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Andreson Jennifer - - 2013
Background: Prior to 2010, the World Health Organization recommended that HIV-positive mothers exclusively breastfeed for the first 6 months of life unless replacement feeding was acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable, and safe. Community pressure to practice mixed feeding, lack of knowledge on safe feeding, and shame regarding HIV status discourage mothers ...
Chi Benjamin H BH Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia. - - 2013
Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy has been shown to reduce mortality among perinatally HIV-infected infants, but availability of virologic testing remains limited in many settings. We collected cross-sectional data from mother-infant pairs in three primary care clinics in Lusaka, Zambia, to develop predictive models for HIV infection among infants younger ...
Kimberlin David W - - 2013
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting ...
Ding Yang - - 2013
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The main transmission route of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is mother to child transmission and contributes significantly to chronic HBV infection. Even though immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and hepatitis B vaccine is administrated to neonates whose mothers are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive, about ...
Hurst Carol Grace - - 2013
Increasing breastfeeding initiation and duration in the United States has been identified as a major public health goal. This article presents an initial validation of the Sexual Perceptions of Breastfeeding Scale (SPBFS). The SPBFS was designed to assess the presence of sexual perceptions regarding breastfeeding that may interfere with a ...
Moodley Dhayendre - - 2013
The World Health Organisation and the Joint United Nations Programme in 2006 reaffirmed the earlier recommendation of 2000 that all HIV-exposed infants in resource-poor countries should commence cotrimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis at 6-weeks of life. CTX prophylaxis should be continued until the child is confirmed HIV-uninfected and there is no further ...
Sprengelmeyer Reiner - - 2013
Infant cuteness can influence adult-infant interaction and has been shown to activate reward centres in the brain. In a previous study, we found men and women to be differentially sensitive to small differences in infant facial cuteness, with reproductive hormone status as the potential underlying cause. It is unclear, however, ...
Vallely Lisa M - - 2013
Interventions to prevent mother to child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during childbirth and breastfeeding can reduce HIV infections in infants to less than 5% in low and middle income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends all mothers, regardless of their HIV status, practice exclusive breastfeeding for the ...
Yu Yang - - 2013
Allogrooming in primates has acquired an important social function beyond its original hygienic function and can be exchanged either for itself or used as a currency to obtain other benefits such as copulations, access to infants or agonistic support. We explore the strategic use of grooming as a social tool ...
Dryden-Peterson Scott - - 2013
Prophylactic cotrimoxazole is recommended for infants born to HIV-infected mothers. However, cotrimoxazole may increase the risk of severe anemia or neutropenia. We compared the proportion of HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU) infants experiencing incident severe anemia (and separately, severe neutropenia) between a prospective cohort receiving prophylactic cotrimoxazole from 1 to 6 months ...
Borgella Sophie - - 2013
Infants of mothers with placental Plasmodium falciparum infections at delivery are themselves more susceptible to malaria attacks or to infection in early life. To assess the impact of either the timing or the number of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) infections on the incidence of parasitemia or malaria attacks in infancy, we ...
González Raquel - - 2013
Human milk and infant gut microbiota are essential for the immune system maturation and protection against infections. There is scarce information on the microbiological composition of breast milk in general, and none from developing countries. The objective of the study was to characterize the breast milk and gut microbiota from ...
Ndubuka Justina J School of Population, Community & Behavioural Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, - - 2013
To assess knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding infant feeding among HIV-positive pregnant women in Gaborone, Botswana, and factors that influence their infant feeding choices. A cross-sectional study. A questionnaire survey of 96 HIV-positive pregnant women attending four public infectious disease control clinics in Gaborone, Botswana. Only about half of the ...
Fouda Genevieve G GG Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, - - 2013
Breastfeeding is a leading cause of infant HIV-1 infection in the developing world, yet only a minority of infants exposed to HIV-1 via breastfeeding become infected. As a genetic bottleneck severely restricts the number of postnatally-transmitted variants, genetic or phenotypic properties of the virus Envelope (Env) could be important for ...
Permar Sallie R SR Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, - - 2013
Intrapartum administration of single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) reduces perinatal HIV-1 transmission in resource-limiting settings by half. Yet this strategy has limited effect on subsequent breast milk transmission, making the case for new treatment approaches to extend maternal/infant antiretroviral prophylaxis through the period of lactation. Maternal and transmitted infant HIV-1 variants frequently ...
De Pisapia Nicola - - 2012
Infant cries are a critical survival mechanism that draw the attention of adult caregivers, who can then satisfy the basic needs of otherwise helpless infants. Here, we used functional neuroimaging to determine the effects of infant hunger cries on the brain activity of adults who were in a cognitively nondemanding ...
McDonald Christine M CM Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, - - 2013
Infants born to HIV-infected women are at increased risk of impaired neurodevelopment, but little research has attempted to identify modifiable risk factors. The objective of this prospective cohort analysis was to identify maternal, socioeconomic, and child correlates of psychomotor and mental development in the first 18 mo of life among ...
