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Michael Marc - - 2013
Official data on sex ratios at birth suggest a rise in sex-selective abortions in some post-Soviet states following the introduction of ultrasonography. However, questions remain about the validity of official data in these nations as well as whether the high sex ratios at birth are a statistical artifact. Trends in ...
Hsiao Nei-Yuan - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an important pathogen in HIV exposed infants with pneumonia. However, the diagnosis of HCMV pneumonia in this setting is challenging due to limited access to bronchoscopy, lung biopsy and direct sampling of the lower respiratory tract. HCMV viraemia is more accessible, but their diagnostic performance ...
Kourtis Athena P AP Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA. - - 2013
Increased intestinal permeability may be one of the mechanisms of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to infants through breast-feeding. Intestinal permeability correlates with microbial translocation, which can be measured through quantification of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We evaluated levels of plasma LPS (by the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay) and immune ...
Langos Doreen D Junior Research Group of Primate Kin Selection, Department of Primatology, Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103, Leipzig, - - 2013
In multimale groups where females mate promiscuously, male-infant associations have rarely been studied. However, recent studies have shown that males selectively support their offspring during agonistic conflicts with other juveniles and that father's presence accelerates offspring maturation. Furthermore, it was shown that males invest in unrelated infants to enhance future ...
Carlsen Fredrik - - 2013
BACKGROUND: There has been a considerable decline in fetal and neonatal mortality in the Western world. The authors hypothesized that this decline has been largest for boys, since boys have a higher risk of fetal and neonatal death. METHODS: The authors used data from the Medical Birth Registry about all ...
Koye Digsu Negese - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) accounts for more than 90% of pediatric Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) cases. Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programs are provided for dual benefits i.e. prevention of HIV transmission from mother to child and enrolment of infected pregnant women and their families into ...
Lilian Rivka R - - 2013
BACKGROUND:: Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) depends on an early infant diagnosis (EID) and is critical to reduce HIV-related infant mortality. We describe the implementation of a routine Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) program and focus on EID to identify opportunities to improve outcomes. METHODS:: HIV-exposed infants and their ...
Pinto Fabiane Scalabrini - - 2013
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological characteristics of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mothers and the live birth conditions of neonates. METHODS: A serological survey with IgG-specific tests was conducted using dried blood samples from newborn infants in the State of Minas Gerais. T. cruzi infection was confirmed ...
Hahn H S - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the rate of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in pregnant women and their neonates, and the risk factors associated with vertical transmission of HPV infection from mothers to neonates. STUDY DESIGN: Cervical HPV testing was undertaken in pregnant women over 36 weeks of gestation, and mouth secretions and ...
Palchik Alexander B - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Both intra-uterine exposure to maternal drugs and HIV are known to adversely affect the developing central nervous system. AIMS: (1) To describe the quality of GMs in infants who were intra-uterinely exposed to maternal opiate abuse and HIV; and (2) to analyze to what extent (a) perinatal events, (b) ...
Ahl Richard Evan - - 2013
We examined the effects of infant age and gender on the behaviors of infants and mothers during discipline interactions using longitudinal, naturalistic, home-based, taped observations of 16 mother-infant dyads (eight males and eight females). These observations were conducted between the child ages of 5 and 12 months and used a ...
Zhou Qi-Hai - - 2013
Infanticide by males is a common phenomenon in mammals, especially primates, as lactation lasts much longer than gestation in many species. Usually, infanticidal episodes occur soon after group takeovers, and are traditionally considered a male reproductive strategy (i.e., support the sexual selection hypothesis, Hrdy, 1974). To verify the validity of ...
Ding Wei - - 2013
Few quantitative descriptions of parturition behavior have been reported in wild nonhuman primates because the majority of births occur at night. We have recorded a daytime birth event of a primiparous black-and-white snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti). The partum stage lasted 4min 30 s, and the female skillfully severed the umbilical ...
Andreson Jennifer - - 2013
Background: Prior to 2010, the World Health Organization recommended that HIV-positive mothers exclusively breastfeed for the first 6 months of life unless replacement feeding was acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable, and safe. Community pressure to practice mixed feeding, lack of knowledge on safe feeding, and shame regarding HIV status discourage mothers ...
Chi Benjamin H BH Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia. - - 2013
Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy has been shown to reduce mortality among perinatally HIV-infected infants, but availability of virologic testing remains limited in many settings. We collected cross-sectional data from mother-infant pairs in three primary care clinics in Lusaka, Zambia, to develop predictive models for HIV infection among infants younger ...
Kimberlin David W - - 2013
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting ...
Ding Yang - - 2013
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The main transmission route of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is mother to child transmission and contributes significantly to chronic HBV infection. Even though immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and hepatitis B vaccine is administrated to neonates whose mothers are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive, about ...
Hurst Carol Grace - - 2013
Increasing breastfeeding initiation and duration in the United States has been identified as a major public health goal. This article presents an initial validation of the Sexual Perceptions of Breastfeeding Scale (SPBFS). The SPBFS was designed to assess the presence of sexual perceptions regarding breastfeeding that may interfere with a ...
