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Results 451 - 500 of 896
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Frank D A DA Boston University School of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. - - 1999
To assess whether there is an association between the level of in utero cocaine exposure and findings on neonatal cranial ultrasound, controlling for potentially confounding variables. In a prospective longitudinal study, three cocaine exposure groups were defined by maternal report and infant meconium assay: unexposed, heavier cocaine exposure (>75th percentile ...
Koshurnikova N A - - 1999
At Branch No. 1 of the Russian State Research Center "Biophysics Institute", a registry has been created of workers at the "Mayak" Production Association, the first nuclear complex in Russia. This registry includes 18,830 persons hired at Mayak's nuclear reactors and radiochemical and plutonium production plant between 1948 and 1972. ...
Swanson M W - - 1999
The effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on the motor development of full-term infants was examined in a prospective study, controlling for maternal characteristics and exposure to other substances. Intrauterine cocaine exposure was determined at birth by maternal self-report and was verified by hair analysis. At 4 months, 120 cocaine-exposed (COC) ...
Haustein K O - - 1999
Smoking cigarettes during pregnancy and nursing causes considerable health damage to the fetus and to the infant during the initial growth phase. A smoking mother puts her child at considerable risk, not only of higher incidence of spontaneous abortion, premature ablatio placentae and reduced weight at birth, but also of ...
Tomenson J A - - 1999
Molinate is a thiocarbamate herbicide used for weed control in rice fields. Since the late 1970s, findings from reproductive toxicology studies of rats have led to concern that molinate might affect human male fertility. Semen samples were collected from 272 formulation and production workers at three US plants. The samples ...
Ueda Y - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether infants born to smoking mothers have an abnormal respiratory drive and a blunted ventilatory response to hypoxia. STUDY DESIGN: Sixty-four healthy infants, aged 2 to 24 months, were classified into smoking (n = 19) or non-smoking (n = 45) groups based on maternal smoking habits. Resting ...
Sayers N M - - 1999
Animal test systems are reviewed that have relevance to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are reviewed. These test interactions between infectious agents (or their toxins) and products of cigarette smoke. Infectious agents implicated in SIDS include members of the enterobacteria and clostridia, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Smoking is thought ...
Stepans M B - - 1999
Methods to measure infant exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are needed to identify infants at highest risk for ETS-related health problems. The purpose of this study was to validate measures sensitive to changes in levels of infant exposure to ETS and to develop a predictive model of infant exposure ...
Seidler A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The association between maternal occupational exposure to specific chemical substances (organic solvents, carbon tetrachloride, herbicides, chlorophenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, aromatic amines, lead and lead compounds, mercury and mercury compounds) and birth of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants was evaluated using data from a prospective cohort study of 3,946 pregnant women in West ...
Sprauve M E - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the interaction between the effects on fetal growth of maternal smoking and race by means of race-specific growth normograms. STUDY DESIGN: A case-control study was performed on white and African American mothers who were delivered at 2 hospitals in metropolitan Atlanta ...
Franco P - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Sudden infant death syndrome has been related to both exposure to prenatal cigarette smoke and impaired arousability from sleep. We evaluated whether healthy infants born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy had higher auditory arousal thresholds than those born to mothers who did not smoke and whether the effects ...
Seidman D S - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether exposure to tobacco smoke in late pregnancy can be reliably estimated by measuring carbon monoxide (CO) in the mother and newborn breath. STUDY DESIGN: Sixty-eight mothers and their healthy term singleton newborns, delivered at a university-affiliated community hospital in Jerusalem, were enrolled. End-tidal CO (corrected for ...
Becker A B - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is associated with adverse effects in infants and children. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether an increase in urinary cotinine fumarate level is caused by ingested nicotine and cotinine in breast-feeding infants. METHODS: We studied newborns at risk for developing asthma and allergies based on a ...
Beratis N G - - 1999
To investigate the toxic effect of tobacco smoke on the fetus, we measured in cord blood the concentrations of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), the principal serum protein in early ontogenic development, and erythropoietin (EPO), as an index of chronic fetal hypoxia. A total of 103 consecutively enrolled term newborns of smoking mothers ...
St-John W M - - 1999
Maternal smoking is a risk factor for the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). We hypothesized that pre-natal exposure to nicotine would result in abnormalities of ventilatory activity in newborns. Neonatal rats which had been exposed to nicotine had significantly lower minute ventilation breathing air and hypoxic gas mixtures than did ...
Miller J M JM - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: This study identified behaviors or conditions associated with cocaine use among prenatal patients and evaluated pregnancy outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: A case-control study of patients attending a neighborhood-based prenatal program was conducted. For each patient who used cocaine, the next prenatal registrant with both a negative history of cocaine use ...
Daly K A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Although early otitis media (OM) onset predicts later recurrent and chronic OM, little research has been directed at illuminating the role of prenatal exposures in early OM. This prospective study examined prenatal, innate, and early environmental exposures associated with acute otitis media (AOM) onset and recurrent OM (ROM) by ...
