Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 896
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Bendersky M - - 1998
The ability to modulate arousal is a critical skill with wide-ranging implications for development. In this study, the authors examined arousal regulation as a function of levels of prenatal cocaine exposure in 107 infants at 4 months of age using a "still-face" procedure. Facial expressions were coded. A greater percentage ...
Maruoka K - - 1998
The purpose of our study was to identify risk factors for low birthweight (LBW; birthweight < 2500 g) in Japanese infants. The data was collected from questionnaires completed by the parents of 23132 infants who underwent a standardized well baby check-up for 1-month-old infants, conducted by the Fukuoka City Medical ...
Perera F P - - 1998
The authors briefly review the current potential and limitations of molecular epidemiology. This approach uses biomarkers to measure the internal and bioeffective dose of toxicants, early biologic effects likely to be predictive of cancer, and variations in individual susceptibility. The most frequent application of biomarkers has been in assessment of ...
Eyler F D - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: This prospective, longitudinal project was designed to determine the effects of prenatal cocaine use on the neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants from a historically understudied rural public health population. METHODOLOGY: We interviewed > 2500 women prenatally, identified 154 cocaine users, and matched 154 controls on race, parity, socioeconomic status, and ...
Behnke M - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to determine whether an increased incidence of structural brain abnormalities could be demonstrated in newborns exposed to cocaine. STUDY DESIGN: This study was part of a prospective, longitudinal study of 154 cocaine users matched to 154 control subjects on prenatal risk level, race, parity, and ...
Boshuizen H C - - 1998
A recent article by Little et al. (Am J Epidemiol 1994;140:544-54) reported that infants in Seattle, Washington, who were breastfed by mothers who smoked gained more weight than either infants who were breastfed by mothers who did not smoke or infants who were bottle-fed by mothers who smoked. In this ...
Edwards N - - 1998
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal smoking status and infant nutrition. Women delivering in 5 hospitals in the Ottawa-Carleton region of Ontario were screened for eligibility over a 6-month period in 1993. Follow-up data were collected by telephone at 3 months postpartum using a ...
Leong J W - - 1998
Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is strongly associated with childhood morbidity. Cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine, is a useful marker of tobacco smoke exposure. Cotinine levels in infants are higher than in older children or adults exposed to the same reported quantity of ETS. One hypothesis to explain ...
Dobek D - - 1998
The findings presented by the authors of this report contribute to the diagnosis of pathology of pregnancy i.e. they assess the influence of nicotine on the organisms of a mother and a new-born child, estimated by concentration of cotinine, the most important metabolite of nicotine. The mean proportional share of ...
Obel C - - 1998
Animal experiments suggest that the fetal brain is sensitive to nicotine. Although much attention has been given to the relation between cigarette smoking during pregnancy and neurodevelopment in children, this remains controversial. Our study describes the relationship between maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and babbling abilities of the 8-month-old infant. ...
Maestripieri D - - 1997
This study investigated the occurrence of infant abuse and neglect in a large population of group-living mangabeys over a period of almost 3 decades. The prevalence of infant abuse and neglect did not differ significantly among the 9 families comprising the population, but within some families there was evidence of ...
Anderson H R - - 1997
BACKGROUND: This paper provides a systematic, quantitative review of the epidemiological evidence relating parental smoking and sudden infant death. METHODS: Thirty two relevant publications were identified after consideration of 692 articles selected by electronic search of the Embase and Medline databases using keywords and Mesh headings relevant to passive smoking ...
Lindsay C A - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to examine the differences in body composition in infants of women who smoke compared with those of nonsmokers. STUDY DESIGN: Within 24 hours of birth anthropometric measurements and total body electrical conductivity estimates of body composition were obtained on 129 term infants (30 born to women ...
Leventhal J M - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of maltreatment of children born to women who used cocaine during pregnancy have relied on either selected samples of infants identified at birth or biased, high-risk samples referred to protective services. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relative risk of either maltreatment or placement outside the home during the ...
Skopp G - - 1997
In a case of a sudden infant death syndrome-related death of a 3-month-old infant, nail clippings were positive for cocaine by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis that revealed a prenatal exposure to the drug substance. In utero exposure to drugs has been investigated using amniotic fluid, neonatal urine, meconium, and hair ...
Schellscheidt J - - 1997
In numerous investigations, maternal smoking increases the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). In the present study we investigated whether prenatal risk factors for SIDS modify the effect of maternal smoking on SIDS mortality. We analysed data from a population-based cohort study (222 cases, 260,604 infants at risk) within ...
Lødrup Carlsen K C - - 1997
To avoid the possible confounding effects of postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke, we investigated possible effects of uterine tobacco smoke (UTS) exposure upon infant lung function shortly after birth. Infants with no major disease, in one maternity ward in Oslo, Norway, participating in a cohort study established in 1992/1993, were ...
Komoroski E M - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: We attempted to identify demographic and environmental factors associated with development of febrile, presumed viral illness in infants < or = 10 weeks old. STUDY DESIGN: The study was conducted in a large, urban pediatric hospital and outpatient clinics. Infants < or = 10 weeks old admitted to the ...
