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Ortinau Cynthia C Department of Pediatric Newborn Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, - - 2014
Brain development is a complex process of micro- and macrostructural events that include neuronal and glial proliferation and migration, myelination, and organizational development of cortical layers and circuitry. Recent progress in understanding these processes has provided insight into the pathophysiology of brain injury and alterations of cerebral development in preterm ...
Benavente-Fernández Isabel I Department of Neonatology, Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, Av. Ana de Viya 21, 11009, Cádiz, Spain, - - 2014
Amplitude integrated electroencephalogaphy (aEEG) is becoming an important tool for the assessment of cerebral activity in preterm newborns. Describing the relationship between early aEEG patterns and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) can improve our knowledge of neurological injury in the preterm newborn. The aim of this prospective study was to identify early ...
Reisinger Kostan W KW Department of Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, and Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute (NUTRIM), Maastricht, The - - 2014
Background:Gut immaturity is linked with postnatal intestinal disorders. However, biomarkers to assess the intestinal developmental stage around birth are lacking. The aim of this study was to gain more insight on intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) as indicator of gut maturity.Methods:Antenatal I-FABP distribution and release was investigated in extremely premature, ...
Elie Nkwabong N Senior lecturer, Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology; University Teaching Hospital/Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Yaoundé, Cameroon - - 2014
This case control study, aimed at identifying complications of macrosomia, was conducted in two major hospitals of Yaoundé, Cameroon over a 6-month period from 1 October 2012. Maternity records were compared of births weighing ≥4000 g with those weighing between 3000 g and 3500 g. The main outcome variables were mode of delivery, ...
Raffay Thomas T Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio, - - 2014
Background: Preterm infants with neonatal lung injury are prone to wheezing and are often treated with β2-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) agonists although the benefits of β-AR agonists may be lost with chronic use. Objective: To investigate if repeated β-AR agonist exposure downregulates β-ARs in the immature lung resulting in a decreased ...
Durlacher Kim M KM Department of Occupational Therapy, British Columbia Children's Hospital, Vancouver, Canada; Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; Department of Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
Impairments in active and passive range of upper extremity supination and shoulder external rotation are common sequelae for children with delayed recovery from birth related brachial plexus injury. Orthotic intervention may complement traditional treatment strategies commonly employed in the newborn period. These authors describe their custom fabricated orthosis designed to ...
Viner Russell M RM UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Concern is growing that mortality and health in children and young people in the UK lags behind that of similar countries. We analysed death registry data provided to the WHO Mortality Database to compare UK mortality for children and young people aged 0-24 years with that of European Union member ...
Koh Daisy - - 2014
Abstract Aim: To assess factors contributing to cord venous glucose homeostasis in term infants delivered by elective cesarean section. Methods: Observational study of women-infant pairs at delivery. Biochemical and clinical data were collected about factors which might affect the levels of glucose, lactate, norepinephrine, epinephrine, cortisol, human growth hormone, glucagon, ...
Wisnowski Jessica L JL Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, - - 2014
Punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) and diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) are commonly observed signal abnormalities on MRI scans of high-risk preterm infants near term-equivalent age. To establish whether these features are indicative abnormalities in axonal development or astroglia, we compared pWMLs and DEHSI to markers of axons and ...
Gubhaju Lina L Monash - - 2014
Worldwide, approximately ten percent of neonates are born preterm. The majority of preterm neonates are born when the kidneys are still developing; therefore, during the early postnatal period renal function is likely reflective of renal immaturity and/or injury. This study evaluated glomerular and tubular function, and urinary neutrophil gelatinase associated ...
Verchere Cynthia C Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Plastic Surgery, University of British Columbia, 4480 Oak Street, K3-Ambulatory Care Building, Vancouver, BC V6H 3V4 Canada ; Division of Plastic Surgery, British Columbia Children's Hospital, 4480 Oak Street, K3 ACB, Vancouver, BC V6H 3V4 - - 2014
Birth-related brachial plexus injury (BRBPI) occurs in 1.2/1,000 births in British Columbia. Even in children with "good" recovery, external rotation (ER) and supination (Sup) are often weaker, and permanent skeletal imbalance ensues. A preventive early infant shoulder passive repositioning program was created using primarily a novel custom splint holding the ...
Fakharian Esmaeil E Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Ghotb-e-Ravandi Blvd, Kashan, IR - - 2014
Objective: Head injury (HI) is the leading cause of mortality and life-long disability in infants. Infants have different anatomical and pathophysiological brain structures from other age groups. The aim of this study was to survey infant HI patients admitted to Shahid Behest Hospital in Kashan, Iran from 2004 to 2010, ...
