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Burckhardt Marie-Anne MA Pediatric Endocrinology, University Children's Hospital Basel (UKBB), - - 2014
Background: Arginine vasopressin (AVP) regulates water balance, blood pressure, and plays a role in social behavioral processes. Healthy adult men as compared to women have higher blood levels of AVP and of its C-terminal precursor peptide, copeptin. Objective: To investigate whether sexual disparity of copeptin is present at birth. Methods: ...
Ciaranello Andrea L AL aMedical Practice Evaluation Center, Division of Infectious Disease, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA bUniversité Bordeaux, Institut de Santé Publique, d'Epidémiologie et de Développement (ISPED), and Centre INSERM U897-Epidemiologie-Biostatistique, Bordeaux, France cDivision of General Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA dHarvard Center for AIDS Research, Boston, Massachusetts, USA eDivision of Infectious Diseases, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA fDepartment of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA gThe Botswana-Harvard School of Public Health, AIDS Institute Partnership for HIV Research and Education, Gaborone, Botswana hOrganization for Public Health Interventions and Development, Harare, Zimbabwe iDivision of Infectious Disease, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, - - 2014
To determine how infant feeding recommendations can maximize HIV-free survival (HFS) among HIV-exposed, uninfected African infants, balancing risks of breast milk-associated HIV infection with setting-specific risks of illness and death associated with replacement feeding. Validated mathematical model of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants, with published data from Africa. We projected 24-month HFS ...
Feinstein Lydia L aThe University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA bKinshasa School of Public Health, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo cThe University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, - - 2014
Guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV have developed rapidly, yet little is known about how outcomes of HIV-exposed infants have changed over time. We describe HIV-exposed infant outcomes in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, between 2007 and 2013. Cohort study of mother-infant pairs enrolled in family-centered comprehensive HIV ...
Jarrett Prudence P a BSc Student of International Health , University of Leeds , Leeds , UK - - 2014
Abstract Swaziland has the highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the world at 26% of the adult population. Medical male circumcision (MMC) has been shown to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV from heterosexual sex by up to 60% and the Government of Swaziland has been promoting adult ...
Gavalas V V *Department of Geography,University of the - - 2014
Summary The number of male per 100 female live births (defined as the sex ratio at birth, SRB) has been shown to be consistently stable in human populations irrespective of time and geographical location. All over the globe approximately 105 boys are born for every 100 girls and any significant ...
Derebe Gebremedhin - - 2014
Preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) has been a fundamental advancement in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) response for the past decade. Several countries have made great strides in the efforts to prevent HIV through mother-to-child transmission. The objective of this study is to assess the ...
Aliyu Muktar H MH 1Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health; Departments of 2Health Policy, 3Biostatistics, 4Westat, Rockville, MD, USA; 5Friends in Global Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 6Medicine, and 7Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, - - 2014
Despite an estimated 59,000 incident pediatric HIV infections in 2012 in Nigeria, rates of early infant diagnosis of HIV (EID) service uptake remain low. We evaluated maternal factors independently associated with EID uptake in rural northcentral Nigeria. We performed a cohort study utilizing HIV/AIDS program data of HIV-infected pregnant women ...
Mifsud William W Department of Histopathology, Level 3, Camelia Botnar Laboratories, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address: - - 2014
We present a case of a female 46,XX infant with a perineal lipoma within an accessory labioscrotal fold containing a penis-like phallus, associated with contralateral renal agenesis and complete absence of Müllerian/paramesonephric structures. To our knowledge, this is the first report of perineal lipoma and accessory labioscrotal fold associated with ...
Angura Peter - - 2014
Background: Several risk factors have been implicated in the development of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). However, little has been reported on the risk factors for NEC in infants born in a setting where exposure to maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is prevalent. Objectives: To determine maternal and infant characteristics associated with ...
Bauer Briana B Primate Behavior and Ecology Program, Central Washington University, WA 98926, USA. - - 2014
Adult male Tibetan (Macaca thibetana), Barbary (M. sylvanus), and stump-tailed macaques (M. arctoides) engage in bridging, a ritualized infant-handling behavior. Previous researchers found a bias toward the use of male infants for this behavior, but its function is debated. Explanations include three hypotheses: paternal care, mating effort, and agonistic buffering. ...
Pemunta Ngambouk Vitalis NV * Centre for Concurrences in Colonial and Postcolonial Studies, Linnaeus University, 35195 Växjö, - - 2014
Summary This study seeks to explore and explain the socio-cultural factors responsible for the incidence of infant malnutrition in Cameroon with particular emphasis on northern Cameroon where it is most accentuated. It combines quantitative data drawn from the 1991, 1998, 2004 and 2011 Cameroon Demographic and Health Surveys, as well ...