Ostrea E M EM - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine the mortality rate, during the first 2 years of life, in infants who were exposed to cocaine, opiate, or cannabinoid during gestation. METHODS: For a period of 11 months, a large group of infants were enrolled and screened at birth for exposure to cocaine, opiate, or cannabinoid ...
Laken M P - - 1997
This paper presents evaluation results of a CSAP-funded case management project associated with an outpatient substance abuse treatment (SAT) program for women and their children. Key findings are: (a) case management and threat of child protective services encourage retention in SAT during pregnancy, (b) retention in SAT has a positive ...
Aligne C A - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine the economic influence of pediatric disease attributable to parental smoking. DATA SOURCES: Computerized bibliographic databases were searched. Subject headings included asthma, burn, cost, low birth weight, otitis media, respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis, sudden infant death syndrome, and tobacco smoke pollution. The following constraints were applied to the ...
Lauria M R - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Meconium drug testing of liveborn infants is highly sensitive (87%) and specific (100%). Accurate knowledge of drug use in mothers of stillborns would be beneficial. We determined the feasibility of noninvasive meconium drug screening for opiates and cocaine in stillborns. METHODS: Stillborn infants delivered at our hospital had meconium ...
Ahluwalia I B - - 1997
The purposes of this study were to examine the association between self-reported environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during pregnancy and birth weight, prematurity, and small-for-gestational age infants and to determine whether these associations differ by maternal age. Data from the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System from two states that collected data ...
Perkins S L - - 1997
This study describes the prevalence of smoking among 3,220 pregnant women. Maternal and umbilical cord cotinine levels were compared with the women's self-reported cigarette consumption, infant birth weight and antepartum and perinatal complications. Of the women who reported themselves as being active smokers (23%), 76% had a partner who smoked, ...
Margolis P A - - 1997
Studies of the effects of passive smoking on lower respiratory illness (LRI) have relied on questionnaires to measure exposure. We studied the association between two measures of passive smoking and the incidence of acute LRI in infants. We analyzed data from a community-based cohort study of respiratory illness during the ...
Lie R T - - 1997
A national registry of all pregnancy-outcomes was started in Norway. in 1967 to facilitate epidemiological surveillance. One aim was to detect increases in birth detect prevalences that was caused by new harmful exposures. Over the years several studies of unexpected time-trends and regional differences have been performed, but specific harmful ...
Leibrock C S - - 1997
1. The suction pipette technique was used to investigate the recovery of toad rod photoreceptors following small bleaches of 0.2-3% of the rhodopsin. 2. The reduction in sensitivity and the increase in noise elicited by bleaches were measured, and from these measurements the underlying rate of occurrence of photon-like events ...
Farrow A - - 1997
In this cross-sectional postal study, the authors measured nitrogen dioxide levels inside infants' bedrooms and outside their homes. During the 2-wk monitoring period, the authors investigated the association between nitrogen dioxide levels and 20 infant symptoms. The subjects were 1,200 women who had infants aged 3-12 mo. Median levels of ...
Secker-Walker R H - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation of cigarette consumption and exhaled carbon monoxide levels during pregnancy and to assess the effect of these smoking measures on birth weight. METHODS: Cigarette consumption and exhaled carbon monoxide levels were recorded at the first prenatal visit and the 36-week visit from women who smoked ...
Fares I - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an association exists between intrauterine cocaine exposure and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). STUDY DESIGN: A meta-analysis of 10 published studies that reported the incidence of SIDS in infants born to mothers who used cocaine during pregnancy. We computed the rates of SIDS in cocaine-exposed infants ...
Mirochnick M - - 1997
To compare plasma catecholamine concentrations between cocaine-exposed and unexposed term newborns and to determine the relationship between plasma catecholamines and newborn behavior. Forty-six newborn infants participating in a prospective study of the neonatal and long-term effects of prenatal cocaine exposure were studied. Based on maternal self-report, maternal urine screening, and ...
Bearer C - - 1997
We propose that in utero exposure to tobacco smoke products places a newborn at risk for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). To test this hypothesis, infants with PPHN were identified. Healthy newborns of similar ethnicity were identified as a comparison group. Cord blood cotinine concentrations and maternal questionnaires ...
Sison C G - - 1997
The relationship of maternal illicit drug use to congenital syphilis was studied in a population of newborn infants (N = 1012) who were screened for intrauterine exposure to illicit drugs by meconium analysis and whose mothers were screened for syphilis by the rapid plasmin reagin fluorescent treponemal antibody, absorbed (RPR/FTA-ABS) ...
Behnke M - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Our goals were to document hospital costs associated with prenatal cocaine exposure in an understudied population-women using rural county public health units who had minimal access to drug rehabilitation and whose cocaine of choice was crack with little other illicit drug use- and to explore why increased costs occur ...
