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Results 151 - 200 of 477
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Stark Ken D - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Inner-city, black women are among those groups that are at higher risk for having infants with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders that can include life-long neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments. Chronic alcohol consumption can decrease amounts of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a fatty acid that is essential for optimal infant neural and ...
Wiebe Ellen R - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to determine if buccal misoprostol was as effective as vaginal misoprostol in medical abortions. The secondary objectives were to compare side effects and acceptability. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled trial of 600 microg misoprostol by the buccal or vaginal routes used ...
Walker Dilys - - 2004
This study measured the contribution of abortion-related deaths to overall maternal mortality and calculated the underestimation of maternal mortality using verbal autopsy and clinical record review where available. We reviewed 807 death certificates of women aged 12-50 who died in 2001 in two sites of about 1.5 million inhabitants each ...
Truxell Eric - - 2004
BACKGROUND: During the preweanling period, infant rats consume large quantities of ethanol without initiating procedures. Ethanol intake during this period has seemed to be age related, with peak consumption occurring near the end of the second postnatal week, on postnatal day (P)12, but only a narrow range of conditions has ...
Stoler Joan Marilyn - - 2004
The diagnosis of an infant, especially a newborn, with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is difficult due to the fact that not all of the features are apparent at that time. Many cases are also missed due to inadequate knowledge of the mother's drinking pattern and because of the examining physician's ...
Martínez-Frías Maria Luisa - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The classic clinical criteria for the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) include a "characteristic" facial appearance, pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, microcephaly, mental retardation, and occasional major malformations. However, diagnostic constraints, especially in the newborn period, lead to an underestimate of their prevalence. We report an epidemiological study ...
Kable Julie A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Using methodologies from developmental studies on infant information-processing skills, early manifestations of later long-term neurocognitive effects of prenatal alcohol exposure can be explored by assessing primary cognitive processes, including attentional regulation and processing speed. METHODS: One hundred eighteen 6-month-old infants (18 high risk, 100 low risk) from a longitudinal ...
Williams Laura J - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that the prevalence of ventricular septal defects (VSDs) has increased significantly in the United States in the past 30 years. This increase has been primarily attributed to increased detection through echocardiography. However, little is known about the etiology of VSD. This study sought to evaluate ...
Arfsten Darryl P - - 2004
There is some evidence suggesting the allele for alcohol dehydrogenase 2*3 (ADH2*3) is associated with a protective effect against alcohol-related intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). This study was conducted to explore the affect of the ADH2*3 allele on fetal growth. Bloodspots (n = 1016) belonging to individual infants of a subgroup ...
Kokkinofta Rebecca - - 2003
Sixty-eight alcoholic beverages ranging in alcoholic degree between 40 and 55 from different countries were analyzed for their 16 most abundant metal elements using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy. The results were analyzed statistically using two different types of analytical methods: canonical discriminant analysis and classification binary trees. The aim ...
Irgens Agot - - 2003
It has been hypothesized that environmental factors influence sex differentiation in the fetus, thus causing a reduced sex ratio (male/female) at birth, an increase in the prevalence of ambiguous-sex infants, and possibly an increase in spontaneous abortion rates. In Norway, subsequent to 1967, all deliveries, including late abortions after 16 ...
Case Allison M - - 2003
Assessment of tubal patency and evaluation of the uterine cavity should be part of all infertility investigations. Sonohysterography (SHSG), also referred to as saline-enhanced ultrasonography, is being used with increasing frequency for investigation of infertility and other gynaecological indications. Sonohysterography is similar to hysterosalpingography (HSG) in its effectiveness for evaluating ...
Alborzi S - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of hysterosalpingography and sonohysterosalpingography in detecting tubal and uterine abnormalities. METHODS: In a prospective study for the evaluation of uterine and tubal pathologies, 186 patients with primary and secondary infertility rates (51.6% and 44%, respectively), as well as recurrent abortion rates (3.8%), underwent sonohysterosalpingography. ...
Testa Maria - - 2003
AIMS: Although research on fetal alcohol exposure has had a significant effect on social norms and public policy, there has been little quantitative review of this literature. METHODS: Meta-analysis was used to examine the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on infant mental development, assessed using the Mental Development Index (MDI) ...
Mwenda J M - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To review research findings on the effects of khat (Catha edulis) chewing on reproductive functions. DATA SOURCES: Retrieval and critical review of relevant articles and abstracts cited in international and local journals, literature searches on Medline and Medchem from 1961 to 2002. DATA SYNTHESIS: Analysis of published data and ...
Borgiani P - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the maternal MNSs genotype has an effect on the birth weight and gestation duration of the live offspring of women with repeated primary spontaneous abortion (RSA). METHODS: The study sample consisted of 239 healthy white women who had been delivered of a live infant, and 137 ...
Sharma S P - - 2003
The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Chlamydia psittaci was assessed in goats with a history of abortion, stillbirth and neonatal mortality. Antibodies were detected in 540 (30%) and 57 (3.2%) goats out of 1799 tested by indirect haemagglutination and complement fixation tests, respectively. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated for ...
