Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 491
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Schneider M L - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure can contribute to neurodevelopmental deficits in nonhuman primate offspring. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of gestational timing of alcohol exposure on neurobehavior with a nonhuman primate model. METHODS: Sixty-three rhesus monkey infants (Macaca mulatta), from four groups of females, were ...
Chenet L - - 2001
BACKGROUND: During the early 1990s the countries of the Former Soviet Union experienced a dramatic rise in mortality, especially from cardiovascular diseases. Although still poorly understood there is evidence, particularly from Russia, that this mortality crisis is partly linked to alcohol consumption. In this paper we use data from Lithuania ...
Frank R K - - 2001
A large Wisconsin mink (Mustela vison) farm experienced an outbreak of toxoplasmosis in the spring of 1999 following an outbreak of canine distemper during the previous fall. Major clinical signs for pregnant females included reduced feed consumption, abortions, and stillborn kits; kits < or =3 weeks old experienced ataxia and ...
Leung A K - - 2001
A Chinese baby girl was born after an uncomplicated pregnancy and a normal spontaneous vaginal delivery to a gravida 2, para 1, 32-year-old mother at 37 weeks' gestation. Neither parent had a history of alcohol or drug ingestion. There was no history of consanguinity. The Apgar scores were 7 at ...
Mennella J A JA Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-3308, USA. - - 2001
Contrary to the folklore which claims that drinking alcohol during lactation benefits both mother and infant, previous research in our laboratory revealed that breastfed infants consumed significantly less milk during the immediate hours after their mothers' consumption of an alcoholic beverage. Because breastfed infants are clearly capable of regulating milk ...
Livy D J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol exposure in humans can cause a variety of brain and behavioral abnormalities. The brain abnormalities include defects in the corpus callosum that range from total absence (agenesis) to reduction in size or thickness. Determination of the critical alcohol level or time period of exposure to produce these ...
Mennella J - - 2001
Although pregnant women are discouraged from drinking alcohol because of alcohol's detrimental effect on fetal development, the lore of many cultures encourages lactating women to drink alcohol to optimize breast milk production and infant nutrition. In contrast to this folklore, however, studies demonstrate that maternal alcohol consumption may slightly reduce ...
French R - - 2001
To assess the contraceptive efficacy, tolerability and acceptability of hormonally impregnated intrauterine systems (IUSs) in comparison to other reversible contraceptive methods. Literature was identified through database searches, reference lists and individuals/organisations working in the field. All randomised controlled trials comparing IUSs with other forms of reversible contraceptives and reporting on ...
Crich D - - 2000
[structure] The combination of S-(4-methoxyphenyl) benzenethiosulfinate (MPBT, 1) and trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride forms a powerful, metal-free, thiophile which readily activates thioglycosides, via glycosyl triflates, at -60 degrees C in dichloromethane, in the presence of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylpyridine. The glycosyl triflates are rapidly and cleanly converted to glycosides, upon treatment with alcohols, in good ...
Baum C R - - 2000
The enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase metabolizes ingested ethylene glycol (EG) to the toxic compounds glycolic and oxalic acids. Renal failure, acidosis, hypocalcemia, and death may follow. Traditional treatment of EG poisoning may require ethanol, a competitive substrate of alcohol dehydrogenase, and hemodialysis, that removes both EG and its toxic metabolites. A ...
- - 2000
Prenatal exposure to alcohol is one of the leading preventable causes of birth defects, mental retardation, and neurodevelopmental disorders. In 1973, a cluster of birth defects resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure was recognized as a clinical entity called fetal alcohol syndrome. More recently, alcohol exposure in utero has been linked ...
Ku K L - - 2000
An extraction apparatus was equipped with a nitrogen-flushing vessel to purge volatiles from a 10-g miso prepared solution at 40 degrees C, a reflux condenser to recover water, a coiled cold-trap to separate ethanol in advance, and a glass-lined stainless (GLS) trap filled with Tenax TA for flavor adsorption. Volatiles ...
Gross M L - - 2000
In its American context the case of baby Messenger, a preterm infant disconnected from life-support by his father and allowed to die has generated debate about neonatal treatment protocols. Limited by the legal and ethical norms of the United States, this case did not consider treatment protocols that might be ...
Kristensen P - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To compare the quality of data on previous pregnancies, based on maternal recall, to that of actual data in previous birth records, and to quantify to which extent recall based data bias results in epidemiologic studies on adverse reproductive outcomes. METHODS: Through linkage between agricultural censuses and the Medical ...
Nordrum I - - 2000
It is well established that use of alcohol increases the risk of fatal injuries. The presence of blood alcohol in autopsied deaths is regularly encountered in medico-legal practices. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and concentration of alcohol in 1539 medico-legal autopsies in two counties in ...
Molina J C - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Infant rats detect the presence of alcohol in milk when the dam suffers a moderate state of alcohol intoxication. The present study examined when rat pups begin to show behavioral changes indicative of the interaction with an intoxicated dam. The study also attempted to determine if infantile experiences involving ...
