing blood-lead (PbB) levels throughout infancy. The present study integrated observational data, lead-loading data, and household airborne particulate levels <10 microm (PM(10)) to understand the broad patterns of lead exposure ...
Leung Gabriel M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Recognizing the suboptimal public health effects of a complete cessation strategy for parents and child caregivers who smoke, some researchers have called for a harm reduction approach; however, the evidence remains scanty and controversial. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of secondhand smoke and smoking hygiene on infant health and ...
Messinger Daniel S - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure and prenatal opiate exposure on infant mental, motor, and behavioral outcomes longitudinally between 1 and 3 years old. METHODS: As part of a prospective, longitudinal, multisite study, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II were administered to 1227 infants who ...
Dahlström A - - 2004
AIM: To study exposure to nicotine in breastfed infants in relation to parental smoking habits. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty mother-infant pairs were studied. Twenty non-smoking mothers, 18 smoking (2-20 cigarettes per day) and two snuff-taking mothers were included. All infants were healthy, exclusively breastfed and their postnatal age was 6 ...
Nakamura Mary Uchiyama - - 2004
CONTEXT: Cigarette smoke, whether inhaled voluntarily or not, causes damage to the mother-infant pair. The antenatal period may present the best opportunity for performing effective anti-smoking campaigns. OBJECTIVE: To study the obstetric and perinatal effects of smoking on pregnancy and the infant. TYPE OF STUDY: Prospective study, interviewing pregnant women ...
Neu Natalie - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of maternal hard drug use (injection drugs, cocaine, and opiates) on lymphocyte subsets and clinical morbidity in uninfected infants who are born to human immunodeficiency virus-infected mothers who were enrolled in the Women and Infants Transmission Study (1990-2000). METHODS: Maternal hard drug use was identified ...
Melvin Cathy L - - 2004
North Carolina faces major challenges in dealing with smoking and its consequences during pregnancy and infancy. Evidence-based strategies exist to help pregnant and parenting smokers to quit, to discourage young people from becoming smokers and to reduce exposure of infants to SHS. North Carolina is making progress in implementing these ...
Albrecht Susan A - - 2004
To review the literature addressing smoking cessation in pregnant women. To develop the project protocol for the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurse's (AWHONN) 6th research-based practice project titled "Setting Universal Cessation Counseling, Education and Screening Standards (SUCCESS): Nursing Care of Pregnant Women Who Smoke." To evaluate the ...
Parsiow Peter M - - 2004
Our aim was to determine whether maternal cigarette smoking affects arousal and ventilatory responses to hypoxia in infants. Infants born to non-smoking (NS, n = 15) and smoking mothers (SM, n= 9) were studied at 2-5 weeks, 2-3 and 5-6 months. Ventilatory responses to 15% O(2) were determined preceding arousal. ...
Frey Urs - - 2004
In a prospective healthy birth cohort, we determined whether levels of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) in healthy unselected infants at the age of 1 month were associated with maternal atopic disease and prenatal and early postnatal environmental exposures. Tidal eNO was measured in 98 healthy, unsedated infants (35 from mothers ...
Ogunyemi D - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factors and evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with antenatal cocaine use. METHODS: This was a retrospective case-control study of 200 cocaine-exposed maternal-neonatal pairs and 200 controls from 1991 to 2000. RESULTS: Cocaine-using mothers tended to be older, African American, multiparous and incarcerated and they ...
Bottini N - - 2004
The recent observation that maternal ACP1 genotype has an interactive effect with smoking on intrauterine development prompted us to search for a possible interaction effect between smoking and ACP1 genotype on haptoglobin (Hp) development in the neonatal period. ACP1 is a highly polymorphic protein tyrosine phosphatase involved in signal transduction ...
Tronick E Z - - 2004
This study examined the effects of intrauterine cocaine exposure on the reaches of 19 exposed and 15 unexposed infants at 7 and 15 months using kinematic measures. Infants sat at a table and reached for a rattle, a toy doll, and a chair. Videotaped reaches were digitized using the Peak ...