Smith Sara-Jane - - 2014
Background: In South Africa, current estimates indicate that 1% of infants will be HIV PCR-positive by 2 months of age. WHO recommends early infant diagnosis (EID) and immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in infants who are diagnosed with HIV infection within the first year of life. Aims: To investigate ...
Park Jung-Weon JW Department of Pediatrics, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, - - 2014
Administration of antiretroviral drugs to mothers and infants significantly decreases mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission; cesarean sections and discouraging breastfeeding further decreases this risk. The present study confirmed the HIV status of babies born to mothers infected with HIV and describes the characteristics of babies and mothers who received ...
Fowler Mary Glenn MG *Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; †Maternal Adolescent and Child Health, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa; ‡Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; §Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA; ‖Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe; ¶Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa; #Makerere University, Johns Hopkins University, Research Collaboration, Kampala, Uganda; **Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; ††Department of Pediatrics, College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe; ‡‡Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, MA; §§Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC; ‖‖Division of HIV/AIDS, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; and ¶¶Maternal and Pediatric Infectious Disease Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, - - 2014
HPTN 046 compared the efficacy and safety of infant nevirapine (NVP) among HIV-exposed breastfed infants randomized at 6 weeks to 6 months to t NVP or placebo to prevent postnatal infection: we report final 18-month outcomes. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 4 African countries. Infant diagnostic HIV testing was performed regularly ...
Mohamed M A MA Newborn Services Department, The George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC, - - 2014
Objective:To examine the associations of: (a) neonatal sex with mild-to-moderate and severe birth asphyxia, (b) fetal sex with mortality due to birth asphyxia and (c) neonatal race with severe birth asphyxia.Study Design:We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) Database including the years 1993 to 2008 or its pediatric sub portion ...
Marzullo Giovanni G Per Aspera Research Foundation, 45 West 73rd Street, New York, NY 10023, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Based on pre-mid-20th-century data, the same photoperiod-related birth seasonality previously observed in schizophrenia was also recently found in neural-tube defects and in extreme left-handedness among professional baseball players. This led to a hypothesis implicating maternal melatonin and other mediators of sunlight actions capable of affecting 4th-embryonic-week developments including neural-tube closure ...
Lonsdorf Elizabeth V EV Department of Psychology and Biological Foundations of Behavior Program, Franklin & Marshall College, Lancaster, PA, U.S.A ; Lester E. Fisher Center for the Study and Conservation of Apes, Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, IL, - - 2014
Sex differences in the behaviour of human children are a hotly debated and often controversial topic. However, several recent studies have documented a biological basis to key aspects of child social behaviour. To further explore the evolutionary basis of such differences, we investigated sex differences in sociability in wild chimpanzee, ...
Corbett Amanda H AH The University of North Carolina, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. - - 2014
An intensive, prospective, open-label pharmacokinetic (PK) study in a subset of HIV-infected mothers and their uninfected infants enrolled in the Breastfeeding, Antiretroviral, and Nutrition study was performed to describe drug exposure and antiviral response. Women using Combivir(®)[zidovudine (ZDV)+ lamivudine (3TC)]+Aluvia®[lopinavir/ritonavir(LPV/RTV)] were enrolled. Breast milk (BM) and mother and infant plasma ...
Agopian A J AJ Division of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Sciences, Human Genetics Center, University of Texas School of Public Health, Houston, - - 2014
Although distinct categories of male genital malformations share some common risk factors, few studies have systematically compared epidemiologic features across phenotypes. We evaluated the relationship between several maternal and infant characteristics and five categories of male genital malformations: second- or third-degree hypospadias, hypospadias (regardless of degree), small penis, cryptorchidism, and ...
Koch F R FR Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, - - 2014
Objective:Sex is an important determinant of neonatal outcomes and may have a significant role in the physiologic response to maternal chorioamnionitis. Our goal was to determine cerebral blood flow (CBF) parameters by sex and subsequent neurodevelopment in healthy term infants exposed to chorioamnionitis.Study Design:CBF by Doppler ultrasound in anterior and ...
Kobayashi Tomoko T Department of Pediatrics, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
A 7-week-old boy with flaccid paralysis was diagnosed with infant botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum toxin type A. In this case of infant botulism, untreated well-water was identified as a potential source of this infection.
Phiri Kelesitse K 1Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 2Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA 3Department of Preventive Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, - - 2014
Use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs during pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of birth defects, but the evidence remains inconclusive. We identified infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected mothers between 1994 and 2009 using Tennessee Medicaid data linked to vital records. Maternal HIV status was based on ...
Sauvageau Anny - - 2014
Autoerotic deaths are defined as accidental deaths that occur during individual, solitary sexual activity in which some type of apparatus that was used to enhance the sexual stimulation of the deceased caused unintentional death. In the Western countries, the incidence of these deaths is of approximately 0.5 deaths per million ...