Santos Hellen Geremias Dos HG Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, PR, - - 2014
Objective: To analyze the agreement between underlying causes of infant deaths obtained from Death Certificates (DC) with those defined after investigation by the Municipal Committee for the Prevention of Maternal and Infant Mortality (CMPMMI), in Londrina, Paraná State, in the biennia 2000-2001 and 2007-2008. Methods: DC of infants and records ...
Tann Cj C London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK University College London, London, UK MRC/UVRI Uganda Research Unit, Entebbe, - - 2014
: In sub-Saharan Africa, the timing and nature of brain injury and their relation to mortality in neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is unknown. To evaluate cranial ultrasound (cUS) scans from term Ugandan infants with NE and unaffected controls for evidence of established/evolving brain injury. Infants were recruited to a case-control study ...
Smee N N NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Area Perinatal Effectiveness Committee, Glasgow, - - 2014
Neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) is the most common cause of long term neurological deficit in term and near-term infants. Controlled hypothermia has been available within tertiary level Neonatal Units in NHS GGC from the time of the seminal UK randomised controlled trial of cooling(1) and is now the standard of ...
Smith-Collins Apr A Neonatal Neuroscience, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Bristol, St Michael's Hospital, Bristol, UK CRIC Bristol, University of Bristol, Bristol, - - 2014
: Preterm birth is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. The pathological mechanisms leading to adverse outcomes involve several pathways, which are not fully understood. Current methods of assessing neurological injury associated with preterm birth have limited scope and low prognostic value. Whilst structural MRI may provide detailed anatomical information about ...
Redwood E E University of Manchester, Manchester, - - 2014
Rotational instrumental delivery has previously been associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. Since a 1979 study demonstrated 3.49% neonatal mortality associated with Kielland's forceps there has been a gradual decline in its use, which also coincided with a rise in Caesarean section rate. The objective of this study was to report ...
Pauliah Ss S Imperial College, London, - - 2014
Although neonatal encephalopathy (NE), accounts for 1 million neonatal deaths annually in low-and middle-income countries (LMIC), underlying brain injury and long term outcomes are not well characterised in LMIC. To examine cerebral injury (using magnetic resonance (MR) biomarkers), and early childhood outcomes after NE in a government hospital in India. ...
Strunk Tobias T Centre for Neonatal Research and Education, School of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia; Neonatal Clinical Care Unit, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Preterm birth and infectious diseases are the most common causes of neonatal and early childhood deaths worldwide. The rates of preterm birth have increased over recent decades and account for 11% of all births worldwide. Preterm infants are at significant risk of severe infection in early life and throughout childhood. ...
Barnette Alan R AR Department of Pediatrics, St Francis Medical Center, Cape Girardeau, Missouri;The Edward Mallinckrodt Department of Pediatrics, - - 2014
Computed tomography (CT) is still used for neuroimaging of infants with known or suspected neurologic disorders. Alternative neuroimaging options that do not expose the immature brain to radiation include MRI and cranial ultrasound. We aim to characterize and compare the use and findings of neuroimaging modalities, especially CT, in infants ...
Harper Nancy S NS Children's Physician Services of South Texas, Driscoll Children's Hospital, Corpus Christi, TX. Electronic address: - - 2014
To determine the prevalence of additional injuries or bleeding disorders in a large population of young infants evaluated for abuse because of apparently isolated bruising. This was a prospectively planned secondary analysis of an observational study of children <10 years (120 months) of age evaluated for possible physical abuse by 20 US ...
Panigrahy Ashok A Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology , 4401 Penn Avenue , Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States, 15224 , 412-692-5510 , Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology , 4650 West Sunset Blvd , Los Angeles, California, United States, 90027 ; - - 2014
Background: Abusive head trauma (AHT) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among abused children, yet the neuroanatomical underpinnings of AHT outcome is incompletely understood. Objective: To characterize white matter (WM) abnormalities in infants with AHT using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and determine which microstructural abnormalities are associated with ...
Elitt Christopher M CM Department of Neurology and the F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115; Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA - - 2014
White matter injury in the premature infant leads to motor and more commonly behavioral and cognitive problems that are a tremendous burden to society. While there has been much progress in understanding unique vulnerabilities of developing oligodendrocytes over the past 30 years, there remain no proven therapies for the premature ...
Ricci Zaccaria Z Department of Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, - - 2014
Haemolysis is known to occur during surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and to be responsible for kidney injury. The aim of this study was to assess, in a cohort of infants, the reference levels of free haemoglobin (fHb) and their change over time postoperatively; the predicting variables of haemolysis in ...
Benson Michael D MD Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Deerfield, - - 2014
Currently, cardiopulmonary resuscitation of pregnant women in the third trimester is informed by the "4-Minute Rule." Cesarean delivery is begun at 4 minutes after the arrest if the mother is not responding to resuscitation so that the fetus can be delivered in the next minute, yet this guideline has never ...