Brudenell I - - 2000
This qualitative study explored women's concurrent experiences of alcohol/drug recovery while parenting an infant. The study explored women's experiences of recovery from alcohol/drug dependence during the first year after their infant's birth. Balancing emerged as the process that explained how women successfully integrated the recovery and motherhood processes into their ...
Berman M - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: This article tests whether different forms of community-level alcohol control significantly affect injury deaths in a population with extremely high injury mortality. METHOD: The 1981 Alaska local option law provides a natural experiment for studying how implementation of community level controls may be associated with changes in injury deaths, ...
- - 2000
Five Michigan abortion clinics and a doctor filed a complaint in federal court on February 1, 2000, challenging the state's ¿Live Infant Protection Act¿, the state's recent attempt to ban virtually all abortions. The ban is scheduled to go into effect on March 10th, 2000. The ban was passed during ...
Caldwell J W - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine presentation, clinical course, and outcome of a cohort of pregnant women with coccidioidomycosis and compare findings with common observations reported in the literature. METHODS: Thirty-two women who delivered live infants or aborted fetuses in 1993 and had confirmed diagnoses of coccidioidomycosis were included in the study. Medical ...
Conrad C - - 2000
This study is concerned with physicians' consistency, aggressiveness, and perception of importance in screening children for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). Although irreversible, early intervention can improve an affected infant's survival and success in developing to his/her best potential. This study surveyed obstetricians. Pediatricians, family and general practitioners in San Antonio, ...
Klein J - - 1999
The authors report testing the meconium of a newborn for the presence of FAEE. Meconium from a newborn of a woman who acknowledged drinking beer throughout pregnancy was tested. The authors also tested the meconiums of 3 newborns whose mothers did not drink at all while pregnant. The FAEE were ...
Stoler J M - - 1999
Medical records of 124 women and their infants were analyzed for: (1) documentation of maternal alcohol and other substance abuse and (2) evaluation of exposed infants. These results were compared with the study interview and infant examination. More obstetric nurses documented the presence or absence of alcohol and substance abuse ...
- - 1999
The Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed a lower court decision that had held Nebraska's statute banning partial-birth abortion to be unconstitutional under the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The lower court had permanently enjoined enforcement of the statute. Nebraska's Partial-Birth Abortion Act prohibited "an abortion procedure in which ...
Smuts C M - - 1999
This study investigated the effect of alcohol consumption and smoking during pregnancy on the fatty acid composition of the infants. A total of 40 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants, weighing between 750 and 1500 g, were enrolled in the study after being hospitalized and ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Maternal and ...
Basson N J - - 1999
In this study external bacterial contamination of local anaesthetic cartridges from newly opened and open containers was examined. Colonies of mainly Gram-positive cocci and Gram-positive rods were grown from cartridges from both the freshly opened and open containers. However, the total number of colonies grown from open containers was significantly ...
Grønlund L - - 1999
BACKGROUND: To assess the diagnostic value of sonohysterography in the evaluation of metrorrhagia and infertility with hysteroscopy as the standard. METHODS: Sixty-six women, 41 with metrorrhagia, 20 with infertility and five with habitual abortion, were examined by sonohysterography and hysteroscopy. Sterile saline instilled through a baby-feeding tube was used to ...
Powell J - - 1999
Antenatal, intranatal and postnatal features of all Aboriginal women who lived at Cherbourg Aboriginal Community and delivered during 1990, 1991 and 1992 were compared with all non-Aboriginal women in the same rural area who delivered at Kingaroy Base Hospital during 1991. Almost all the Aboriginal women also delivered at Kingaroy. ...
Strier K B - - 1999
Comparative approaches in contemporary primate behavioral ecology have tended to emphasize the deterministic properties of stochastic ecological variables. Yet, primate responses to ecological fluctuations may be mediated by the interactions among demographic processes at the levels of individuals, groups, and populations. In this paper I examine long-term data collected from ...
Dindar H - - 1999
A male infant was referred to our department because of lumbosacral meningomyelocele, dorsal enteric fistula and imperforate anus. The mother had received a parenteral drug containing estradiol benzoate and progesterone for inducing abortion in the first trimester. She also used an anal pomade containing triamcinolone and lidocaine-HCl during the pregnancy ...
Okubo Y - - 1999
The psychrotrophic alanine racemase from Pseudomonas fluorescens, a typical psychrotroph, is less resistant to organic solvents than the enzymes from thermophilic and mesophilic bacteria (Okubo et al., J. Home Econ. Jpn., 46: 1135-1140, 1995). To further elucidate this difference, we examined the effect of ethyl alcohol on the growth and ...
Eiden R D RD Research Institute on Addictions, Buffalo, NY, USA. - - 1999
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fathers' alcoholism and the quality of parent-infant interactions during free play. A related goal was to study the potential mediating or moderating role of comorbid parental psychopathology, such as depression and antisocial behavior, difficult infant temperament, and parental aggression. ...
Deshapriya E B - - 1998
Official statistics of motor vehicle fatality data have indicated that alcohol involvement in fatal crashes has declined substantially in Japan since 1970. The national campaign against drunken driving in Japan provides a natural experiment in which to test the predictions of deterrence theory. Utilizing official data over the 1960-1995 period, ...