Handique A K - - 2014
Human thelaziasis is a zoonotic eye disease caused by a nematode parasite called Thelazia. In India, seven human cases of Thelazia have been reported earlier. This is the first case report of an infant infected with Thelazia. During the month of July, 2012, the infant was presented with an eye ...
Meyer Sarah A SA Department of Medicine, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2014
HIV-1 and CMV are important pathogens transmitted via breastfeeding. Furthermore, perinatal CMV transmission may impact growth and disease progression in HIV-exposed infants. Although maternal antiretroviral therapy reduces milk HIV-1 RNA load and postnatal transmission, its impact on milk CMV load is unclear. We examined the relationship between milk CMV and ...
Innes Steve S Children's Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Unit (KID-CRU), Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; - - 2014
Objective: To describe the degree of HIV disease progression in infants initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) by three months of age in a programmatic setting in South Africa. Design: This was a programmatic cohort study. Methods: Electronic and manual data extraction from databases and antiretroviral registers in 20 public clinics in ...
Zash Rebecca M RM Division of Infectious Disease, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States; Botswana-Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership for HIV Research and Education, Gaborone, - - 2013
Newborns admitted to neonatal units (NNUs) in resource-limited settings face a high risk of mortality, but the epidemiology of these deaths is poorly understood. We describe risk factors for NNU mortality in an area with high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We performed a prospective cohort study of infants ...
Ramful Duksha D La Réunion University Hospital Saint-Denis/Saint-Pierre, La Réunion, - - 2013
To search for serological evidence of congenital infection in apparently healthy neonates born to women infected with the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) during pregnancy, monitoring for CHIKV-specific antibodies was performed within the CHIMERE cohort study (Reunion island, 2006-2008). CHIKV-specific antibody kinetics showed no evidence of asymptomatic congenital infection as neonates were ...
McCollum Eric D - - 2013
Many African infants fail to receive their diagnostic HIV molecular test results and subsequently, antiretroviral therapy (ART). To determine whether a point-of-care molecular HIV test increases ART access for hospitalized Malawian infants, we simulated a point-of-care test using rapid HIV RNA polymerase chain reaction (Rapid PCR) and compared patient outcomes ...
Sarringhaus L A - - 2013
Chimpanzees are our closest living relatives and their positional repertoire likely includes elements shared with our common ancestor. Currently, limitations exist in our ability to correlate locomotor anatomy with behavioral function in the wild. Here we provide a detailed description of developmental changes in chimpanzee locomotion and posture. Fieldwork was ...
Kuiri-Hänninen Tanja - - 2013
Context:Shortly after birth, pituitary gonadotropin secretion transiently activates in both sexes, and this surge is more robust in preterm (PT) than in full-term (FT) infants. In boys, the gonadotropin surge is associated with testicular activity and is considered an important part of normal reproductive development. In contrast, gonadal activation and ...
Candela Silvia - - 2013
The few studies that have investigated the relationship between emissions from municipal solid-waste incinerators and adverse pregnancy outcomes have had conflicting results. We conducted a study to assess the effects of air emissions from the eight incinerators currently in operation in the Emilia-Romagna Region of Italy on reproductive outcomes (sex ...
Sugandhi Nandita N aClinton Health Access Initiative, New York, New York bUNICEF New York, New York cIATT Secretariat New York, New York dBaylor College of Medicine Texas Childrens Hospital, Houston, Texas eUSAID, Washington DC fDivision of Global HIV/AIDS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, Georgia gManagement Sciences for Health, Arlington, - - 2013
Each year over a million infants are born to HIV-infected mothers. With scale up of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions, only 210 000 of the 1.3 million infants born to mothers with HIV/AIDS in 2012 became infected. Current programmatic efforts directed at infants born to HIV-infected mothers are primarily focused ...
Dotan Miri M Department of Pediatrics 1A, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tikva, Israel. - - 2013
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of lower respiratory tract disease and hospitalization in infants and young children. Infants of multiple births, who are often premature, might be more susceptible to developing a more severe RSV infection than singletons. To assess the impact of multiple births on the ...
Lesseur Corina C Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, 7650 Remsen, Hanover, NH 03755, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Leptin (LEP) is a hormone central for energy homeostasis and has been implicated in neurodevelopment. This adipokine is produced by the placenta and is epigenetically regulated by promoter DNA methylation. Recent evidence has suggested a role for LEP in behavioral development. In this study, we investigated associations between profiles of ...
Lukong Christopher S - - 2013
Background: The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is rising in Sub- Saharan Africa. The various indirect tests readily available have not been helpful in neonatal and early infant diagnosis of the disease. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a direct test that can be used in these groups of ...