Jamriska M - - 1999
Various studies on indoor and outdoor particulate matter in the urban environment in the vicinity of busy arterial roads in the centre of the subtropical city of Brisbane have indicated that the revised United States Environmental Protection Agency National Ambient Air Quality Standards (US EPA NAAQS) for Particulate matter PM2.5 ...
Perera F P - - 1999
Evidence shows that fetuses and infants are more affected than adults by a variety of environmental toxicants because of differential exposure, physiologic immaturity, and a longer lifetime over which disease initiated in early life can develop. In this article we review data on the effects of in utero exposure to ...
D'Apolito K - - 1999
PURPOSE: To determine if the use of a mechanical rocking bed with maternal intrauterine sounds would decrease symptoms of withdrawal and promote neurobehavioral adaptation in drug-affected infants. METHODS: This was a repeated measures experimental design, with infants randomized to a standard bed or a rocking bed. The sample consisted of ...
Moise A F - - 1999
The solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure of infants and small children was measured for 1 week using UVR-sensitive polysulfone film attached to the shoulder and chest of the subjects. For the infant study, shoulder and chest badges received similar exposures, while the 2 1/2-year-olds received higher exposures on the shoulder ...
Yeruchimovich M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the absolute nucleated red blood cell (RBC) count is elevated in term, appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants born to smoking women. METHODS: We compared absolute nucleated RBC counts taken during the first 12 hours of life in two groups of term, vaginally delivered, AGA infants, ...
Coghlan D - - 1999
A 12 month review of infants admitted with neonatal abstinence syndrome to a neonatal intensive care unit was undertaken. The relationship of maternal drug abuse to symptoms, the effectiveness of pharmacologic agents in controlling symptoms and the length of inpatient stay were investigated. A retrospective review of maternal and infant ...
Bhandari V - - 1999
Our objectives in this study of pulmonary hemorrhage (PH) were to define common characteristics of infants who develop PH, identify factors associated with PH and report the outcome. Neonates (42/2980 admissions) with PH and matched controls were identified. Early gestation (< or = 35 weeks) infants with PH [EGPH] (n ...
Mahony D L - - 1999
Historically, community health nurses have provided nursing services to infants who were exposed to licit and illicit drugs in utero and their mothers. The charts of 145 infants whose mothers had a history of drug and alcohol abuse and who were referred to a visiting nurse agency between 1988 and ...
Chiriboga C A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Studies of fetal cocaine exposure and newborn neurologic function have obtained conflicting results. Although some studies identify abnormalities, others find no differences between cocaine-exposed and cocaine-unexposed infants. To determine the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on intrauterine growth and neurologic function in infants, we prospectively evaluated 253 infants shortly ...
Mayes L C - - 1999
Within the last decade, many investigators have focused on the physical, neurodevelopmental, and neuropsychological effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infants and young children. Although inconclusive on many crucial issues, published studies reveal the beginnings of a profile of possible cocaine-related effects on neuropsychological functions subserving arousal and attention regulation. ...
Moettus A - - 1998
Crack cocaine is commonly smoked in a pipe with a metallic filter made from a steel wool scouring pad. We report an unusual complication of smoking crack cocaine: the aspiration and ingestion of a Brillo pad filter. A 34-year-old female presented 7 h after drinking beer and smoking crack. She ...
Finette B A - - 1998
We have investigated the molecular effects of passive maternal cigarette exposure in a newborn population and consider the possible implications of the observed genetic changes in the development of neoplastic diseases in children. We present a distribution analysis of somatic mutational events in a reporter gene, HPRT, in cord blood ...
Lindgren C - - 1998
Parents of 1028 infants who attended community-based infant health clinics were interviewed concerning infant sleeping position, feeding habits, bedsharing and passive smoking at 3 months of postnatal age. In addition, they were asked to state which source of information had mainly influenced them in the choice of the sleeping position. ...
Luciano A - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of passive and light active smoking on the reduction of intrauterine growth of the foetus and on modifications in the body composition of the newborn. DESIGN: Random. SETTING: Full term newborn infants at the Department of the Pediatric and Gynaecological Divisions of the City Major ...
Elliot J - - 1998
The harmful effects of passive cigarette smoke exposure to infants include an increased frequency of asthma exacerbations, lower respiratory viral infections, and the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Because of a difficulty in obtaining airway tissue from infants, little information is available on the effects of passive cigarette smoke exposure ...
Hoo A F - - 1998
We examined whether the adverse effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco on lung development are limited to the last weeks of gestation by comparing respiratory function in preterm infants whose mothers had and had not smoked during pregnancy. Maximal forced expiratory flow (Vmax FRC) and time to peak tidal expiratory ...
Bunikowski R - - 1998
To study the developmental effects of prenatal exposure to opiates, a prospective follow up study of 34 drug-exposed (opiates and nicotine) and 42 reference infants (nicotine exposure only) was conducted from January 1992 to September 1995. At the time of delivery, 12 of 34 mothers used opiates without medical control. ...