Miyashita Yoshihiro - - 2003
We report here two cases of recurrent miscarriages that were successfully treated with continuous intravenous administration of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). One patient experienced 11 spontaneous abortions, and the other eight abortions. Previous treatments including prednisone, aspirin and mononuclear-cell immunization were all unsuccessful. They were negative for anticardiolipin antibodies ...
Bekri M - - 2003
In this study, we evaluated Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether (ETBE)-degrading consortia growths in the presence of diverse carbon sources (alcohols, alkanes, ether compounds and carbohydrates). In a second step, we studied the consortium ability to maintain its ETBE degradation activity after growing on these carbon sources in presence or in absence ...
Stoler Joan M - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether different alleles of the ADH2 gene (ADH2-1, ADH2-2 and ADH2-3) with differing levels of enzymatic activity can alter the risk of fetal alcohol effects. STUDY DESIGN: ADH2 genotypes were performed on 404 pregnant high-risk women and 139 infants as part of a larger study of alcohol ...
Gucciardi Enza - - 2002
Prenatal screening and the promotion of folic acid intake could affect the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). We examined trends in the total NTD incidence, as detected in live births, stillbirths and therapeutic abortions, from 1986 to 1999 in Ontario. To capture cases of NTDs we used data from ...
Luehr B - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Limb-body wall complex (LBWC) is a rare fetal polymalformation of uncertain etiology, but it has been regarded as sporadic in nature with a low recurrence risk. We review a case series in light of recent evidence about possible genetic and environmental associations. METHODS: All abortions or births coded as ...
Golombek Sergio G - - 2002
Over a 4-month period, all infants admitted to the well-baby nursery were enrolled in a prospective study designed to compare cord separation times between infants treated with triple dye once, followed by daily alcohol application, to infants treated with daily alcohol application alone. Follow-up phone calls were done 7 days ...
Sakaihara Mitsuo - - 2002
Wrongful birth claim is generally defined as a claim by the parents of a child born alive but with a disability that a doctor was negligent in permitting the pregnancy to continue to birth. There have been four cases relating to congenital rubella syndrome and one case relating to Down's ...
Little Ruth E - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to replicate a previous study of 1-year-olds that reported a deficit in motor development associated with moderate alcohol use during lactation, using a different but comparable population. METHODOLOGY: The mental development of 915 18-month-old toddlers from a random sample of a longitudinal population-based study in the United ...
Frank Deborah A - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between fathers' substance use and maternal and paternal background characteristics, infant outcome measures, and fathers' frequency of caregiving at 6 months postpartum in a cohort of cocaine-exposed and unexposed infants. METHODS: Secondary analysis was completed on data collected through interviews and medical records obtained from ...
Nandi M - - 2002
The strength of solvent affects the therapeutic efficacy of homeopathic tinctures of vegetable origin. On the basis of physical, chemical and biological assay of different tinctures made with different concentrations, in the case of Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall, the best solvent was 70% v/v ethanol. This is different from the standard ...
Zhang Shuzhen - - 2002
The interaction of brilliant cresol blue (BCB) with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as heparin (Hep) and chondroitin 4-sulfate (CS), in aqueous solution has been studied by spectrophotometry and light scattering spectroscopy. Absorbance of BCB at 632 and 594 nm decreased on addition of Hep or CS with the appearance of a ...
Laaksonen Mikko - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: The study examines sociodemographic variation in associations and co-occurrence of health behaviours that contribute to multifactorial chronic diseases. METHODS: Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios were used to examine pairwise associations among smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, and diet across categories of sociodemographic characteristics. Breslow-Day test for homogeneity was used to test ...
Gajalakshmi Palanivel - - 2002
In a comparative study of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in cultured lymphocytes, we evaluated the genotoxic risk in 104 male spray painters employed in repair workshops in Chennai City, India, and 50 matched healthy, unexposed controls. We found a higher frequency of SCEs among painters (3.74 +/- 0.11, mean +/- ...
Thompson G - - 2001
In a dairy herd experiencing an abortion outbreak, 49% of the 119 cows were positive for Neospora caninum antibodies and the remaining 51% were seronegative. Using immunohistochemical analysis of foetal brain tissue, Neospora cysts and bradyzoite clusters were identified in two of the 15 aborted foetuses submitted for testing. Other ...
Mann R E - - 2001
Per capita consumption of alcohol has traditionally been considered to be the leading indicator of population levels of alcohol problems. However, some recent research suggests that this relationship may be weakening, and that drinking pattern measures may be preferable to per capita consumption as problem-level indicators. We compared the ability ...
Richardson R - - 2001
We conducted an audit study of identified substance-using mothers and their neonates at Lismore Base Hospital in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales between January 1995 and December 1999. Women using marijuana and/or alcohol only were excluded. The average number of total births during the study period was ...
Mennella J A - - 2001
The results of previous research in our laboratory revealed that breast-fed infants experience significantly less active sleep after exposure to alcohol in their mothers' milk than do breast-fed infants not exposed to alcohol. The present study tested the hypothesis that infants would compensate for such reductions if their mothers then ...