Binagwaho Agnes - - 2012
More than 390 000 children are newly infected with HIV each year, only 28 per cent of whom benefit from early infant diagnosis (EID). Rwanda's Ministry of Health identified several major challenges hindering EID scale-up in care of HIV-positive infants. It found poor counseling and follow-up by caregivers of HIV-exposed infants, ...
Bhowan Kapila - - 2012
Diagnosing HIV infection in infants by p24 antigen detection at point of care is likely to reduce infant morbidity and mortality. A fourth generation rapid test evaluated on 202 stored samples from children of known age and clinical presentation demonstrated a sensitivity of <2% for detecting p24 antigen in 61 ...
Hoa Dinh Thi Phuong - - 2012
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence of an elevated sex ratio at birth (SRB) in many Asian countries, including Vietnam, and that this prenatal gender inequity is related to sex-selective abortion. However, few studies have investigated the relation between the sex of offspring and delivery care utilization. OBJECTIVE: The aim of ...
Gribble Karleen D - - 2012
Infants and young children are vulnerable in emergencies. The media plays an important role in aid delivery and has a positive impact when reports are accurate. However, the media has been implicated in encouraging harmful aid in the form of donations of infant formula and other milk products. Internet-based media ...
Lanari M - - 2012
Breastfeeding should be considered a public health issue and the reference normative standards for infant feeding at least to the 6th month of life, with continuation of breastfeeding for 1 year or longer as mutually desired by mother and infant. Numerous studies demonstrate that breastfeeding results in improved infant and ...
Dobbins Timothy A - - 2012
To present updated national birthweight percentiles by gestational age for male and female singleton infants born in Australia. Cross-sectional population-based study of 2.53 million singleton live births in Australia between 1998 and 2007. Birthweight percentiles by gestational age and sex. Between 1998 and 2007, women in Australia gave birth to ...
Shoji Kensuke - - 2012
  Human parechovirus type 3 (HPeV3) is known to cause sepsis-like syndrome and meningoencephalitis in neonates and young infants. We herein report a neonatal case of sepsis-like syndrome due to HPeV3 infection, diagnosed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with a distinctive erythematous rash present mainly on the soles and palms ...
Baba U A - - 2012
Background: Infants are protected from measles infection by maternal measles antibodies (MMA). The level of these MMA at birth in newborn children depends on the levels in their mother and the extent of placental transfer. We investigated maternal HIV infection as a predictor of levels of MMA in mother-infant pairs ...
Hahn Amanda C - - 2012
Facial appearance can motivate behaviour and elicit activation of brain circuits putatively involved in reward. Gender differences have been observed for motivation to view beauty in adult faces-heterosexual women are motivated by beauty in general, while heterosexual men are motivated to view opposite-sex beauty alone. Although gender differences have been ...
Tooke Lloyd - - 2012
BACKGROUND:: Prematurity increases the peri-natal HIV transmission rate compared to term infants. There is sparse literature documenting the risk of transmission of HIV to extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. OBJECTIVE:: To determine the risk of perinatal transmission of HIV to ELBW infants in a tertiary neonatal unit in South ...
Obladen Michael - - 2012
Abstract Breast pumps have been used since antiquity, and their form has changed with the available material. The ancient Greeks used the ceramic guttus type, both to empty the breast and feed the infant. The Romans invented glass milk-extractors, sucked by the mother herself to elevate retracted nipples. Devices in ...
Dube Queen - - 2012
Malawi's national guidelines recommend that infants exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) be tested at 6 weeks of age. Rollout of services for early infant diagnosis has been limited and has resulted in the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in very few infants. An early infant diagnosis programme was ...
Samleerat T - - 2012
Purpose of the study: Previous studies evaluating the frequency of CXCR4-using strains in HIV-1 vertically infected children restricted mainly to patients infected with subtype B or C strains. However, the coreceptor use by non-B or non-C subtypes remains little known, especially in infants. In this study, we determined the HIV-1 ...
Taksande A - - 2012
Cor triatriatum sinister is a rare congenital cardiac malformation characterized by a membrane in the left atrium which separates the left atrium into the proximal and distal chambers. Association of cor triatriatum is extremely rare with situs inversus totalis. Here we report a rare case of cor triatriatum sinister with ...
Chinkonde Jacqueline R - - 2012
The question of when and how to best wean infants born to mothers with HIV requires complex answers. There are clinical guidelines on best approaches but limitations persist when applying them in diverse low-income settings. In such settings, infant-feeding practices are not only dependent on individual women's choices but are ...
Sawyer Cheryl Chriss - - 2012
Producing estimates of infant (under age 1 y), child (age 1-4 y), and under-five (under age 5 y) mortality rates disaggregated by sex is complicated by problems with data quality and availability. Interpretation of sex differences requires nuanced analysis: girls have a biological advantage against many causes of death that ...