Källén Bengt - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Exposure to antidepressants during the third trimester of pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk for adverse birth outcomes, including preterm birth, respiratory distress, and hypoglycemia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate neonatal outcomes in 997 infants (987 mothers) after maternal use of antidepressants based on prospectively recorded information in antenatal ...
Perera Frederica P - - 2004
Inner-city, minority populations are high-risk groups for adverse birth outcomes and also are more likely to be exposed to environmental contaminants, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in urban air. In a sample of nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women, we evaluated the ...
Chomchai Chulathida - - 2004
To ascertain the impact of intrauterine methamphetamine exposure on the overall health of newborn infants at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, birth records of somatic growth parameters and neonatal withdrawal symptoms of 47 infants born to methamphetamine-abusing women during January 2001 to December 2001 were compared to 49 newborns whose mothers ...
Wardman A E - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: First Nations (FN) people have high smoking rates and there is a need to examine their mortality related to smoking. METHODS: Smoking-attributable fractions and smoking-attributable mortality (SAM) rates were calculated for the FN and British Columbia (BC) populations during 1997 and 2001. RESULTS: Among FN adults, total age- and ...
Matt G E - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To examine (1) whether dust and surfaces in households of smokers are contaminated with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS); (2) whether smoking parents can protect their infants by smoking outside and away from the infant; and (3) whether contaminated dust, surfaces, and air contribute to ETS exposure in infants. DESIGN: ...
Oberlander Tim F - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs) and benzodiazepines are frequently used to treat maternal depression and anxiety disorders during pregnancy. Recent reports suggest that prenatal SSRI exposure is associated with a neonatal discontinuation syndrome. It remains unclear whether these symptoms are directly related to SSRI exposure alone or are ...
Kim Sung-Ho - - 2004
In order to evaluate the importance of gestational age in possible effects due to exposure to a 20 kHz sawtooth magnetic field, pregnant ICR mice at gestational 2.5-15.5 days post-coitus, which is the most sensitive stage for the induction of major congenital malformations, were exposed in a carrousel irradiator. The ...
Tan-Laxa Mary Anne - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine the auditory brainstem response (ABR) patterns in infants with prenatal cocaine exposure as detected by meconium analysis. METHODS: Meconium drug analysis was done on term infants who were at risk for antenatal illicit drug exposure. Infants who tested positive for cocaine served as the exposed group; those ...
Watterberg Kristi L - - 2004
Under normal circumstances, the fetus is exposed to very low concentrations of cortisol until late in gestation. Perturbations of the intra-uterine environment resulting in fetal exposure to increased cortisol may have consequences not only in infancy, but also into adult life. In the postnatal period, developmental immaturity and/or the effects ...
Gershan William M - - 2004
Prenatal and postnatal exposure to cigarette smoke is associated with an increased incidence of the sudden infant death syndrome, although the cause(s) for this is unknown. Tobacco glycoprotein (TGP), a group of proteins purified from cured tobacco leaves and present in cigarette smoke, have been shown to cause anaphylaxis in ...
Stark Charlotte J - - 2004
Infants exposed to the components of cigarette smoke in utero are at an increased risk for perinatal death, low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, and premature delivery. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare blood pressure values in term low-birth weight infants (</=2500 grams) born to smoking ...
Ermis Bahri - - 2004
This cohort study investigated postnatal serum malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels in 14 active-smoking, 14 passive-smoking, and 15 non-smoking mothers and their newborns on day 7 post-partum. No significant differences were noted among the study groups with respect to MDA (p = 0.63) or SOD ...
Bjørke Monsen Anne-Lise - - 2004
Hematological parameters, serum cobalamin and folate levels, and the concentrations of the functional markers plasma methylmalonic acid and total homocysteine were determined in 173 newborns and 46 infants at 6 weeks to see whether maternal smoking influences the hematological parameters and the vitamin status of the newborn. At birth, there ...