Moodley Dhayendre - - 2013
The World Health Organisation and the Joint United Nations Programme in 2006 reaffirmed the earlier recommendation of 2000 that all HIV-exposed infants in resource-poor countries should commence cotrimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis at 6-weeks of life. CTX prophylaxis should be continued until the child is confirmed HIV-uninfected and there is no further ...
Sprengelmeyer Reiner - - 2013
Infant cuteness can influence adult-infant interaction and has been shown to activate reward centres in the brain. In a previous study, we found men and women to be differentially sensitive to small differences in infant facial cuteness, with reproductive hormone status as the potential underlying cause. It is unclear, however, ...
Vallely Lisa M - - 2013
Interventions to prevent mother to child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during childbirth and breastfeeding can reduce HIV infections in infants to less than 5% in low and middle income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends all mothers, regardless of their HIV status, practice exclusive breastfeeding for the ...
Yu Yang - - 2013
Allogrooming in primates has acquired an important social function beyond its original hygienic function and can be exchanged either for itself or used as a currency to obtain other benefits such as copulations, access to infants or agonistic support. We explore the strategic use of grooming as a social tool ...
Dryden-Peterson Scott - - 2013
Prophylactic cotrimoxazole is recommended for infants born to HIV-infected mothers. However, cotrimoxazole may increase the risk of severe anemia or neutropenia. We compared the proportion of HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU) infants experiencing incident severe anemia (and separately, severe neutropenia) between a prospective cohort receiving prophylactic cotrimoxazole from 1 to 6 months ...
Borgella Sophie - - 2013
Infants of mothers with placental Plasmodium falciparum infections at delivery are themselves more susceptible to malaria attacks or to infection in early life. To assess the impact of either the timing or the number of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) infections on the incidence of parasitemia or malaria attacks in infancy, we ...
González Raquel - - 2013
Human milk and infant gut microbiota are essential for the immune system maturation and protection against infections. There is scarce information on the microbiological composition of breast milk in general, and none from developing countries. The objective of the study was to characterize the breast milk and gut microbiota from ...
Ndubuka Justina J School of Population, Community & Behavioural Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, - - 2013
To assess knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding infant feeding among HIV-positive pregnant women in Gaborone, Botswana, and factors that influence their infant feeding choices. A cross-sectional study. A questionnaire survey of 96 HIV-positive pregnant women attending four public infectious disease control clinics in Gaborone, Botswana. Only about half of the ...
Fouda Genevieve G GG Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, - - 2013
Breastfeeding is a leading cause of infant HIV-1 infection in the developing world, yet only a minority of infants exposed to HIV-1 via breastfeeding become infected. As a genetic bottleneck severely restricts the number of postnatally-transmitted variants, genetic or phenotypic properties of the virus Envelope (Env) could be important for ...
Permar Sallie R SR Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, - - 2013
Intrapartum administration of single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) reduces perinatal HIV-1 transmission in resource-limiting settings by half. Yet this strategy has limited effect on subsequent breast milk transmission, making the case for new treatment approaches to extend maternal/infant antiretroviral prophylaxis through the period of lactation. Maternal and transmitted infant HIV-1 variants frequently ...
De Pisapia Nicola - - 2012
Infant cries are a critical survival mechanism that draw the attention of adult caregivers, who can then satisfy the basic needs of otherwise helpless infants. Here, we used functional neuroimaging to determine the effects of infant hunger cries on the brain activity of adults who were in a cognitively nondemanding ...
McDonald Christine M CM Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, - - 2013
Infants born to HIV-infected women are at increased risk of impaired neurodevelopment, but little research has attempted to identify modifiable risk factors. The objective of this prospective cohort analysis was to identify maternal, socioeconomic, and child correlates of psychomotor and mental development in the first 18 mo of life among ...
Binagwaho Agnes - - 2012
More than 390 000 children are newly infected with HIV each year, only 28 per cent of whom benefit from early infant diagnosis (EID). Rwanda's Ministry of Health identified several major challenges hindering EID scale-up in care of HIV-positive infants. It found poor counseling and follow-up by caregivers of HIV-exposed infants, ...
Bhowan Kapila - - 2012
Diagnosing HIV infection in infants by p24 antigen detection at point of care is likely to reduce infant morbidity and mortality. A fourth generation rapid test evaluated on 202 stored samples from children of known age and clinical presentation demonstrated a sensitivity of <2% for detecting p24 antigen in 61 ...
Hoa Dinh Thi Phuong - - 2012
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence of an elevated sex ratio at birth (SRB) in many Asian countries, including Vietnam, and that this prenatal gender inequity is related to sex-selective abortion. However, few studies have investigated the relation between the sex of offspring and delivery care utilization. OBJECTIVE: The aim of ...
