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Results 101 - 150 of 896
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Gray Teresa R - - 2008
Meconium analysis is a diagnostically sensitive and objective alternative to maternal self-report for detecting prenatal tobacco exposure. Nicotine and metabolite disposition in meconium is poorly characterized, and correlation of analytes' concentrations with neonatal outcomes is unexplored. Our objectives were to quantify nicotine, cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (OH-cotinine), nornicotine, norcotinine, and glucuronide concentrations ...
Eiden Rina D - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of prenatal cocaine exposure and associated risk factors on infant reactivity and regulation at 7 months of infant age. Participants consisted of 167 mother-infant dyads participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of prenatal cocaine exposure, who completed the arm restraint ...
Bavis Ryan W - - 2008
Early life experiences can influence development of the respiratory control system. We hypothesized that chronic hyperoxia (60% O(2)) during development would attenuate the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), similar to the effects of developmental hyperoxia in mammals. Quail were exposed to hyperoxia during prenatal development, during ...
Wallby Thomas - - 2008
AIM: To investigate the impact of parental region of birth on the risk of exposure to second-hand smoke for infants. METHODS: The smoking habits, according to child health records, of parents of 14 431 infants in Uppsala county, Sweden, born during 1997-2001, were investigated with logistic regression in the presence ...
Kacinko S L - - 2008
For the first time, relationships among maternal buprenorphine dose, meconium buprenorphine and metabolite concentrations, and neonatal outcomes are reported. Free and total buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine, nicotine, opiates, cocaine, benzodiazepines, and metabolites were quantified in meconium from 10 infants born to women who had received buprenorphine during pregnancy. Neither cumulative nor ...
Viskari-Lähdeoja S - - 2008
AIM: Exposure to maternal cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Foetal and postnatal smoke-exposure may alter cardiovascular control in infants. We studied heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) responses in smoke-exposed infants. METHODS: Eleven infants exposed to maternal cigarette smoking were studied ...
Zeyrek Dost - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to tobacco can have significant effects on infants. The objective was to investigate whether maternal smoking affects the size of the thymus. MATERIAL/METHODS: A group of 50 pregnant women who smoked throughout pregnancy and a control group of 92 non-smoking pregnant women were studied. The full-term newborn ...
Chabra Shilpi - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: A cluster of 10 neonates admitted with a diagnosis of gastroschisis at birth to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at the University of Kentucky Medical Center in the year 1996, prompted us to perform a retrospective analysis to determine environmental or genetic causes. RESULTS: A total ...
Tang Samantha - - 2008
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB play a significant role in the regulation of cell growth, survival and death during central nervous system development. The expression of BDNF and TrkB is affected by noxious insults. Two insults during the early post-natal period that are of interest to our ...
Oberlander Tim F - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to stress and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress reactivity in offspring, however, the effects of combined exposure to HPA activity in human infants is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine HPA basal levels and stress responsiveness in 3-month olds with prenatal exposure to SSRIs. METHODS: ...
Akbulut Metin - - 2009
Chorangiosis is considered to be strongly associated with various fetal, maternal, and placental disorders, including pre-eclampsia, diabetes, hypertension, and major congenital anomalies, and has been found to correlate with increased fetal morbidity and mortality. In this study, we investigated the pathologic effects of maternal smoking and air pollution on the ...
Yu Mang - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies associate environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure with childhood asthma. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether specific pathophysiological alterations that contribute to asthma development in human beings can be induced in infant monkeys after perinatal ETS exposure. METHODS: Rhesus macaque fetuses/infants were exposed to ETS at 1 mg/m(3) of total ...
Schneider Jennifer - - 2008
RATIONALE: The effects of prenatal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and hypoxemia on cardiorespiratory control have been investigated in full-term infants. However, few data are available in preterm infants, who form a particularly vulnerable population, with developmentally immature cardiorespiratory control. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of prenatal CS exposure on the ...
Anuntaseree Wanaporn - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Passive smoking or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with an increased risk of several respiratory illnesses for infants. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and the associated factors of ETS exposure in Thai infants. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey based on interviews with parents of infants aged 1 ...
Gloria-Bottini F - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Genetic variability of metabolic enzymes may influence the effect of cigarette smoking on intrauterine development and on early neonatal events. AIMS: To investigate the role of adenosine deaminase genetic polymorphism on the effect of smoking on neonatal bilirubinemia and developmental parameters. STUDY DESIGN: Analysis of association between adenosine deaminase ...
Nijiati Keyoumu - - 2008
Risk factors for low birth weight (LBW) have been indicated in many studies, but in Japan few studies have examined the amount of reduction in birth weight (BW). The goal of this study was to examine the association between maternal smoking among pregnant women and subsequent reduction in BW, corrected ...
Dahlström Anders - - 2008
AIM: To study the effects of postnatal exposure to nicotine on the regulation of heart rate and blood pressure in infants. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight mother-infant pairs were studied. Twenty nonsmoking and 18 smoking (2-20 cigarettes per day) mothers were included. All infants were healthy, exclusively breastfed and their postnatal ...