Agelink M W - - 1998
Standardized investigations on resting heart rate variability (HRV) should provide more information on acamprosate's human pharmacodynamic properties because acamprosate interacts with several neurotransmitter systems which are also involved in maintaining autonomic neurocardiac balance. We performed HRV measurements prospectively in 69 healthy controls and 19 chronic alcoholics to prove the hypotheses ...
Mennella J A - - 1998
Previous research demonstrated that breast-feeding infants consumed significantly less milk during the immediate hours after their mothers consumed an acute dose of alcohol when compared with a nonalcoholic beverage. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal alcohol consumption decreases the amount of milk available to the infant and alters ...
Stoler J M - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of a combination of 4 blood markers of alcohol use in detecting alcohol-abusing pregnant women. STUDY DESIGN: Two new markers of alcohol use, whole blood-associated acetaldehyde and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, and 2 traditional markers of alcohol use, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and mean red blood cell volume, were ...
Kunugi H - - 1998
Season of birth has been well studied in mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia and affective disorders; however, only a few studies have been done for alcoholism. Recently Modestin et al. (1995) found, in a sample from Switzerland, excess birth of male alcoholics in March to July, compared to the general ...
Domínguez H D - - 1998
It has been previously suggested that maternal alcohol intoxication during the last days of pregnancy promotes fetal experiences that include chemosensory processing of the drug. In this study pregnant Wistar-derived rats were administered saline or one of two alcohol doses (1 or 2 g/kg) during gestational days 17-20. Immediately after ...
Garcia L S - - 1998
As a result of disposal problems related to the use of mercury compounds, many laboratories have switched from mercuric chloride-based Schaudinn's and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) stool preservatives to other, non-mercury-based preservatives. A comparison of organism recoveries and morphologies of the intestinal protozoa was undertaken with PVA containing the EcoFix zinc-based ...
Makhseed M - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To study the possible correlation between maternal Brucella infection and reproductive failure as expressed by abortion, intrauterine fetal death, and preterm delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Maternal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serologic and microagglutination testing and conception product culture for Brucella were done in 227 women with preterm delivery, 51 with intrauterine ...
Redline R W - - 1998
Triploid partial moles are at risk for trophoblastic neoplasia, yet the prevalence, parent of origin, and evolution of the partial molar phenotype amongst all triploids remains controversial. We determined parental origin by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, stage of development by gross and histological criteria, and partial molar status according ...
Jacobson J L - - 1998
Prospective studies of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on development have focused primarily on the detection of subtle deficits. This study was designed to extend those findings by evaluating dose-response, functional significance, and pattern of drinking in greater detail. 480 African-American infants, recruited to overrepresent prenatal exposure at moderate-to-heavy ...
Mohapeloa H - - 1998
The release of certain cytokines, e.g. tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, in the amniotic fluid has been suggested to be a cause of preterm birth. The predisposition to excessive liberation of cytokines from peripheral leukocytes has been shown to depend partly on the individual's HLA-DR genotype. The HLA-DR1 and -DR3 alleles ...
Tanaka H - - 1998
To estimate and prevent the effects of prenatal alcohol on the central nervous system (CNS), brain dysfunction in fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol effects (FAE) was compared by both epidemiological and experimental studies. The FAS infants exhibited a more severe degree of CNS involvement than the FAE infants. ...
Kristan I - - 1998
The Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia includes two statutes: (a) the freedom to decide about the birth of one's own child (freedom of birth-decision), and (b) the right of conscientious objection, including the right to abortion. This discussion focuses on the principles of "free choice and womens'reproductive freedom". The ...
Stoll C - - 1998
The genetics and the epidemiology of Down syndrome (DS) was studied in the area which is covered by our registry of congenital malformations. For each of the 398 new DS cases which were ascertained during the period 1979 to 1996 more than 50 factors were studied and compared to those ...
Tüccar E - - 1998
As a part of a large-scale work aimed at studying the health effects of boron (B) in residents of a country with the world's largest supply, developmental effects of B are presented. Spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and congenital malformations in addition to early infant mortality were questioned in the field by ...
McCarver D G - - 1997
Considerable variation in offspring outcome is observed after intrauterine alcohol exposure. The underlying mechanism may include genetic diversity in the enzymes responsible for alcohol metabolism. Of the known genetic polymorphisms, differences at the alcohol dehydrogenase-2 locus (ADH2) are likely most critical because the resulting enzymes are >30-fold different in their ...
Grasso P - - 1997
Clusters of spontaneous abortion among video display terminal (VDT) users in North America and Canada in the late 1970s aroused suspicion about the potential risk of an association between VDT. exposure and pregnancy outcome. This case-control study considered the association between VDT use and the risk of miscarriage. Cases were ...
Simon R I - - 1997
Video voyeurs employ state of the art technology to gain access into the most private places where victims are covertly videotaped. Women are the usual victims of video voyeurs as they change their clothes, perform natural functions or engage in sexual activities. When the videotaping is discovered by the victim, ...
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