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Results 151 - 200 of 896
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Rickert W S - - 2007
Toxicological data are an important aspect of tobacco product characterization. In this study, TPM (Total Particulate Matter) (three replicates) was collected from cigarettes [five brands, ISO conditions: puff volume, 35 mL; duration, 2s; interval, 60s (35/2/60)], cigars (two brands, 45/2/30), cigarillos (two brands, 35/2/60), bidis (two brands, 45/2/30), and pipe ...
Wang Lei - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with an increased incidence of allergic and infectious diseases among children that is thought to be partly due to the immaturity of the immune system. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the effects of ETS exposure on immune development during the first ...
Sun An-Pyng - - 2007
This study explores factors related to drug-exposed infants' case substantiation and subsequent child maltreatment. Child protective services computerized administrative data (from January 1998 to October 2001) were obtained from an urban Nevada county. The data included 457 drug-exposed infant cases. Chi-square, t-test, one-way ANOVA, and logistic regression were used to ...
Schuetze Pamela P Department of Psychology, State University of New York College at Buffalo State College, Buffalo, NY, USA. - - 2007
This study examined the association between prenatal exposure to cocaine and autonomic regulation at 7 months of age. Heart rate (HR) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were obtained from 154 (79 exposed, and 75 nonexposed) infants during baseline and tasks designed to elicit positive and negative affect. Cocaine-exposed infants had ...
García-Algar Oscar - - 2007
AIM: The incidence of infections during the first 18 months of life was investigated in 36 infants prenatally exposed to cocaine and in 72 non-exposed controls from Barcelona, Spain. METHODS: Fetal exposure to cocaine was ascertained by meconium analysis, infections by structured questionnaire. RESULTS: A higher incidence of infections, if ...
Noakes Paul S - - 2007
Cigarette smoke is a major source of free radicals and oxidative stress. With a significant proportion of women still smoking during pregnancy, this common and avoidable exposure has the potential to influence infant oxidative status, which is implicated in the increased propensity for airway inflammation and asthma. The aim of ...
Cuijpers CEJ
This report describes the evaluation of the time trend by means of PBPK modelling, and the associated health effects of pre- and postnatal exposure of infants to dioxins, furans and PCBs. Using PBPK modelling there was an expected decrease of ca. 20% in dioxin levels in human milk shown for ...
Noakes Paul - - 2007
With the dramatic rise in asthma and respiratory disease, there is an urgent need to determine the effects of common environmental exposures on early immune development. In this study, we examined the effects of maternal smoking as a major adverse exposure in early life, on mucosal immune function and allergen ...
Romantshik O - - 2007
AIM: To test the hypothesis that a brief window of time immediately after delivery may be a particularly sensitive period for olfactory learning by human neonates. METHODS: Fifty-five vaginally delivered newborns were exposed to an odorant for 30 min beginning 4-37 min after birth (Early exposure) or 12-h post-partum (Late ...
Kuschel Carl - - 2007
The management of the infant exposed to drugs in utero poses significant challenges. Symptoms and signs of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) are non-specific but most commonly associated with withdrawal from maternal opioids. A high index of suspicion is required when presented with an infant who could be manifesting symptoms of ...
Bajanowski T - - 2008
The aim of this component of the German Study on Sudden Infant Death was to determine (1) nicotine concentrations in hair (NCH), as a marker of long standing exposure to tobacco, (2) cotinine concentrations in pericardial fluid (CCP) and (3) cotinine concentrations in liquor cerebrospinalis (CCL), the latter measures being ...
Mansi Giuseppina - - 2007
Altered behavior due to prenatal smoke exposure was examined in 25 neonates born from smoking mothers who consumed at least 5 cigarettes/d during the entire gestation. Data were compared with 25 matched neonates born from nonsmoking mothers. Neonatal behavior was evaluated using the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS). Antenatal ...
John Vijay - - 2007
We investigated the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in the presence of orthostatic stress among near- and full-term neonates. PCE infants (n = 21) and controls (n = 23) were enrolled within 120 h of birth. ECG was recorded for ...
Nagayama Junya - - 2007
Effects of perinatal exposure to dioxins, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides on lymphocyte subsets were investigated in the peripheral blood from 101 Japanese infants with approximately 10 months of age. Perinatal exposure to these organochlorine compounds were estimated by their contamination levels in the breast milk of the mothers. Lymphocyte subsets ...
Gunes Tamer - - 2007
Epidemiological studies have reported associations between a range of cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking and intima-media thickness (IMT). Some reports indicate that the maternal tobacco smoking causes disturbances of the endocrine status of the foetus. There are several potential mechanisms by which insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) could modify ...
Maier, A.
In the weeks following the start of weaning, 70 mothers were asked to identify a vegetable purée that their infant disliked and that they normally would not offer again. The 49 who did so were then asked to offer that vegetable on alternate days for 16 days, and to offer ...
Mühlhäusler B S - - 2007
The concept of a functional foetal "appetite regulatory neural network" is a new and potentially critical one. There is a growing body of evidence showing that the nutritional environment to which the foetus is exposed during prenatal and perinatal development has long-term consequences for the function of the appetite-regulating neural ...