Ambooken Betsy B Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, - - 2013
Microsporum gypseum is a rare cause of kerion in infancy. Light microscopy, fluorescent microscopy and fungal culture of the infected hair aids in early and correct diagnosis. Griseofulvin is the drug of choice for ectothrix fungi. We report a case of neonatal kerion caused by M. gypseum occurring at the ...
Razzaq Athar A Dr. Athar Razzaq,MBBS, FCPS, Trainee Fellow in Neonatal Pediatrics, The Children Hospital &Institute of Child Health, Multan, - - 2013
To determine the risk factors for persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborns (PPHN) and their influence on mortality. This was an observational study conducted at The Children's Hospital & the Institute of Child Health, Multan, Pakistan, from July 2011 to June 2012.All admitted babies who had respiratory distress, cyanosis and evidence ...
Quinn Elizabeth A - - 2013
Maternal reproductive investment includes both the energetic costs of gestation and lactation. For most humans, the metabolic costs of lactation will exceed those of gestation. Mothers must balance reproductive investment in any single offspring against future reproductive potential. Among mammals broadly, mothers may differentially invest in offspring based on sex ...
Gandhi Monica M *Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; †Infectious Diseases Research Collaboration, Makerere University College of Health Sciences-University of California, San Francisco, Kampala, Uganda; Department of ‡Clinical Pharmacy; §Center for AIDS Prevention Studies; ‖Departments of Pediatrics; ¶Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences; and #Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, - - 2013
As efforts intensify to eliminate perinatal HIV transmission, understanding kinetics of maternal-to-child transfer of antiretrovirals during pregnancy and breastfeeding is critical. Antiretroviral levels in plasma, cord blood, and breastmilk reflect exposure over short intervals. Hair concentrations reflect cumulative exposure and can uniquely quantify in utero transfer of maternal medications to ...
Escudero Paola - - 2013
Findings of previous studies demonstrate sex-related preferences for toys in 6-month-old infants; boys prefer nonsocial or mechanical toys such as cars, whereas girls prefer social toys such as dolls. Here, we explored the innate versus learned nature of this sex-related preferences using multiple pictures of doll and real faces (of ...
Krishnan Anand - - 2013
We analyzed data from the electronic database of Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site in Ballabgarh in North India to assess sex-specific differentials in child survival from 1992-2011. Sex ratio at birth was adverse for girls throughout the study period (821 to 866 girls per 1,000 boys) and was ...
Alio Amina P - - 2013
Prior research indicates that infants with absent fathers are vulnerable to unfavorable fetal birth outcomes. HIV is a recognized risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. However, the influence of paternal involvement on fetal morbidity outcomes in women with HIV remains poorly understood. Using linked hospital discharge data and vital statistics ...
Tuthill Emily - - 2013
Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) has been identified as a key intervention to promote infant health and to reduce the vertical transmission of HIV. Despite this knowledge and increased resources to promote EBF, the practice in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains low among HIV+ women. Although a number of qualitative studies have been ...
Sant'anna S S - - 2013
Malformations can occur in all living species, but there is little information about anomalies that occur in snakes and their frequency. This study assessed malformations in newborn South American pit vipers (Bothrops jararaca) and South American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus) from wild captured pregnant females (240 and 35 litters, respectively). Newborn ...
Rosenstock Summer - - 2013
Studies in South Asia have documented increased risk of neonatal mortality among girls, despite evidence of a biological survival advantage. Associations between gender preference and mortality are cited as reasons for excess mortality among girls. This has not, however, been tested in statistical models. A secondary analysis of data from ...
Kizito Dennison - - 2013
Vaccine failure is an important concern in the tropics with many contributing elements. Among them, it has been suggested that exposure to natural infections might contribute to vaccine failure and recurrent disease outbreaks. We tested this hypothesis by examining the influence of co-infections on maternal and infant measles-specific IgG levels. ...
Zureick-Brown Sarah - - 2013
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is widespread; yet research is thin and equivocal regarding its potential adverse effects on infant feeding practices. With a national sample of 3552 mothers and infants aged 180 days or younger from the 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey for India, we used logistic regression to estimate ...
Mabuka Jennifer J Division of Human Biology and Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, - - 2013
To protect against HIV infection, passively transferred and/or vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) need to effectively target diverse subtypes that are transmitted globally. These variants are a limited subset of those present during chronic infection and display some unique features. In the case of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), transmitted variants tend to ...
Ades Veronica V Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, New York University, New York, NY 10016, - - 2013
As human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women gain access to combination antiretroviral therapy throughout sub-Saharan Africa, a growing number of infants are being born HIV-exposed but uninfected. Data about neonatal mortality and the impact of premature delivery, in this population are limited. We describe the 28-day mortality outcomes in a cohort ...
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