Laurberg Peter - - 2004
Lack of iodine for thyroid hormone formation during the fetal stage and/or the first years of life may lead to developmental brain damage. During the period of breastfeeding, thyroid function of the infant depends on iodine in maternal milk. We studied healthy, pregnant women admitted for delivery and their newborn ...
He Na - - 2004
In spite of significant efforts, the neurobehavioral deficits in infants born from cocaine-abusing mothers have not been clearly defined. In the present study, we examined the presence of these abnormalities in a rhesus monkey model of prenatal cocaine exposure using a nonhuman primate adaptation of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale ...
Bandstra Emmalee S - - 2004
The current study estimates the longitudinal effects of severity of prenatal cocaine exposure on language functioning in an urban sample of full-term African-American children (200 cocaine-exposed, 176 noncocaine-exposed) through age 7 years. The Miami Prenatal Cocaine Study sample was enrolled prospectively at birth, with documentation of prenatal drug exposure status ...
Ermis Bahri B Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Kozlu, Zonguldak, Turkey. - - 2004
To investigate the serum and milk in active-smoking and nonsmoking mothers, and their infants' insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels. A cohort study conducted at a tertiary medical center. Forty-four mothers (age range: 21-34 years) and their newborns (7 days old) were enrolled in ...
Sawnani Hemant - - 2004
Prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke is associated with an increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome. The effect of maternal smoking on apnea and arousal patterns in preterm infants is currently unknown. Multichannel polysomnographic studies were performed in preterm infants. Thirty infants were enrolled into the study: 16 exposed prenatally ...
Salihu Hamisu M - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were: 1) To determine the risk of infant mortality associated with prenatal cigarette smoking; 2) To assess whether the relationship, if existent, was dose-dependent; 3) To explore the morbidity pathway that explains the effect of tobacco smoke on infant mortality, and 4) to compute ...
Lyon Helen M - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The characteristics of the phenotype of the malformed phenytoin-exposed infant can help to clarify the mechanism of the drug's teratogenesis. One postulated mechanism is vascular disruption. CASE: An infant who was exposed to phenytoin as monotherapy throughout pregnancy was born with the following abnormalities: midface hypoplasia, digit hypoplasia with ...
Myers Barbara J - - 2003
Drug-exposed infants did not differ from nonexposed infants on Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) clusters or on birth characteristics. Infants (n = 137) born to three groups of low-income mothers--cocaine and poly-drug-using mothers in a drug user treatment group (n = 76) and in a treatment rejecter group (n = ...
Ilett Kenneth F - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the extent of exposure to nicotine and cotinine in breast-fed infants during maternal smoking and later during maternal use of the nicotine transdermal patch to achieve smoking cessation. METHODS: Fifteen lactating women (mean age, 32 years; mean weight, 72 kg) who were smokers (mean ...
Magrini A - - 2003
We investigated the possible effects of placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) genotype on the deleterious action of maternal smoke on intrauterine survival and birthweight. PLAP is a highly polymorphic enzyme with several alleles associated with different enzymatic activities. PLAP is produced by the embryo and is found in maternal blood, where ...
García-Algar Oscar - - 2003
Sources and concentrations of indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were examined in Barcelona, Spain, during 1996-1999. A total of 340 dwellings of infants participating in a hospital-based cohort study were selected from different areas of the city. Passive filter badges were used for indoor NO2 measurement over 7-30 days. Dwelling inhabitants ...
Geoffroy L - - 2003
The effect of oxyfluorfen was investigated when alga Scenedesmus obliquus has been exposed to different concentrations (7.5, 15, and 22.5 microg x L(-1)) at 12, 24, and 48 hours of exposure. Toxicity test was done by using 13 biomarkers concerning growth rate, chlorophyll content and indicators of photosynthetic and antioxidant ...
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