Brown H L - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate women receiving methadone maintenance during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-two pregnancies in women receiving methadone maintenance were matched by gestational age to women with a positive urine screen for cocaine at delivery and to drug-free controls. Pregnancy outcome variables were compared, including ...
Woods N S - - 1998
This study examined whether the widely disseminated negative image of the "cocaine baby" would lead adults to perceive a videotaped unexposed infant more negatively simply because they had been told the infant was prenatally cocaine-exposed. Two hundred and forty-nine students from three state universities used a seven-point Likert scale to ...
Steiner M - - 1998
A temporary increase in the incidence of infant leukaemia in Greece was reported by Petridou et al., which was attributed to in utero exposure to ionising radiation resulting from the Chernobyl accident. We performed a similar analysis based on the data of the German Childhood Cancer Registry in order to ...
Lustbader A S - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: Passive exposure to crack/cocaine and the associated clinical symptoms may present a significant health risk to very young infants and children. This study was designed to determine the incidence of cocaine exposure, presumed to be passive, in ill infants younger than 1 year of age, using a threshold of ...
Bada H S - - 1998
In summary, we found that the prevalence of CNS/ANS signs was significantly higher in the infants exposed to cocaine and/or opiates than in nonexposed infants. However, the prevalence of a large number of these signs was less than 5%. The prevalence rates of these signs are lower when exposure involved ...
Pollanen M S - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Some people in states of excited delirium die while in police custody. Emerging evidence suggests that physical restraint in certain positions may contribute to such deaths. In this study the authors determined the frequency of physical restraint among people in a state of excited delirium who died unexpectedly. METHODS: ...
Källén K - - 1998
The Swedish health registries were used to investigate a possible effect on the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) of maternal smoking and maternal body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2). Among 1,199,701 infants born in 1983-1993 with known smoking exposure in early pregnancy, 621 infants with NTDs were selected. After controlling ...
Marzuk P M PM Department of Psychiatry, Cornell University Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA. - - 1998
Hot weather taxes cardiovascular function and is associated with increased deaths from heart disease. Cocaine can cause hypertension, tachycardia, coronary vasospasm, arrhythmias, and increased core temperature. To determine the association between mortality from cocaine overdose and hot weather. New York, NY. Retrospective review of medical examiner cases from 1990 through ...
Slotkin T A - - 1998
Despite extensive adverse publicity, tobacco use continues in approximately 25% of all pregnancies in the United States, overshadowing illicit drugs of abuse, including cocaine. The societal cost of maternal smoking is seen most readily in underweight newborns, in high rates of perinatal morbidity, mortality and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and ...
Mascola M A - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the degree to which breast-feeding and cigarette smoking by mothers and smoking by other household members contribute to the exposure of infants to the products of tobacco smoke. METHODS: The subjects were 330 mother-infant pairs derived from a cohort of 1000 pairs enrolled in a longitudinal ...
Karch S B - - 1998
Diphenhydramine (DPH)-related deaths in adults are extremely rare, and detailed autopsy studies are rarer still. Toxicologic and anatomic findings in 4 cases of suicidal DPH overdose are described and compared with findings in a database of cocaine- and heroin-related deaths. Blood DPH levels were many times higher than those considered ...
St-John W M - - 1998
In severe hypoxia, normal eupneic respiration is replaced by gasping. Gasping provides for 'autoresuscitation' such that, if air is available, normal breathing returns. As maternal use of cocaine may increase the incidence of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), prenatal exposure to cocaine was hypothesized to result in a failure ...
Brown J V - - 1998
This study examined whether preterm infants are more vulnerable to the effects of prenatal drug exposure than are full-term infants. The sample of 235 low-income African American mothers and their infants included 119 cocaine-polydrug users, 19 alcohol-only users, and 97 nonusers; 148 infants were full term and 87 were preterm. ...
Arbuckle T E - - 1998
Despite considerable concern regarding the effects on reproductive outcome of exposures to pesticides, convincing evidence for the developmental toxicity of occupational and environmental pesticide exposure in humans is lacking. In this comprehensive review of the English language epidemiologic literature, we summarize studies that have examined potential associations between fetal deaths ...
Datta-Bhutada S - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Adverse health effects are associated with intrauterine cocaine exposure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of fetal cocaine and crack exposure on neonatal outcome. STUDY DESIGN: We enrolled 386 mother-infant pairs, including 130 matched control pairs, in the study. The course of pregnancy and delivery ...
Bendersky M M Institute for the Study of Child Development, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903-0019, - - 1998
The ability to modulate arousal is a critical skill with wide-ranging implications for development. In this study, the authors examined arousal regulation as a function of levels of prenatal cocaine exposure in 107 infants at 4 months of age using a "still-face" procedure. Facial expressions were coded. A greater percentage ...
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