Yang Rong-Tao RT From the State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) & Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, People's Republic of - - 2014
This study aims to evaluate the epidemiology of maxillofacial injuries in infants and preschools. The data from 110 infants and preschools with maxillofacial injuries from October 2010 to March 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. The male-to-female ratio was 1.89:1. The peak age was 1 to 3 years (53.64%). Accident falls (76.36%) ...
Jones Katherine K Center for Health Systems Research and Development, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA. - - 2014
This study examined trends in premature mortality--defined as years of potential life lost before age 75 years--in North Carolina during the period 2000-2010. Premature mortality at the county level was calculated and compared for two 5-year periods (1996-2000 and 2006-2010) for the entire population, among whites, and among nonwhites. This ...
Andrikopoulou Maria M Integrated Research Center for Fetal Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, - - 2014
Over the past few decades, biomarkers have become increasingly utilized as non-invasive tools in the early diagnosis and management of various clinical conditions. In perinatal medicine, the improved survival of extremely premature infants who are at high risk for adverse neurologic outcomes has increased the demand for the discovery of ...
Somers John M JM Radiology Department, Nottingham University Hospitals, B floor West Block, Queen's Medical Centre, Derby Road, Lenton, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK, - - 2014
Humeral fracture in a non-ambulant infant younger than 1 year is suspicious for a non-accidental injury unless there is a credible accidental explanation. A previously unrecognised accidental mechanism was described in 1996 whereby a 5-month-old infant was rolled by a 3-year-old sibling from a prone to a supine position. To investigate ...
Visscher Marty M Skin Sciences Program, Division of Plastic Surgery, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center , Cincinnati, Ohio. ; Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati , Cincinnati, - - 2014
Significance: During gestation, fetal skin progresses from a single layer derived from ectoderm to a complex, multi-layer tissue with the stratum corneum (SC) as the outermost layer. Innate immunity is a conferred complex process involving a balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, structural proteins, and specific antigen-presenting cells. The SC ...
Back Stephen A SA Department of Pediatrics, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon; Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, - - 2014
Injury to the preterm brain has a particular predilection for cerebral white matter. White matter injury (WMI) is the most common cause of brain injury in preterm infants and a major cause of chronic neurological morbidity including cerebral palsy. Factors that predispose to WMI include cerebral oxygenation disturbances and maternal-fetal ...
Vishwanathan Rohini R *Carotenoids and Health Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA HNRCA, Tufts University, 711 Washington St, Boston, MA 02111, USA †Abbott Nutrition, 3300 Stelzer Rd, Columbus, OH, 43219, USA ‡The Mother Infant Research Institute and the Division of Newborn Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Tufts Medical Center, 800 Washington St, Boston, MA, - - 2014
Lutein and zeaxanthin are dietary carotenoids that may influence visual and cognitive development. The objective of this study was to provide the first data on distribution of carotenoids in the infant brain and compare concentrations in preterm and term infants. Voluntarily donated brain tissues from 30 infants who died during ...
Salemi J L JL Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, - - 2014
To examine the associations between maternal hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) infection status and selected infant neurological outcomes diagnosed at birth, we conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study on singleton live births in Florida from 1998 to 2009. Primary exposures included maternal HBV and HCV monoinfection. The neurological ...
Strueby Lannae L Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, - - 2014
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic respiratory condition primarily affecting infants born less than 28 weeks gestational age. BPD and the diagnostic criteria that define it have evolved since the initial description of the disease more than four decades ago. BPD is one of the most common and serious complications ...
Brew Nadine N Monash - - 2014
Cerebrovascular lesions, mainly germinal matrix hemorrhage and ischemic injury to the periventricular white matter, are major causes of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants. Cerebrovascular lesions and neuromorbidity increase with decreasing gestational age, with the white matter predominantly affected. Developmental immaturity in the cerebral circulation, including ongoing angiogenesis and vasoregulatory ...
Wayock Christopher P CP Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, - - 2014
Our objective is to identify perinatal risk factors available within 1 hour of birth associated with severe brain injury following hypothermia treatment for suspected hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). 109 neonates > 35 weeks were admitted from 1/2007 to 9/2012 with suspected HIE treated with whole-body hypothermia; 98 (90%) underwent brain MRI ...
Stevens Judy A JA National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, - - 2014
To determine whether the increasing fall death rate among people aged 65 and older is due in part to temporal changes in recording the underlying cause of death. Analyses of multiple cause of death data using the online Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging ON-line Data for Epidemiologic Research ...
Polglase Graeme R GR 1] The Ritchie Centre, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia [2] Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, - - 2014
The transition to newborn life in preterm infants is complicated by immature cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Consequently, preterm infants often require respiratory support immediately after birth. Although aeration of the lung underpins the circulatory transition at birth, positive pressure ventilation can adversely affect cardio-respiratory function during this vulnerable period, reducing ...