Erick-Peleti Stephanie - - 2007
AIM: To describe the association between cigarette smoking and maternal factors amongst a cohort of Pacific mothers. METHOD: Mothers of a cohort of 1398 Pacific infants born in Middlemore Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand during 2000 were interviewed when their infants were 6 weeks old (n=1376) and followed up at 12 ...
Sørensen M - - 2007
Non-invasive biomonitoring of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) by means of hair is attractive in children, although systematic evaluation is required in infants. The objective was to compare nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair and plasma and parentally reported exposure to ETS in a birth cohort of 411 infants. ...
Weselak M - - 2007
Since the advent of DDT as an insecticide in the late 1930s, billions of kilograms of pesticide active ingredient have been sold in North America and around the world. In recent years, there has been a heightened public awareness of pesticides and child health and a number of epidemiologic studies ...
Ward Corinne - - 2007
Meta-analyses of studies investigating the impact of maternal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on birth weight have not produced robust findings. Although, ante natal ETS exposure probably reduces infant's birth weights, the scale of this exposure remains unknown. We conducted a large, cohort study to assess the impact of ETS exposure ...
Daly Kathleen A - - 2007
We examined relationships between otitis media risk factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and maternal knowledge and attitudes and early onset of otitis media. Pregnant women from Minnesota American Indian reservations and an urban clinic were enrolled in our study between 1998 and 2001. Follow-up was performed on enrollees' infants until the children ...
Salisbury Amy L AL Brown Medical School, Providence, RI, USA. - - 2007
The present study examined the impact of both perinatal maternal depression and cocaine use on infant neurobehavior at 1 month of age in a large, multi-site study. Infant neurobehavior was examined in 1053 infants at 1 month of age using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS). Mothers were interviewed using ...
Chiriboga Claudia A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In experimental models, prenatal cocaine exposure has been found to perturb monoaminergic development. In humans, numerous studies have sought clinical correlates, but few have focused on dose-related effects, especially as regards neurologic function beyond the neonatal period. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether prenatal cocaine exposure has adverse effects on infant ...
de Moraes Barros Marina Carvalho - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To assess the neurobehavior of full-term neonates of adolescent mothers exposed to marijuana during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective cross-sectional study included full-term infants within 24 to 72 hours of life born to adolescent mothers at a single center in Brazil. Data on sociodemographic and obstetrical and neonatal characteristics ...
Key Alexandra P F - - 2007
Tobacco smoking during pregnancy is known to adversely affect development of the central nervous system in babies of smoking mothers by restricting utero-placental blood flow and the amount of oxygen available to the fetus. Behavioral data associate maternal smoking with lower verbal scores and poorer performance on specific language/auditory tests. ...
Schuetze Pamela - - 2007
This study examined the association between prenatal exposure to cigarettes and infant and maternal negative affect. Participants were 115 mother-infant dyads (69 prenatally exposed to cigarettes and 46 nonexposed). Infant and maternal negative affect were both assessed during the neonatal period (2-4 weeks of age) and again at 7 months ...
Ibrulj Slavka - - 2006
During the 1992-1995 siege, as well as after the war activities, citizens of Sarajevo were most probably exposed to various potential genotoxic agents. The effects of those potential genotoxins were evaluated by micronucleus-cytokinesis blocked assay. The study included 30 individuals who resided in the area of Sarajevo during the war ...
Doris John L - - 2006
This study examines the relationship between prenatal cocaine exposure and child welfare outcomes. Seventy-six infants positive for cocaine at birth were matched to 76 negative infants. With prenatal care and maternal use of alcohol and tobacco controlled, cocaine-exposed infants had significant decrements in birth weight, length, head circumference, and depressed ...
Van de Wouw Angela P - - 2006
The insecticide cyromazine, classified as an insect growth regulator, inhibits the growth and development of Diptera. The precise mode of cyromazine action remains unknown. We investigated mortality and developmental time effects after exposing first instar Drosophila melanogaster larvae to cyromazine for 8-h intervals. Significant increases in mortality were only observed ...
Vielwerth S E - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is associated with accelerated postnatal growth and adverse adult health outcomes. Maternal smoking is a major risk factor for low birth weight. This study aims to assess: Pre- and postnatal growth associated with maternal smoking compared to other risk factors for low birth weight. The effect ...
Ryan Patrick H PH Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267, USA. - - 2007
We previously reported an association between infant wheezing and residence < 100 m from stop-and-go bus and truck traffic. The use of a proximity model, however, may lead to exposure misclassification. Results obtained from a land use regression (LUR) model of exposure to truck and bus traffic are compared with ...
McDonald S D - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine if maternal smoking is associated with programming of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Cigarette smoking, which induces a state of hypoxia in the fetus, may promote in utero'programming' of the HPA axis. In utero, adaptations to the HPA axis, which become maladaptive later in ...
Stepans Mary Beth Flanders - - 2006
The American Academy of Pediatrics recently removed nicotine from the list of drugs contraindicated during breastfeeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of determining the effect of a smoking hygiene intervention on infants of breastfeeding mothers who smoke cigarettes. An experimental design with repeated measures was ...