Janvier Annie - - 2011
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of infants admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) from multiple gestations resulting from artificial reproductive technology (ART), the complications experienced and interventions required by these infants, and the estimated effect of a mandatory policy of single embryo transfer on admissions and complication rates ...
Olza Fernández Ibone - - 2011
The study of the neurohormonal and behavioral processes and neural mechanisms involved in the development of attachment between the infant and the mother has received increased attention over the last years. Oxytocin has been shown to play a central role in the regulation of affiliate social behavior, including sexual behavior, ...
Molteno Christopher D - - 2010
Infant symbolic play was examined in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure and socioenvironmental background and to predict which infants met criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) at 5 years. 107 Cape Coloured, South African infants born to heavy drinking mothers and abstainers/light drinkers were recruited prenatally. Complexity of play, socio-demographic ...
Phillips David P - - 2011
Aim  To test whether alcohol is a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Design and setting  US epidemiological study using computerized death certificates, linked birth and infant death dataset, and Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Participants  All SIDS cases (n = 129 090) and other infant deaths (n = 295 151) from 1973-2006; all persons ...
Gloria-Bottini Fulvia - - 2011
FUT2 is an autosomal gene that controls the secretion of the ABH blood group antigens in organic fluids. The secretor gene plays an important role during intrauterine life. The aim of this study is to investigate a possible association between the ABH system and reproductive success in couples with primary ...
Boyles Abee L - - 2010
Heavy maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy increases the risk of oral clefts, but little is known about how genetic variation in alcohol metabolism affects this association. Variants in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C) gene may modify the association between alcohol and clefts. In a population-based case-control study carried out ...
Hutson Janine R - - 2010
Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to a wide range of deficits known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Epidemiologic studies regarding alcohol consumption in pregnancy have concentrated on North America, but recent reports have suggested that consumption is significant in many parts of the world. In Uruguay, alcohol consumption has changed ...
Zhang Ning - - 2010
This study examines the relationships between alcohol taxation, drinking during pregnancy, and infant health. Merged data from the US Natality Detailed Files, as well as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1985-2002), data regarding state taxes on beer, wine, and liquor, a state- and year-fixed-effect reduced-form regression were used. Results ...
Oberlander Tim F - - 2010
To examine biobehavioral responses to an acute pain event in a Cape Town, South Africa, cohort consisting of 28 Cape Colored (mixed ancestry) newborns (n = 14) heavily exposed to alcohol during pregnancy (exposed), and born to abstainers (n = 14) or light (< or = 0.5 oz absolute alcohol/d) ...
Templeton Alexa H - - 2009
Sudden arrhythmic cardiac death can occur in chronic misusers of alcohol. The only findings at post mortem are fatty liver and a negative or low blood alcohol. This is an under-recognized entity. Coroner's post mortems in a typical UK city were studied. Seven out of 1,292 (0.5%) post mortems were ...
Strandberg-Larsen Katrine - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The safety of small amounts of alcohol drinking and occasional binge-level drinking during pregnancy remains unsettled. We examined the association of maternal average alcohol intake and binge drinking (>or=5 drinks per sitting) with infant mortality, both in the neonatal and postneonatal period. METHODS: Participants were 79,216 mothers who were ...
Hsieh Michael H - - 2009
Prenatal sonography has enabled fetal diagnosis of urologic conditions and is now commonly used in the US. The impact of this technology on the incidence of pediatric urological diagnoses is unknown. We sought to assess trends in prenatal sonography and resulting urologic diagnoses and/or abortions. Using administrative codes in Ingenix, ...
Gloria-Bottini F - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To study the reproductive success of couples with a history of repeated spontaneous abortion (RSA) with respect to the haptoglobin (Hp) phenotypes of both the wife and husband. STUDY DESIGN: This study examined maternal and paternal Hp in 194 couples with primary and secondary RSA recruited from the Center ...
Fifer William P - - 2009
Prenatal exposure to smoking and alcohol increases the risk for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Physiological changes associated with these exposures are not well studied. Full-term infants were tested within the first 3 days of life. We hypothesized that maternal alcohol consumption and/or smoking during pregnancy would alter autonomic nervous ...
Fertig Angela R - - 2009
Alcohol policies have potentially far-reaching impacts on risky sexual behavior, prenatal health behaviors, and subsequent outcomes for infants. After finding initial evidence in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) that changes in the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) are related to prenatal drinking, we examine whether the drinking age ...
Swingle Hanes M - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analyses of studies that test the association between induced or spontaneous abortion and subsequent preterm birth. STUDY DESIGN: International databases were reviewed (1995-2007) using the terms preterm, premature, birth, labor, delivery, abortion, induced abortion, miscarriage and spontaneous abortion. Only studies that met prespecified ...
O'Leary C M - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal growth and preterm birth and to estimate the effect of dose and timing of alcohol exposure in pregnancy. DESIGN: A population-based cohort study linked to birth information on the Western Australian Midwives Notification System. SETTING: Western Australia. POPULATION: A ...
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