DiFranza Joseph R - - 2008
New research has overturned the dogma that cigarette addiction takes years to develop. Studies of adolescent smokers show that symptoms of addiction, such as withdrawal, craving for cigarettes and failed attempts at quitting, can appear within the first weeks of smoking. To account for these findings, scientists have developed a ...
Gaffney Kathleen F - - 2008
PURPOSE: To extend current knowledge of tobacco use by exploring whether subsets of mothers of infants have unique triggers for smoking relapse during the early stages of becoming a mother. METHOD: Using data from a study of smoking relapse among mothers of infants (N = 133), comparative analyses were conducted ...
Oberlander Tim F - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Late-gestational serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) exposure has been linked to adverse neonatal outcomes; however, the impact of timing and duration of exposure is unknown. AIMS: To determine whether late-gestational exposure to an SRI is associated with increased risk of adverse neonatal outcome relative to early exposure. METHOD: Population-based maternal ...
Gabriele C - - 2008
The effect of pre- and post-natal smoke exposure on exhaled nitric oxide fraction (F(eNO)) in infants was evaluated and the association between respiratory symptoms and F(eNO) in the first 2 months of life was investigated. The Generation R study is a population-based, prenatally recruited birth cohort. Exposures were assessed by ...
Gaffney Kathleen F - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Recent research has shown that most women who stop or substantially reduce cigarette smoking during pregnancy return to previous levels of tobacco use soon after delivery. The determinants of postpartum tobacco use have not been adequately identified. To address this gap, the present study examined one potential contributor to ...
Dijkstra Arie - - 2008
Engaging in a behaviour that has negative physical consequences is considered to be a threat to the self because it makes the self appear inadequate and non-adaptive. This self-threat is experienced as self-evaluative emotions. The self-threat can be removed by refraining from the unhealthy behaviour. The experience of self-threat influences ...
Pendlebury Jonathan D - - 2008
RATIONALE: Prenatal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure, increased environmental temperature, and hypoxic episodes have been postulated as major risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that maternal CS exposure disrupts eupneic breathing and depresses breathing responses of neonatal rats to thermal and hypoxic challenges. METHODS: Experiments ...
Sathyanarayana Sheela - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Phthalates are man-made chemicals found in personal care and other products. Recent studies suggest that some phthalates can alter human male reproductive development, but sources of infant exposure have not been well characterized. We investigated the relationship between phthalate metabolite concentrations in infant urine and maternal reported use of ...
Oberlander Tim F - - 2008
BACKGROUND: To determine a population-based incidence of congenital anomalies following prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants used alone and in combination with a benzodiazepines (BZ). METHODS: Population health data, maternal health, and prenatal prescription records were linked to neonatal records, representing all live births (British Columbia, Canada, N=119,547) ...
Milei José - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Because the fetal origin of coronary artery lesions is controversial, early atherosclerotic coronary artery lesions in late fetal stillborns and infants, as well as the possible atherogenic role of maternal cigarette smoking, were studied. METHODS: Twenty-two fetal death and 36 sudden infant death syndrome victims were examined by autopsy. ...
Glynn Anders - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Early-life chemical exposure may influence immune system development, subsequently affecting child health. We investigated immunomodulatory potentials of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-DDE in infants. METHODS: Prenatal exposure to PCBs and p,p'-DDE was estimated from maternal serum concentrations during pregnancy. Postnatal exposure was calculated from concentrations of the compounds in ...
Toschke André M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported an increase of upper body mass index (BMI) quantiles for formula fed infants compared to breastfed infants, while corresponding mean differences were low. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of known risk factors for childhood obesity on the BMI distribution. METHODS: Data ...
Schifano Fabrizio - - 2008
A recent trend of escalating use of cocaine/crack cocaine was observed in the UK. The number of mentions on death certificates; last year use of cocaine; treatment demand, number of drug offenders, seizures, prices and average purity levels were the indicators used for this descriptive and correlational study. Figures (1990-2004) ...
Park Hye-Youn - - 2008
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental toxicants, for which animal studies demonstrate immunotoxic effects, including thymic atrophy and suppressed immune responses; human investigations of similar end points are sparse. The thymus is essential for the differentiation and maturation of T-cell lymphocytes. The objective of this study was to examine the ...
Richardson Gale A - - 2008
This study examined the effect of prenatal cocaine use on infant physical, cognitive, and motor development, and temperamental characteristics, controlling for other factors that affect infant development. Women were, on average, 26.8 years old, had 12 years of education, and 46% were African American. During the first trimester, 18% were ...
Smith Andrew M - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether infants exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) having the interleukin 4 (IL-4) or interleukin 13 (IL-13) gene polymorphisms were at increased risk of wheezing. STUDY DESIGN: A birth cohort of 758 infants was evaluated annually by a questionnaire, physical examination, and skin prick testing. DNA samples ...