Carney E W - - 2006
The potential for trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PERC) to induce developmental toxicity was investigated in Crl:CD (SD) rats whole-body exposed to target concentrations of 0, 50, 150 or 600 ppm TCE or 0, 75, 250 or 600 ppm PERC for six hours/day, seven days/week on gestation day (GD) 6-20 and ...
Vagnarelli Federica - - 2006
A heavy smoking, lactating mother delivered a baby that exhibited spontaneous tremors, fluctuations of muscular rigidity, and opisthotonus at 48 hours of life. Although the symptoms did not disappear within the following days, they could be controlled by swaddling or wrapping the baby in a blanket. The absence of any ...
Hatsukami D K DK University of Minnesota, Tobacco Use Research Center, 2701 University Avenue SE, Suite 201, Minneapolis, MN 55414, USA. - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of smokeless tobacco (ST) brand switching on biomarkers of ST exposure and on ST use. Subjects seeking treatment to reduce their use were randomized to ST brand switching with controlled ST topography, brand switching with ad libitum ST use, or ...
De Vos Annemarie J B M - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Bushfire fighters are potentially subject to risks from bushfire smoke. Although many different protective masks and filters are available, it is not clear which is the most effective from a health and safety perspective. The effect of protective filters on the respiratory health of Western Australian urban career fire ...
Smith Lynne M - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Methamphetamine use among pregnant women is an increasing problem in the United States. Effects of methamphetamine use during pregnancy on fetal growth have not been reported in large, prospective studies. We examined the neonatal growth effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure in the multicenter, longitudinal Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle ...
Machaalani R - - 2006
The most important risk factors currently identified for the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are prone sleeping and cigarette smoke exposure. In this study, we investigated the neuropathological sequelae of these risk factors by exposing piglets to intermittent hypercapnic-hypoxia (IHH) and/or nicotine (nic) in the early postnatal period. Our hypothesis ...
Noakes P S - - 2006
Infants of smokers have much higher rates of respiratory infection, asthma and airway disease. The current study assessed the effects of maternal smoking in pregnancy on neonatal toll-like-receptor (TLR)-mediated immune responses as a possible contributing factor to the elevated rates of respiratory illness. In a prospective birth cohort, the cord ...
Eiden Rina D RD Research Institute on Addictions and Department of Pediatrics, USA. - - 2007
This study examined differences between cocaine and non-cocaine-using mothers, and between parental and non-parental caregivers of cocaine-exposed infants on caregiver childhood trauma, psychiatric symptoms, demographic, and perinatal risks. Participants included 115 cocaine and 105 non-cocaine mother-infant dyads recruited at delivery. Approximately 19% of cocaine mothers lost custody of their infants ...
Crawford Judith A - - 2006
The Syracuse AUDIT (Assessment of Urban Dwellings for Indoor Toxics) project is a birth cohort study of wheezing in the first year of life in a low-income urban setting. Such studies are important because of the documented serious risks to children's health and the lack of attention and published work ...
Tousen Yuko - - 2006
There is a general agreement that isoflavones can be beneficial to health in adults. However, isoflavones are well known as endocrine-disrupting chemicals. It should be considered that soy foods might adversely affect the reproductive system and infants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of genistein, an ...
Hecht Stephen S - - 2006
Biomarkers of carcinogen uptake could provide important information pertinent to the question of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in childhood and cancer development later in life. Previous studies have focused on exposures before birth and during childhood, but carcinogen uptake from ETS in infants has not been reported. Exposures ...
Zhao Yuan - - 2006
In pulsed toxicant exposures, the concentration, duration, and frequency of pulses can change through time. However, the conventional median lethal concentration (LC50) method cannot adequately predict the effects of pulsed exposure, because it is associated with fixed exposure duration and constant concentration and does not include postexposure (latent) mortality. Many ...
Lam Phung K - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Gastroschisis is a severe birth defect characterized by a tear in the infant's abdominal wall. Young mothers have the highest risk of having an infant with gastroschisis. In an animal model, the defect resulted from exposure of pregnant mice to carbon monoxide (CO) in combination with a low protein ...
Eiden Rina D RD Research Institute on AddictionsUniversity at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14203, USA. - - 2006
This study examined the association between maternal cocaine use and maternal behavior and tested a conceptual model predicting maternal insensitivity during mother-infant interactions. Participants included 130 mother-infant dyads (68 cocaine-exposed and 62 non-cocaine-exposed) who were recruited after birth and assessed at 4-8 weeks of infant age. Results of model testing ...
Repace James - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: We sought to directly compare secondhand smoke (SHS) atmospheric markers to each other and to SHS dosimetric biomarkers, permitting intercomparison of clinical and atmospheric studies. METHODS: We used atmospheric and pharmacokinetic (PK) models for the quantitative estimation of SHS exposure and dose for infants, children, and adults, based on ...
Adgent Margaret A - - 2006
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), containing the developmental neurotoxicant, nicotine, is a prevalent component of indoor air pollution. Despite a strong association with active maternal smoking and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), information on the risk of SIDS due to prenatal and postnatal ETS exposure is relatively inconsistent. This literature review ...
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