George D T - - 2001
In a previous study we administered the panicogenic agent sodium lactate to a select group of perpetrators of domestic violence and comparison groups. Results of that study showed that perpetrators exhibited exaggerated lactate-induced fear, panic and rage. In this current study, we compared the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of ...
Chester R - - 2001
The author, an American law professor, believes that whole-body cloning of adult humans will be possible in the near future. He does not believe the procedure should be banned when used as a form of assisted reproduction, but that it should be regulated by the government to ensure proper testing ...
Backstrand J R - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To document the consumption during pregnancy of pulque, a traditional central Mexican alcoholic beverage, and its relationship to subsequent infant size, physical growth and performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Six villages in rural, central Mexico in 1984-1985. SUBJECTS: Seventy mother-infant pairs. ...
Schneider M L - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure can contribute to neurodevelopmental deficits in nonhuman primate offspring. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of gestational timing of alcohol exposure on neurobehavior with a nonhuman primate model. METHODS: Sixty-three rhesus monkey infants (Macaca mulatta), from four groups of females, were ...
Chenet L - - 2001
BACKGROUND: During the early 1990s the countries of the Former Soviet Union experienced a dramatic rise in mortality, especially from cardiovascular diseases. Although still poorly understood there is evidence, particularly from Russia, that this mortality crisis is partly linked to alcohol consumption. In this paper we use data from Lithuania ...
Frank R K - - 2001
A large Wisconsin mink (Mustela vison) farm experienced an outbreak of toxoplasmosis in the spring of 1999 following an outbreak of canine distemper during the previous fall. Major clinical signs for pregnant females included reduced feed consumption, abortions, and stillborn kits; kits < or =3 weeks old experienced ataxia and ...
Leung A K - - 2001
A Chinese baby girl was born after an uncomplicated pregnancy and a normal spontaneous vaginal delivery to a gravida 2, para 1, 32-year-old mother at 37 weeks' gestation. Neither parent had a history of alcohol or drug ingestion. There was no history of consanguinity. The Apgar scores were 7 at ...
Mennella J A - - 2001
Contrary to the folklore which claims that drinking alcohol during lactation benefits both mother and infant, previous research in our laboratory revealed that breastfed infants consumed significantly less milk during the immediate hours after their mothers' consumption of an alcoholic beverage. Because breastfed infants are clearly capable of regulating milk ...
Livy D J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol exposure in humans can cause a variety of brain and behavioral abnormalities. The brain abnormalities include defects in the corpus callosum that range from total absence (agenesis) to reduction in size or thickness. Determination of the critical alcohol level or time period of exposure to produce these ...
Mennella J - - 2001
Although pregnant women are discouraged from drinking alcohol because of alcohol's detrimental effect on fetal development, the lore of many cultures encourages lactating women to drink alcohol to optimize breast milk production and infant nutrition. In contrast to this folklore, however, studies demonstrate that maternal alcohol consumption may slightly reduce ...
French R - - 2001
To assess the contraceptive efficacy, tolerability and acceptability of hormonally impregnated intrauterine systems (IUSs) in comparison to other reversible contraceptive methods. Literature was identified through database searches, reference lists and individuals/organisations working in the field. All randomised controlled trials comparing IUSs with other forms of reversible contraceptives and reporting on ...
Crich D - - 2000
[structure] The combination of S-(4-methoxyphenyl) benzenethiosulfinate (MPBT, 1) and trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride forms a powerful, metal-free, thiophile which readily activates thioglycosides, via glycosyl triflates, at -60 degrees C in dichloromethane, in the presence of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylpyridine. The glycosyl triflates are rapidly and cleanly converted to glycosides, upon treatment with alcohols, in good ...
Baum C R - - 2000
The enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase metabolizes ingested ethylene glycol (EG) to the toxic compounds glycolic and oxalic acids. Renal failure, acidosis, hypocalcemia, and death may follow. Traditional treatment of EG poisoning may require ethanol, a competitive substrate of alcohol dehydrogenase, and hemodialysis, that removes both EG and its toxic metabolites. A ...
- - 2000
Prenatal exposure to alcohol is one of the leading preventable causes of birth defects, mental retardation, and neurodevelopmental disorders. In 1973, a cluster of birth defects resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure was recognized as a clinical entity called fetal alcohol syndrome. More recently, alcohol exposure in utero has been linked ...
Ku K L - - 2000
An extraction apparatus was equipped with a nitrogen-flushing vessel to purge volatiles from a 10-g miso prepared solution at 40 degrees C, a reflux condenser to recover water, a coiled cold-trap to separate ethanol in advance, and a glass-lined stainless (GLS) trap filled with Tenax TA for flavor adsorption. Volatiles ...
Gross M L - - 2000
In its American context the case of baby Messenger, a preterm infant disconnected from life-support by his father and allowed to die has generated debate about neonatal treatment protocols. Limited by the legal and ethical norms of the United States, this case did not consider treatment protocols that might be ...
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