Miller H - - 1997
The literature from multiple disciplines on in utero cocaine exposure and mother-infant interaction and attachment was examined for possible relationships and implications for occupational therapists. Maternal cocaine use and neurobehavioral deficits in neonates prenatally exposed to cocaine may result in interactional difficulties between mother and infant. Knowledge of child development, ...
Bowman B P - - 1997
The behavioral response to separate and combined administration of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor agonists was assessed acutely and after chronic cocaine exposure (30 mg/kg s.c. b.i.d. for 5 days) in infant (PND11) and weanling (PND20) rats. In infants, quinpirole (quin) and SKF-38393 (SKF) elevated locomotion, mouthing and sniffing acutely. ...
Ołdak E - - 1997
This study was designed to evaluate the influence of passive smoking on serum IgE level and on incidence of atopic diseases in infants. Eighty two infants and their families were studied. The cigarette smoking was recorded in 28% of mothers and in 62% of fathers. Both parents were smokers in ...
Singer L - - 1997
Maternal cocaine use during pregnancy can affect the infant directly through toxic effects or indirectly through cocaine's influence on maternal psychological status. We followed 160 cocaine exposed and 56 nonexposed infants and their mothers identified at birth through interview and/or urine screen. Although cocaine exposure defined the groups, infant exposure ...
Schwarz K B - - 1997
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to use the breath ethane test to determine if either maternal cigarette smoking, formula, and/or deficiency of the antioxidant nutrients vitamins A and E was associated with oxidant stress in newborn infants. The rationale for this study was: (1) our observation that cigarette ...
Milnerowicz H - - 1997
Concentrations of metals (Zn, Cu, Se, Cd), metallotionein (MT) and ceruloplasmin (Cp), and the activity of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (gammaGT) in pregnant women who smoke and in passive smokers as well as in their newborns were measured. In smoking women a many-fold increase in cotinine concentrations in maternal and ...
McElhatton P R - - 1997
A prospective study was carried out to investigate the outcome of pregnancy in 300 women who had self-administered an overdose of paracetamol, either alone, or as part of a combined preparation. Exposure occurred in all trimesters. The most striking feature of this study is that the majority of the pregnancies ...
Golding J - - 1997
There are a variety of methodological problems with published studies of parental smoking and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), with over-control the most consistent and problematic. Nevertheless, even though this is likely to minimise the true magnitude of relationships, the results are consistent. There are five cohort studies with prospectively ...
Morris P - - 1997
To explore the effects of gestational cocaine exposure in a nonhuman primate model, pregnant rhesus monkeys were either treated (N = 10) with escalating doses of cocaine up to 7.5 mg/kg (IM), three times per day, 5 consecutive days per week, prior to conception and throughout gestation, or were not ...
Severson H H - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Pediatric well-care visits provide a clinical opportunity to counsel new mothers about their smoking and the deleterious effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on infant health. METHODS: Forty-nine Oregon pediatric offices enrolled 2,901 women who were currently smoking or had quit for pregnancy, using a brief survey at the ...
Ruttenber A J - - 1997
We describe an outbreak of deaths from cocaine-induced excited delirium (EDDs) in Dade County, Florida between 1979 and 1990. From a registry of all cocaine-related deaths in Dade County, Florida, from 1969-1990, 58 EDDs were compared with 125 victims of accidental cocaine overdose without excited delirium. Compared with controls, EDDs ...
Tavares R - - 1996
A selected ion monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure was developed to determine the interaction product formed by acrylonitrile (ACN) with the N-terminal amino group in haemoglobin. The product, N-(2-cyanoethyl)valine (CEV), was analysed following its release from the protein by a modified Edman degradation procedure. Quantitation was achieved using N-(2-cyanoethyl)-[2H8]Val-Leu-Ser ...
Karmel B Z - - 1996
CNS-compromised neonates are poor modulators tending to prefer less stimulation in all arousal conditions. Cocaine-exposed neonates also are poor modulators but tend to prefer more stimulation in all arousal conditions. Infants (N = 359, M = 4 months) were divided into 6 CNS injury groups and 1 cocaine-exposed, non-CNS-injured group ...
Ramsay D S - - 1996
Examined the effect of prenatal alcohol and cigarette exposure on infant adrenocortical reactivity to stress at 2 and 6 months of age. Cortisol response (pre- to poststressor increase) at 2 months was lower for the exposed than nonexposed infants, whereas cortisol response at 6 months did not differ between the ...
Peters J E - - 1996
In clinical trials of potential pharmacotherapies for cocaine addiction, objective determination of subject relapse relies on qualitative urine analysis for benzoylecgonine, the major metabolite of cocaine. Unlike qualitative analysis, quantitative measurement allows differentiation between continued cocaine use and a single use, as well as identification of changes in the quantity ...
Tirosh E - - 1996
Ten term infants who were exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy and 10 age- and sex-matched control infants participated in the study. At the age of 48 hours (+/- 10), all infants underwent a 150- to 200-minute polygraphic study in a soundproof laboratory. Respiratory and heart rates, distribution of sleep ...
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