Colombini Nathalie - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to evaluate the adequacy of a hospital formulated oral morphine preparation for management of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) and to compare clinical features in infants exposed to methadone or buprenorphine in utero. METHOD: Between October 1998 and October 2004 all infants born to mothers treated ...
Anuntaseree Wanaporn - - 2008
We performed a survey to assess the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in 1-year-old infants in Thailand. Of the 725 infants, it was reported that 73.3% had household smoking and 40.7% had detectable urinary cotinine. Twenty-five infants (3.4%) had urinary cotinine in the range of adult heavy smokers. The ...
Granger Douglas A - - 2007
Tobacco smoke exposure affects the activity of both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Statistics reveal 41 million children in the U.S. are regularly exposed to tobacco smoke, but we know little about the effects of environmental tobacco smoke exposure on HPA and SNS activity in ...
Lozano Jaime - - 2007
AIM: To investigate the prevalence of in utero exposure to cannabis in a cohort of 974 mother-infants dyads from Barcelona (Spain). METHODS: A validated gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric assay was used for meconium analysis. RESULTS: Prenatal exposure to cannabis was detected in 5.3% newborns; however, only 1.7% of the participating mothers ...
Fleming Peter - - 2007
Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke is a major risk factor associated with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and the risk has increased despite continued advice against this practice. Evidence from the UK suggests the prevalence of maternal smoking during pregnancy has risen amongst SIDS mothers (from 50% to 80%) when ...
Mennella Julie A - - 2007
The present experimental study was designed to determine how breastfeeding from a mother who smokes affects infants in the short-term. Fifteen mother-infant dyads were tested on 2 days separated by 1 week. Mothers smoked (not in the presence of their infants) on one test day and refrained from smoking on ...
Spector Logan G - - 2007
Maternal smoking while pregnant is a plausible risk factor for childhood cancers because many seem to initiate in utero and tobacco-specific carcinogens cross the placenta. Social desirability bias may affect maternal report of smoking in case-control studies and could explain inconsistently observed associations with offspring cancer. Detection of tobacco smoke ...
Wang Lei - - 2007
Numerical research on the health effects of air pollution has been published in the last decade. Epidemiological studies have shown that children's exposure to air pollutants during fetal development and early postnatal life is associated with many types of health problems including abnormal development (low birth weight [LBW], very low ...
Bertol Elisabetta - - 2008
In recent years there has been an increase interest in cocaine-related death reflecting the rising trend in cocaine use in Europe. Nevertheless it is still now very difficult to attribute a death to cocaine. We can affirm that cocaine can be responsible for the cause of death only when there ...
Hunt Rod W - - 2008
In-utero drug exposure is associated with increased risks of perinatal morbidity and mortality, however longer term neurodevelopmental outcome of survivors is poorly described. AIMS: The aims of this paper are: (1) to review the published literature which examines neurodevelopmental outcome in infants with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) and (2) to ...
Geerts Caroline C - - 2007
There is evidence to suggest that exposure of pregnant women to tobacco smoke is related to higher childhood blood pressure in their offspring. It is not well known whether this association is set in utero or by shared postnatal environments. The objective of this study was to assess the association ...
Bader D - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the extent of unintentional exposure to X-rays performed during routine diagnostic procedures in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). STUDY DESIGN: During a 1-month period, 157 consecutive neonates from five level-III NICUs were recruited for this study. The mean birth weight was 1747+/-911 g (range: 564-4080 g), ...
Pak Victoria M - - 2007
This article presents a review of extant literature that informs our current understanding of the effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exposure on neonates. Phthalates such as DEHP add flexibility to plastics. DEHP is a major component in the manufacturing of polyvinyl chloride devices commonly used in the healthcare setting. Premature ...
Joseph D V - - 2007
Smoking is a major risk factor for cot death. Many infants smoke passively as a result of parental smoking. This paper reports on infants exposed to a smoking environment and how they accumulate metabolites of cigarette smoke, such as cotinine, which may be physiologically harmful. To assess cotinine levels in ...
Divi Rao L - - 2007
Antiretroviral nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), given to human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected pregnant women to prevent vertical viral transmission, have caused mitochondrial dysfunction in some human infants. Here, we examined mitochondrial integrity in skeletal muscle from offspring of pregnant retroviral-free Erythrocebus patas dams administered human-equivalent NRTI doses for the last 10 ...
Crocetti Michael T - - 2007
During 2003 and 2004 an estimated 2000 pregnant women and 31 000 nonpregnant women aged 15 to 44 reported using heroin. The majority of those newborns exposed in utero to opioids will develop symptoms of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Standardized guidelines for the evaluation and management of opiate-exposed newborns are ...
Oberlander T F - - 2008
Reduced Apgar scores and birth weight, increased risk of respiratory distress, jitteriness and increased tone have been reported in up to 30% of neonates with prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressant medications. In adults, effects of these medications may be related to the genotype for the serotonin transporter ...
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