Kasdorf Ericalyn E Department of Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York. Electronic address: - - 2014
Hippocampal injury is most often observed in conjunction with basal ganglia injury after hypoxia-ischemia in term newborns. Objective was to determine perinatal characteristics leading to selective hippocampal injury vs basal ganglia injury on diffusion-weighted imaging in term encephalopathic infants following intrapartum hypoxia-ischemia treated with selective head cooling and to correlate ...
Orman Gunes G Section of Pediatric Neuroradiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological - - 2014
Head ultrasonography (HUS) remains an important tool in the initial evaluation of intracranial abnormalities in infants. In experienced hands, HUS is an outstanding tool to detect brain abnormalities in preterm and full-term infants, to follow the progression of these lesions, and to describe the maturation of the infant brain. We ...
Polglase Graeme R GR Monash University, - - 2014
Background: Ventilation-induced lung injury (VILI) of preterm neonates likely contributes to the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Erythropoietin (EPO) has been suggested as a therapy for BPD. The aim of this study was to determine whether prophylactic administration of EPO reduces VILI in preterm newborn lambs. Methods: Lambs at 126 ...
Andropoulos Dean B DB Department of Anesthesiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; Pediatric Cardiovascular Anesthesiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, - - 2014
Adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes are observed in up to 50% of infants after complex cardiac surgery. We sought to determine the association of perioperative anesthetic exposure with neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 12 months in neonates undergoing complex cardiac surgery and to determine the effect of brain injury determined by magnetic resonance imaging ...
Malaeb Shadi N SN Department of Pediatrics, St. Christopher's Hospital for Children, Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 North 15th Street, New College Building, Room 7410, Mail Stop 1029, Philadelphia, PA 19102, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Deleterious effects result from both glucocorticoid insufficiency and excess glucocorticoid tissue exposure in the developing brain. Accumulating evidence suggests a net benefit of postnatal glucocorticoid therapy when administered shortly after the first week of life to premature infants with early and persistent pulmonary dysfunction, particularly in those with evidence of ...
van Heijst Arno F J AF Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a rescue therapy for newborns with severe but reversible respiratory failure. Although ECMO has significantly improved survival, it is associated with substantial complications, of which intracranial injuries are the most important. These injuries consist of hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic, ischemic lesions. Different from the classical presentation ...
Wenckus Dj D Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, - - 2014
To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in twins undergoing a trial of labor versus pre-labor caesarean. Retrospective cohort study. 19 US hospitals from the Consortium on Safe Labor. Of 2225 twin sets ≥36 weeks' gestation. Maternal (abruption, estimated blood loss, postpartum haemorrhage, transfusion, chorioamnionitis, hysterectomy, ICU admission, death) and neonatal outcomes ...
Pekcevik Yeliz Y Izmir Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, Radiology Clinic, Gaziler Cd. No. 468, Yenişehir TR-35110, Izmir, - - 2014
Survival rates of extremely preterm infants have risen dramatically, paralleling improvements in prenatal and neonatal care. Cranial sonography is the primary imaging technique for the evaluation of brain injury in these patients. Extremely preterm infants have some unique features related to ongoing maturation, and associated findings on cranial sonography should ...
Dempsey E M EM Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, University College Cork, Wilton, Cork, - - 2014
Background: Extremely preterm babies (delivered at <28 completed weeks of gestation) are frequently diagnosed with hypotension and treated with inotropic and pressor drugs in the immediate postnatal period. Dopamine is the most commonly used first-line drug. Babies who are treated for hypotension more frequently sustain brain injury, have long-term disability ...
Counsell Serena J SJ Division of Imaging Sciences & Biomedical Engineering, Centre for the Developing Brain, King's College London, - - 2014
This review highlights recent work using advanced imaging approaches that have improved our understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms associated with disrupted brain development or demonstrated the potential of MRI to provide objective biomarkers of cerebral injury that relate to subsequent neurodevelopmental performance. Preterm birth impacts on the development of ...
Pogledic Ivana I Inserm U676, Paris; Croatian Institute for Brain Research, Medical School, University of Zagreb, - - 2014
Studies of periventricular white matter injury (PWMI) in preterm infants suggest the involvement of the transient cortical subplate zone. We studied the cortical wall of noncystic and cystic PWMI cases and controls. Non-cystic PWMI corresponded to diffuse white matter lesions, the predominant injury currently detected by imaging. Glial cell populations ...
Messier Amber M AM Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, - - 2014
The use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) such as erythropoietin and darbepoetin in preterm and term infants has been studied for over 20 years. Recent investigations have explored the potential neuroprotective effects of ESAs. We review the recent clinical trials and experimental animal models that provide evidence in support of using ...
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