Gribble Karleen D - - 2012
Infants and young children are vulnerable in emergencies. The media plays an important role in aid delivery and has a positive impact when reports are accurate. However, the media has been implicated in encouraging harmful aid in the form of donations of infant formula and other milk products. Internet-based media ...
Lanari M - - 2012
Breastfeeding should be considered a public health issue and the reference normative standards for infant feeding at least to the 6th month of life, with continuation of breastfeeding for 1 year or longer as mutually desired by mother and infant. Numerous studies demonstrate that breastfeeding results in improved infant and ...
Dobbins Timothy A - - 2012
To present updated national birthweight percentiles by gestational age for male and female singleton infants born in Australia. Cross-sectional population-based study of 2.53 million singleton live births in Australia between 1998 and 2007. Birthweight percentiles by gestational age and sex. Between 1998 and 2007, women in Australia gave birth to ...
Shoji Kensuke - - 2012
  Human parechovirus type 3 (HPeV3) is known to cause sepsis-like syndrome and meningoencephalitis in neonates and young infants. We herein report a neonatal case of sepsis-like syndrome due to HPeV3 infection, diagnosed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with a distinctive erythematous rash present mainly on the soles and palms ...
Baba U A - - 2012
Background: Infants are protected from measles infection by maternal measles antibodies (MMA). The level of these MMA at birth in newborn children depends on the levels in their mother and the extent of placental transfer. We investigated maternal HIV infection as a predictor of levels of MMA in mother-infant pairs ...
Hahn Amanda C - - 2012
Facial appearance can motivate behaviour and elicit activation of brain circuits putatively involved in reward. Gender differences have been observed for motivation to view beauty in adult faces-heterosexual women are motivated by beauty in general, while heterosexual men are motivated to view opposite-sex beauty alone. Although gender differences have been ...
Tooke Lloyd - - 2012
BACKGROUND:: Prematurity increases the peri-natal HIV transmission rate compared to term infants. There is sparse literature documenting the risk of transmission of HIV to extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. OBJECTIVE:: To determine the risk of perinatal transmission of HIV to ELBW infants in a tertiary neonatal unit in South ...
Obladen Michael - - 2012
Abstract Breast pumps have been used since antiquity, and their form has changed with the available material. The ancient Greeks used the ceramic guttus type, both to empty the breast and feed the infant. The Romans invented glass milk-extractors, sucked by the mother herself to elevate retracted nipples. Devices in ...
Dube Queen - - 2012
Malawi's national guidelines recommend that infants exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) be tested at 6 weeks of age. Rollout of services for early infant diagnosis has been limited and has resulted in the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in very few infants. An early infant diagnosis programme was ...
Samleerat T - - 2012
Purpose of the study: Previous studies evaluating the frequency of CXCR4-using strains in HIV-1 vertically infected children restricted mainly to patients infected with subtype B or C strains. However, the coreceptor use by non-B or non-C subtypes remains little known, especially in infants. In this study, we determined the HIV-1 ...
Taksande A - - 2012
Cor triatriatum sinister is a rare congenital cardiac malformation characterized by a membrane in the left atrium which separates the left atrium into the proximal and distal chambers. Association of cor triatriatum is extremely rare with situs inversus totalis. Here we report a rare case of cor triatriatum sinister with ...
Chinkonde Jacqueline R - - 2012
The question of when and how to best wean infants born to mothers with HIV requires complex answers. There are clinical guidelines on best approaches but limitations persist when applying them in diverse low-income settings. In such settings, infant-feeding practices are not only dependent on individual women's choices but are ...
Sawyer Cheryl Chriss - - 2012
Producing estimates of infant (under age 1 y), child (age 1-4 y), and under-five (under age 5 y) mortality rates disaggregated by sex is complicated by problems with data quality and availability. Interpretation of sex differences requires nuanced analysis: girls have a biological advantage against many causes of death that ...
Janvier Annie - - 2011
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of infants admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) from multiple gestations resulting from artificial reproductive technology (ART), the complications experienced and interventions required by these infants, and the estimated effect of a mandatory policy of single embryo transfer on admissions and complication rates ...
Olza Fernández Ibone - - 2011
The study of the neurohormonal and behavioral processes and neural mechanisms involved in the development of attachment between the infant and the mother has received increased attention over the last years. Oxytocin has been shown to play a central role in the regulation of affiliate social behavior, including sexual behavior, ...
Molteno Christopher D - - 2010
Infant symbolic play was examined in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure and socioenvironmental background and to predict which infants met criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) at 5 years. 107 Cape Coloured, South African infants born to heavy drinking mothers and abstainers/light drinkers were recruited prenatally. Complexity of play, socio-demographic ...
Phillips David P - - 2011
Aim  To test whether alcohol is a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Design and setting  US epidemiological study using computerized death certificates, linked birth and infant death dataset, and Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Participants  All SIDS cases (n = 129 090) and other infant deaths (n = 295 151) from 1973-2006; all persons ...
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